Skip to main content

Full text of "Gazetteer"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 











or THS 




Under Oovemment Orders. 





.3 Co 

^r/S " '^ 7 

Spscial acknowledgments are due to Colonel L. C. Barton 
and B&> Bahador Nandshankar Tuljashankar for very complete 
materials for the Bewa E&ntha Account. For Cambay Dr. G. Biihler, 
C.I.B.^ supplied valuable historical, and Mr. G. F. Sheppard, C. S.^ 
useful descriptive and administrative, details. The Sachin and 
* Bansda accounts are from papers contributed by Mr. E. C. E. 
Ollivant, C. S., and Bao Bahadur Eeshavl^l Nathubhai. 

February^ 1880. 






Chapter I.— Description. 

Position and Area ; Boundaries ; DiTisions 

Aspect ; Mountains ; Riyers 

Water-supply ; Drainage ; Geology ; Climate 

Chapter II.— Frodaction. 

'Minerals ; Trees ; Plants ; Forests 
Animals ; Birds ; Fish ... 



Chapter III.— Population. 

Census Details 

Hindu Castes ; Musalmans ; Parsis ; Christians 

Villages ; Dwellings; Communities ; Movements 

Chapter IV.— Agriculture. 

Soil ; Tillage ; Crops ; Famines ... 

Chapter V.— Capital. 

Capitalists ; Interest ; Craftsmen ; Wages ; Pricee ; Weights 
and Measures 

Chapteif VI.- Trade. 

Roads; Ferries ; Post ; Exports and Imports ... 

Chapter VII.— Historj. 

Legends; Early Hindus to 1484; Musalman Ascendancy 
(1484.1700); Local Revival (1700-1730); Maratha 
Supremacy (1730-1820) ; British Supervision (1820-1879) ; 
First Naikda Rising (1838) ; The Mutinies (1857) ; 
Second N4ikda Rising (1868) ; Changes (1820 - 1879) ... 

Chapter VIII.— Land AdministratlQn. 

Land-holders ; Management ; Villages ; Staff ; Assessment ; * 
Revenue Survey ; Cesses ; Rent how Realized ; Instal- 
ments ; Defaults ; Reforms ; Survey ^ Boundary Disputes. 













Chapter IZ.-'Jiutice. vaoi 

Civil ; Criminal ; Courts of Award ; Police ; JailB ... 77-82 

Chapter Z.— Revenue and Finance. 

Rdjpipla ; Barija ; Lun&yada ; Sunth ; Minor States ; Cesses. 83-85 
Chapter ZI.— Instruction. 

Schools ; Progress (1864 - 1879) ; Libraries ... ... 86-88 

Chapter ZIL- Health. 

Diseases ; Dispensaries ; Vaccination ... ... 89-90 

Chapter Zm.— States ... ... ... ... 91-156 

Chapter ZIV.-Flaces of Interest • ... ... ... 157-170 


Description ; Products ; Population ; Agriculture ; Trade ; 
History ; Administration; Justice; Revenue; Instruction; 
Health ; Places of Interest ... ... ... 173*178 


Chapter I.- Description; Products; Population ... ... 181-186 

Chapter II.— Trade and llanufactnrea 

Roads ; Trade, Historical Summary of (913-1880) ... 187-197 

Manufactures (Agate Ornaments and Cloth)... ... 198-208 

Money-lending ; Currency ; Prices ; Wages ... ... 209 - 210 

Chapter ZIL -History. 

Name; Legends; Balharas (916); AnhilvAda Kings 
(950-1300); Early Delhi Governors (1300-1400); 
Ahmedabad Kings (1400-1573) ;Moghals (1673-1730) ; 

Cambay Nawabs (1730-1880)... ... ,., 211-233 

CiMtpter IV.—Administration. 

Land ; Justice ; Police ; Revenue ; Instruction ... 234-239 

Chapter V.-Plaoes of Interest. ... ... ... 240-241 








••• ... ••• 

... 246-258 
... 254-257 
... 258-265 

... 267-271 


B 5GI 

Cit^fXiafam aSafbrna 1878 


\ \ N '. ■ 




'.^^ . 


I *' 

"' y 





■ ^ 

Thi lands nnder the control of tlie Bewa Kfintlia Political Agent 
lie between 21** 23' and 23^83' nortt latitude and 78'*3' and 74^ 18' 
east longitade. With an extreme length from north to south of 
about 140 miles and a breadth from east to west varying from ten 
fco fifty, the Rewa Kdntha has an area of about 4792 square mi les, 
i population of over 500,000 souls or 110 to the square mile, and 
peidB an estimated averacre yearly revenue of about £162,710 
(Rs. 16,27,100). ^ ^ 

, Besides lands stretching about fi fty miles along the south bank 
w the Hawa or Na rbada, the Rewa Kdntha includes an irregular 
f^Mid ot territory from ten to fifty miles broad, passing north from 
ibe Narbada about twelve miles bey ond the i^^hi, and to the 
^^st an isolated strip of land chiefly along the left bankpf ttieMahi. 
'* is bounded on the north by the Meywdr states of Dungarpur and 
BansvMa; on the east by the sub-divisions of Jhflod and Dohad in 
^ Pauch Mah&ls, Ali B&jpur and other petty states of the Bhop&var 
Agency and a part of Oindesh; on the south by Giikwir 
territory and the Mindvi sub-division of Surat ; and on the west 
^y Auklesvar and Broach, by G&ikw&r territory, by Godhra and 
Kalol in the Panch Mahffls, by Th&sra and Kapadvanj in Eaira, 
*»d by ParAntij in Ahmedabad. The P& ndu and D orka Mehvfa 
"illageB detache d from the rest of the Agency lie chiefly along the 
left bank of tlie Mahi, between the Panch Mahdls and Baroda 
territory on the east, and Eaira on the west. 

The Rewa E&ntha Agency contains s ix large and fifty-fiv e small 
states. Of the large states, one, R&jpipla in the south with an area 
a{ about 1574 square miles, is of the first class, and five, Chhot a 
tdfi cur and B^riya in the centre, and Sunth. Lun&vdda, and 
Balasiuor in the north and north-west, are second class states with 
^'^as rarymg from 400 to 875 square miles. The fifty-five small 
^^teft, with an average area of about thirty square miles, include 
Kadana ai^d Rim^^lt in the north and three groups of Mehvfa or 
'Qroulent vfllages. Of the three Mehvfa groupsTSaflBiafl?' ^^ ^^ 
^rea of 311 square miles, comprising twenty- two petty estates, lies on 
tbe right bank of the Narbada, while the PA ndu M ehvfa with an arda 
^ 138 gqoare miles and twenty-two smauesEates, and the Qttkir 
'^ebvas nine square miles in extent with three estates, are situated on 





[Bomtey Gaietteer, 

Chapter L 







tlie borders of the Maid. About one-fifth of the whole Rewa Kantk, 
comprising nineteen states yielding a yearly reyenue of about 
£30,000 (Rs. 8,00.000), is, on account of the minority of the cliiefB 
and from other causes, ^under the entire control of the Political 
Agent. Of the nineteen states under direct management, two 
Lun4y&da and Sunth are second class ; the rest are sxnall estatce 
varying in area from four to 100 square miles. The following table 
shows the chief statistics of the different Bewa K&ntha states :— 

• Bewa Kdhiha Buae», 1879. 













BftDMll... ... „. 



P&ndu and boika 


Ghbou Udemir 
Sunkhad* HehT6i ... 















41 ,618 



























ToU! ... 


8494 1 606,647 106 





In the outlying villages to the west along the Mahi, and in the 
north and south where the district stretches into the Gujar^ plam, 
the land is open and flat. But along the east border and, exceptj 
in the tamer valleys of the Orsangand Heran, over the whole centre 
of the district, the country is pal land hil ly and for est-claa 
yielding little more than the three ' ps \ ydhrit pdni^ and yd nj stopesi 
water, and leaves. 

Though with no high mountains, the Bewa Kintha is a WHy 
district. Its two principal ranges are, in the south theR^lP ^P'^ 
hillsj the west-most spurs of the Satpudfis the water-parting betweeD| 
the Narbada and the T6pti valleys, and across the centre of the 
district the spurs of the Vin dhya range, that running from the udi 
topped sandstone crowned ta ble land of B atanm41^ forty miles west 
to_ r&v4g ad. form the water-parting between the valleys of the 
Narbada and ^he Mahi. Within Eewa Kdntha limits tHe Hijp^pl* 
hills form a rang eHSordering the left bank of the Narbada ano a 
high plateau that stretches from this range south. Except a spi^ 
passing about eight miles north into the Bewa K&ntha, the sonth 
range of the Bijpipla hills, that runs parallel to the T&pti, U^ 
. outside of Bewa K4ntha limits. The north B^jpip la hills with a^ 
!\ 1 average breadth of about twelve miles covered with rather stunte<i 
timber and stocked with tigers, panthers, bison and other of thd 
largest sorts of wild game, stretch about fprty.miles across the soiJth 
of BewaK&ntha. In the east the hills, steep and rugged, rise ii^tp 
difficult peaks. Westwards near B4jpipla the line is from south tj^ 
north crossed by the stream of theJCatjan and its tributary the Tern 
whose waters joi n close to the new Bdjpipla fort. Beyond this breski 
the range lower and less marked, gradually falling into a table-Iao^ 




fttretchea west into Broacli. On one of the highest peaks^ Dev 
Satia about 2000 feet above the sea, are the ry^a of o ld. 
Raj py lfty where in troublous times the chief and his followers used 
to take refuge. The way up, difKcult even for footmen, through 
thick forest and high elephaat grass, winds round precipices and 
ffgiy ledges. There are still traces of the former capital and on Dev 
Satia immediately behind are the ruins of an old fort. From Dev 
Satia the view is wide and beautiful. To the east, ranges of hills 
rise in endless confusion, to the south the valley of the Karjan 
stretches through the central uplands, to the west the Narbada 
mnds to the sea, and to the north lies the rich Gujardt plain with 
Pavagad on the horizon// Of the south Rtf pipla hil ls the only spur/ \j\ 
that comes within Bewa K&ntha limits has, unlike the northern^ 
range, s loping sides and flat top s. On the east of the Karjan 
river a ridge of hills stretches for twelve miles from north to south, ' 
and to the east of this again lies the SAgbtra range 700 feet high, 
w ell woodf^4 fiH^ f^^^ ^p ped. peopled by several small Bhil hamlet s ^^ 
The Vindhya spurs, that lying east and west cross the centre of the 
district jfrom Batanm&l to Pdv^lgad, are steep about 800 feet high, 
their tops in some places flat, in others rising into peaks. In the 
range are several passes , two of them at Ka d vfl in Udep ur and near 
S4 gtAla in B&riya fit for cartsy/ From Batanmdl northwards a 
chain of hills or more strictly a line of table-land from 800 to 1200 
feet above the sea, t he water-partmg bet ween the Mahi a nd the 
Anas , j^rms the boundary between the Bewa Kdntha state s of 
B 6nya. 5anjeli Mid Sunth on the west, an d the Panch M ah&ls 
dist rioteof Dohad and JhAlo d in the ^t . This tableJand can in 
many places be crossed by carts! Besides the chi ef highway , that 
hetween G odhr^Lan d Dohad mounts the plateau about seven miles 
^est of rioEadTroads run from B4riya^ Sunth. and other .Rewa 
Kintha town s to Dohad> Jh41od a nd Limdi. Between this table- 
land and the range of the P4v&gad hills are many irregular 
branching timber-covered spurs, steep and high with jagged tops 
on the east, growing gradusdly lower as they pass west, and finally 
disappearing in the basin of the Mahi. To the no rth these spurs, 
more r egular and unbroken , lying north and south parallel to each 
other in ranges separated by narrow valleys, form a link betwee n 
the Ar^vali ftp^ vindhya mou ntains. Occasionally the traveller 
pQay go for miles along the hill foot without finding an opeping, and 
in some parte in nK>vmg from one village to another has to make 
longda tours. : -.r. 

Chapter I. 



Separated by the central Hue of the Batanm&l and P&v&gad hills, Riven. 

are two distinct river systems, the Mahi with its tributary the P&nam 
in Hud northj and in the south the Narbada joined from the right 
bank by the Men Aavan Heran and Or or Orsang, and on the left 
by the Karjan. 

Entering the district in the extreme north-east comer, the Mahi , \ ' 27^ MahU 
|A&sea south-west for about 120 nodles through Kad&na, Lun&v&da, i ' 
and the P^du Mehvis. Between ste ep, fifty to eight y feet high, 
bank^j sometimes rocky but chiefly of clay or conglomerate furrowed 
by local drainage into deep ravines, the stream of the Mahi seldom 

DBomlmy aasetteer. 


Chapter L 


The Pditam, 

The Narhada. 

' \ 

except in floods filling it from side to side, flows alon^ a b 
sandy or stony bed broken at times by islands of rock orrich atluriii 
soil. Daring the 120 miles of its Bewa Kintha coorsfi^e conntr 
tbroagb which the river flows changes from wild forest^dad hilli 
and cliffs in the east t o a flat bare plaiii in the we st, its deep banki 
and in the hot season, its very langoid stream, make the Mahi 'i 
little nse for watering crops. Its stream is too shallow and its be< 
too rocky to allow of water carriage. Ferxy boats are ita only craft] 
Its rich stores of fish are little nsed. 

Of (he local tribntaries of the Mahi the only one of importan< 
is the Pfaam. that rising in the Batanm&l hills after a north*we&1 
course of ninety miles f idfs into the Mahi, six miles west of Lon&vadai 
Its broad sandy bed between banks generally about forty feet higfai 
oan, except in floods, be crossed by carts at points not more than lulf 
a mile apart. After a course of thirty miles north.west the Pa: 
enters Birijra, about forty miles east of P&v&gad, then after twent] 
miles in B4riya it passes through thirty miles of Godhra, its 1: 
eight miles lying injhe forest and hill count ry of Lunav &da> 

The hundred miles of the Narbadd's Bewa K&ntha course mav bej 
divided into three parts ; the flrst about thirty miles Bouth«>we8t fromi 
H&mp to the Dev river; the second, about thirty miles north-west i 
through the Bewa K&ntha t o Chanod ; and the third, forty miles 
BOuth«west to Govali a bout four miles east of Broach, 

From H&mpto Gardeshyar about ten miles below the Dev river, 
through a country of hill a nd for est, between wooded or steep crag^gi 
banks, the stream passes over a channel too rocky for any craft bm 
timber rafts. For the next twenty miles to Ch&nod, though the 
right bank keeps steep, the left is lo w and shelving and the strean. 
is deep and the channel smootlt enough to allow the passage of boats 
of not more than two feet draught. Near Chanod, the right bank, 
about eighty feet high, is seamed with ravines, the knolls betwet^n 
crowned with villages. The stream is even in the hot weather dt^p 
and swift, and in floods swelling forty feet above its fair weather 
level, it stretches for a mile across the low southern bank* Durins; 



•« 'A«^ 


1 Following tihe course of ihe itream, the detiula are, after six rnile* two amUI 
streama join, the Sukna from the right and the Quhota from the lefi Four iml«« 
farther (10), through a.^ fe^t deep.{KftsS^9.hetween sheer and bluif cliffs and aixMiu^ 
wild and thickly wooded valleys, the nver cats throuffh three parallel hill ranges thAt 
run north to the western A 'r^vali spars, A mile ( U ) below the pans is Klfd^a, and aome 
miles further Hsyumr* both difficult fords. About twenty miles below Kadiba {31 ) 
the Bh^^dar a small stream dry durins half the year joins from the right ; five miles 
further (36) at Madhvte is a steep ana difficult ford and nine miles lower (45) a giml 
ford at Hadod ; about a mile fuither (46) the Pinam joins from the aouth-east ; twr> 
miles lower (48) at Chimpeli is a difficult and rocky ford, and another also difficult 
and rock^ at SAvli (52) ; five miles further (57) the river leaves Rewa KiLntha, then 
after dividing Kaira and the Panch MahlUs for fifteen miles (72) is thg f ^i tnrA wheiv 
thA t^TMt f^v^Kii hiyhyiY cfoffftw^ a ford in the fair aeaeon and a tmyw the rains ; 
then eight miles mnner (WJ) a good ford at Itva ; five miles below (85) Sihora a 
difficult rocky passaae, where from the left the MeshH from Godhra falls into th« 
Mahi ; one mile further (86) from the left come the tuUted streams of the Goma and 
Karad { then at BhAdarva ten miles lower (96) a ferry: after six miles (102) the 
Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway crosses ; and Uienfor twenty miles more 
(122) the river passes through the west villages of the Pindu, Mohvis. 



the remainmg forty mil es the country grows riclier a nd more open^ 
the banks are lower, tEe bed widens including islands, and t£e stream 
deep and slow enough for water carriage, is for the last twenty 
miles at all times too deep for carts, and for eight is a tidal stream^ 

a mile and a half broad where it leaves thb district. 


The chief of the Narbad&'s Bewa El^tha feeders are from the right 

the Men, Ashvin and Or, and from the left the Dev, Karjan, Kari, 

MadhuYati, E&yeri and Amr&vati. Passing down the stream, from 

the left the Dev after an eighteen mile course from the B4b4ka taldv 

hills falls into the Narbada, about twenty.five miles below H4mp. 

The Dev valley is of special interest from^ its sandstone rocks and 

beds of trap ashes. Eighteen miles further, from the right comes the 

Men. asmaJl stream with a rugged south-west course of about fifty 

miles from the Chhota Udepur hills. Four miles more from the 

same side, in size and course much like the Men, comes t he Ashyin 

aud six miles more also from the right, the Or or Orsang. This, the 

largest of its Bewa K&ntha feeders, rising in the Batanm&l hills after 

a aoath-west course of about ninety miles through Chhota Udepur, 

Baroda, and the Sankheda Mehvfa, joins the Narbada at the sacred 

town of Ch&nod. With banks from twenty to thirty feet high and a 

broad sandy bed, t he Or is . except in times of flood, a small stream. In 

its passage through the Bewa Kdntha the stream running twelve miles 

west, takes a sudden south bend and after thirteen miles again turns 

sharp north. In this bend stands the town of Chhota Udepur. 

Beyond Udepnr ten miles to the north.west, the Oris from the nght 

joined by the Ain , a small stream with its source in the Batanm&l 

range. Thenaft^ twelve miles west it bends south-west and is joined 

on the right or north bank by the Buraj. a small stream also from the 

BatanmA range. Twelve miles further the Baroda boundary is 

reached and for twenty-five miles the Or flows south.west through 

Baroda till close to the Sankheda village of Bhiloria, it is joined on 

ita east or left bank by the Heran . This river from Ali K&jpur in 

the east, yrith banks from forty to fifty feet high and a bed mvided 

by rodcy barriers into long pools, may in the fair season be crossed 

by carts at every two or thi^ miles. After its meeting with the 

Heran for seven miles through the Sankheda estates of Shanor and 

Mandva, the Or, shallow in the fair weather, but in floods from forty 

to fifty feet deep, passes south between steep banks from sixty to 

100 feet high. Its meet ing with the N arbada is sacred, thousands, 

especially at the Chaitra (April -May) full moon," coming there to 

bathe. Vonr miles below the Or from the south or left bank comes 

the ISftria^i isi sisse the second of the Narbad&'s Bewa K&ntha 

tribatanes. This stream, rising in south B&ipipla and flowing north 

through the central range of hiUs, joins the Narbada about six miles 

south of the present capital of N&idod. Among the hills its banks, 

^ways steep and rocky, are in places impassable and rocky ridges 

stretching across its bed divide the stream into deep dark pools. 

Twenty.five miles after it enters B&jpipla limits, the Mohan brings 

^^ Thft April •!£»¥» VaiMkh, springs pass as far as the island of Dev thirteen miles 




[Bomiiay fitaettoer. 




to the Karjan the drainage of the most westerly hills. Thirty miles 
further in the centre of the north-most range of hills dose to 
Rijpipla^ it is on the right bank joined by the Teri. Leaving the 
hills the £!arjan keeps north for six miles and then sweeping to the 
west passes N&ndod towd, and after six miles more falls into thp 
Narbada near the village of Bund. Daring its last twelve miles the* 
river bed is from sixty to 100 yards wide, with from thirty to forty feet 
high banks, steep on one side and shelving on the other. Nineteen 
and a half miles west of the Kanan also from the sonth, oomes the 
Kari a small stream formed by tne meeting of several water-courses. 
Eight i&iles further, off the north end of the Shnklatirth island, corner 
the Madhnvat i. draining aorth-west from the centre of the R&jpipb 
hills. Ten miles beyond, also on the left bank, the K^veri . a small 
stream with a sandy bed almost dry during the hot season^ from oi^d 
of the west spurs of the Rijpipla hills> after a winding northerlj 
course of about thirty miles, &Ils into the Narbada, four miles east of 
the Broach boundary. The last of its feeders, the Amrava>ti rising 
in the Rdipipla hills and flowing west parallel to the K&reri does 
not join tne Narbada till below Bewa Kintha limits. 

The chief islands i n the Narbada bed ore : four moles below the 
Earjan, Vy&aji, untilled, two miles long by half a mile broad, its 
ownership in dispute between R&jpipla and Baroda ; fifteen miles 
lower off the mouth of the Ehadi, IHv island,, a sandy waste^ a mile 
and a half long by half a mile broad ; six miles below thei Kluidi, the 
Nand island ; six miles further off the mouth of tine Madbuvati, 
Shnklatirth, four miles long and one broad, &maus for its great 
Banian tree the Kahir Vad ^ ; and four miles more, west of the Kaveri^ 
an island 3} miles long and at broadest 1^ miles, yearly covered iu 
times of flood and yielding the finest crops of tobacco, castor^^il and 
millet. The chief ferries a re at Gh&nod; at the north end of the Yy&ji 
island four miles below ; at P&tna two miles lower, and in the next 
eight miles at Varkal Oli, Sisodra, and Rdipur ; one and a half miles 
lower at Asha; and four miles further at V&sna and Indor. Your 
miles below Indor is the last place where carts can cross. Except 
the islands in its bed and the belt of low land on its left bank 
covered in times of flood, the waters of the Narbada are little used 
for irrigation. For the first thirty-five miles the channel is too 
rough to allow of any boats but timber rafts, and in the eastern parts 
the passage is hard even for them. To the west, boats drawing not 
more than two feet ply as &r as Gku?deshvar about seventy miles from 
Broach. The only trade, and that small, is to Sinor about forty 
miles from. Broach, where a few boats bring salt, iron, and piece 
goods, and take timber, bamboos, tobacco, grain, and grass. 

Besides by the Narbada and its feeders, R&jpipla is in the west 
drained by the Elim and Tokri th at, rising in the western hills and 
meeting as they leave R&jpipla territory, pass west into Broach, and 

1 Detaih of KoJbir Vad mn given in the BrcMdi 

Gaietteer, II. 355. 

Aooooat Bod 


in the soaih by the Dudan from the S&gb&» hills on its way south Chaptor I. 
to the Tapti. BsMof^tioa. 

Though some of its ponds hold water all the year roand, the Bewa Water supply. 
Kantha is without any large lakes or reseiwoirs. Of the number of 
.wella no return is avaalable. Almost all the better class of villages 
have one or two built drinking-water wells supplied with troughs for 
the village cattle^ and in some cases used for watering the land. 
Bhils and Kolis, as the labour is less^ draw water from stream beds 
rather than wells. The forest parts of the district especially B&riya 
and Rajpipla are rich in streams and springs. But the water^iiHough 
to look at clear and fresh^ is from the quantity of vegetable matter 
most unwholesome to drink.^ 

From the form and lie of the land^ water readily passes ofE along Drwnage. 

the different rivers and water-courses. No part of the district 
stands in need of artificial drainage. 

The Sewa K&ntha rocks belong to five classes ; metamorphic, QttAogy. 

quartzite sandstone^ cretaceous^ trap^ and nummulite. In the north 
EDd as far south as about eight miles beyond the Or river though 
the country has not been surveyed, the rock is believed to be chiefly 
metamorohic, a highly crystalline granite or gneiss ^ sometimes 
piled in huge dome-shaped masses ' two or three hundred feet high 
with occasional beds of limestone and homblend. Among the 
metamorphic rocks are a few trap and sandstone outliers, and in the 
west tie granite gradually changes into the quartzite or quartzite 
sandstone of the Ch&mp4ner bed. About eight miles south of the 
Or river and running north-east and south-west along a waving 
line almost parallel to the course of that stream, the rock changes 
from metamorphic to trap. Though in some places trap rests 
immediately on metamorphic rocks, a fringe of cretaiceous rock known 
as B^h or Mahidev is rarely wanting along its edge. In the west, 
covert sometimes with a thick capping of shale, these cretaceous 
rocks are generally in the upper part more or less pure limestone 
with organic remains,^ and below, sandstone without fossils. At 
the top ]ust below the trap, the conglomerates and sandstones inclose 
in many cases great masses of uncrystallized fiint.* Besides as a 
innge between the trap and metamorphic rocks, beds of this 
sandstone varying from a few yards to eighty miles, stand out in 
different parts of south Bewa K&ntha uncovered by trap. The chief 

\AX Batupor in Bi j pipla, t he water ia aaid to tinge ererythisg cooked in it a dirty 
yeUov. Bom. QoT. SeL XXm. 268. 

* Oocadonal foliation among the granites, and the want of any general distinction 
betiTQia tnie granites and the more crystalline forms of gneiss, tend to show that the 
f^^ite is an original constituent of the crystalline rocu and not intrusive. 'Mem. 
^. Sar. VI. 3, 31. 

> Soma parts ci Bariya are roughened by off-shoots from the RatanmAl hills, plutonic 
xul QieUmorphio rocks, granite, gneiss, mica-schist and clay-slate with a grayish 
UtfUs in the valleys. Bom. Gov. SeL XXIIL 93, 114. 

^ The organic remains are specially rich near Kavint and on the Dev river, where 
Ar« tome wen marked species of the Ostrea and shark's teeth. Mem. GeoL Sur. 

B Thflie masses of flint are supposed to have filtered through the overlying trapa. 
^em. QeoL Sur. VL 56. 

[BomlMty Oaietteer, 

Oiaptar L 

. Geology. 



of these sandstone inliers are near Kav&nt about twelve milee sonth 
of Chhota Udepnr ; ^ further west between the Heran and the 
Narbada; in the bed of the Narbada at Bar and Vadg&n; and, 
on the left bank qi the Narbada^ on its tributair the Dev« 
where is a capping of shale about 500 feet deep and under it a coarse 
gritty sandstone at least equally thick.' There is no evidence of- 
any great difference in age between the limestone and the trap, and 
toweurds the east there is great conformity between them. Bat 
towards the west the sandstone has been worn away in so local and 
irregular a fashion^ that it seems to have taken place in the air and 
not undbr the water. 

The traps formed of different flows varying greatly in age/ may 
geographically be divided into two groups to the north and to the 
south of the Narbada. In those north of the river the chief points 
of interest are ; sandstone inliers^ beds of trap ash, and occasional 
trap beds sedimentary in origin but different from the lake deposits 
of Central India.* Ajnong the traps to the north of the Narbada, at 
Padv&ni about twenty miles south of Chhota XJdepur and at 
M&t4pen&i hill about twelve miles south-west of Chhota Udepur, are 
signs of direct volcanic action. Near Padv&ni a hill of basalt and 
porphyry with quartz fragments, much disturbed sandstones, large 
ash beds, and frequent masses of intrusive trap, seems to have been 
a centre of igneous action, perhaps part of the great volcanic focns 
of the R&jpipla hills.^ The hills ox volcanic ash are highly fertile^ 
often tilled to the top. In this part of the district, M&t&pen^ hill 
about twelve miles south-west of Chhota Udepur is a place of 
geological interest. A craggy peak of highly crystalline grayish 
trachyte scattered over with huge blocks of granite, this hill would 
seem to have been the nucleus of one of the Deccan trap volcanoes. 
An intrusive mass of trap has carried up with it blocks o£ granite 
and the highly crystalline structure points to slow cooling. The 
small veins of granite in the trap are not easily explained.* Sonth 
of the Narbada, unlike the general level of the trap beds to the east 

1 The details of the most easterly of the KavAnt inlien aa ahewn in the Kan 
atream jure, beginning from the lowest : 1, altered sandstone ; 2, fermginons gritty 
clay ; 3, sandatone ; 4» alternations of fine and ooane gritty sandstone with bands of 
ooi^lomerate and sandy clay ; 5, fine sandstones ; 6^ massive grits ; 7, massive £»• 
white sandstone ; 8, thin sandy shales ; 9, hard coarse grits and conglomerate' 
Here a small fault comes and trap is brousht in. Trap continues for forty or fifty feet, 
then beds similar to the last are repeatea and upon t£em fine massive sandstone vitb 
shaly sandstone resting on it. This is the highest bed seen and is covered with tn^ 
MeuL GeoL Sur. VI. 164. 

s At Padvini, about five miles south of Kavint, ia a little patch of cretaoeous rock. 
The look of the rocks, the ash beds near, and the trap masses show that this ir» * 
fire centre, perhaps part of the volcanic focus of the BAjpipla hills. Hem. GeoL Snr. 

8 One flow covers a bed of rounded pebbles, many of them taken from former trip 
flows. Thia, it seems probable, is the rosnlt of streams hollowing valleys in the trafi. 
and in the time between different lava flows, partly filling thehollows with t6ii^ 
stones and volcanic ash. Mem. GeoL Sur. YL 106. 

4 About four miles south of Kav4nt near the village of Chikhli NAni and at Ghantol, 
about a mile to the west between the trap and the cretaceous n>ck ara beds of 
sedimentanr trap. 

« Mem. GeoL Sur. VL 170. • Mem. GeoL Sur. VI, 172. 



and north, the liiiea of the R&jpipla traps are much distarbed. The 
beds dip at comparatiyely mgh angles (5^- 20°) and dykes are 
common, some of tiiem of great size, rid^s 100 to 150 feet high 
close together and parallel to each other with a general direction of 
east-north-east to west-sonth-west. Thai* the rocks have been 
disturbed since they were deposited is shewn by the tilting of the 
nommnlitic beds that rest on them. But they were tilted before 
the time of the nxinmmlitic beds, though it is not clear whether this 
was due to disturbance or to their original consolidation on a slope.^ 
The signs of disturbance and the great number of dykes seem to 
shew that B^jpipla was, during the time when trap rocks •were 
poured out, a great centre of Tolcanic action. Other signs of 
volcanic action in south Bewa K4ntha are In the Dev valley, the 
hardening of the sandstones and the dykes and intrusive masses of 
trap. In the south-west comer of the Bewa K&ntha near Ratanpur, 
the west-most part of the B&jpipla hills is a fringe of older tertiary 
beds with nummulite-bearing rocks. The upper part are gravels 
and sandy clays with agate pebbles often cemented into a 
conglomerate, the lower are bands of sandy limestone full of fossils 
and thick beds of iron-charged clay. The fragments of trap and the 
rolled agato pebbles show how the trap was worn away while the 
tertiary beds were beine formed. It seems probable, though present 
knowledge cannot settie the point, that these tertiary beds are 
of different periods, the lower nummulitic limestone and laterito 
belonging to an earlier epoch than the agate gravels and 
congJomtrate.* In the west are the Batanpur beds, a^te gravels 
ftometimes cemented so as to form conglomerates with bands of 
clajey or chalky sandstone.' Among the agates the only stones of 
value are found in a small ferruginous stratum, to the iron in which, 
their colour is probably due. oouth of the Batanpur stream very 
Httle rock is shewn as &r as the K4veri. In the K&veri, the rock, 
except that it has more laterite, is much like that at Batanpur. At 
Vasna on the Kdveri, Major Full James is said to have found 
specimens of nummulitic limestone. But the latest examination 
failed to find any limestone stratum and the place may be three 
miles south at V^halkhor.^ Between the K&veri and the Amr&vati, 
Bcarcely any rock is seen, the whole country being covered with 
allaviam. The banks of the Amr&vati consist chiefly of trap pebbles 
cemented by carbonate of lime with an occasional nummulitic 

» Meai. G«oi Sar. VL 58. 

^ Mem, QeoL Snr. VI. 63. At M41dipar, alittle to the south of BatMipar in 
dttceodiiig order, the aeries of munmalitic beds is as follows: 1, very ooaraa 
c<4ig]i>m«mte ; 2; fenogiiioiis mottled clay ; 3, fine sand with a band of trap pebbles ; 
|, coi^i^loBasiFate of trap and agate pebbles ; 5, coarse sandstone ; 6, sandstone ; 7, 
umeBtone ; B, sli^^tiy femiginoiis sandstone ; 9, ooarse conglomerate of trap pebbles. 
Mfcm. GeoL Snr. VL 195. 

^ Tl^e following beds are seen in descending order : 1, Galcareons days ; 2, affate 
gravela and eon^omerates with fossil wood ; 3, calcareoos and argillaceous white 
'^<irtonM ; 4» agate gravelB and conglomerates with occasional trap pebbles ; 5, 
<iitto with uyen of sand and red iron-bearing clay ; 6, calcareous clays and pale 
yellow ssndsfamM with plant remains ; 7, i£emations of gravel or conglomerate 
^aadstoae and red liU^toid clay, wi^ occasional bands of clay of various colours and 
•balfii. Each bed x^iesents some hundred feet. It is hard to say if all the beds are 
itgularly placed one on the other. Mem. Geol. Sur. VL 197. 

« Moo. QeoL Snr. VI. 199. 

Chapter I. 
Geology ^ 

[Bombay Gaietteer, 

Chapter I. 




bed.^ At Y&ghalklior is an interesting section witli nnmerona 
fossils^ and clear evidence of tlie sedimentary origin of tlie laterite.^ 
Between the Amrivati and the Kim^ laterite and nnmrnnlitic limestone 
are largely exposed.' Along the banks of the Narbada and to the 
west of the nummolites^.the rocks are hid by allaviiun.* 

The Bewa Kintha rainy season begins in or aboat the month (A. 

Jane and lasts till the end of September. No rain returns are 

available but the &11 is believed in ordinary years to vary from 

thirty-five to forty inches. The cold season begins in October and 

last£ptill March. In the forest-covered tracts of eastern Bewa K^tha 

with large areas of land rich in springs^ the cold is about January 

sometimes very severe^ ice forming on pools and the crops suffering 

severely from frost. In those parts the mornings keep cool till the 

end of April, a cold known from its value to the mahuda flowers as 

mahvdia tddh or the mahuda chill." The hot weather lasts from 

the middle of April till after a good fall of rain in July. The heat 

is sometimes very severe, the thermometer in the shade in Lnn&v4da 

and B&riya standing at 108° and 110°. In 1873 the heat was so 

great that several people died and bats and monkeys fell dead from 

the trees. Healthy in the open parts, the climate of the eastern 

hill and forest tracts, especudly of B&riya and R&jpipla, is very 

sickly." The chief diseases are malarious fever, eye and skin 

complaints, diarrhcea, and dysentery. Fever, present throughout 

the year, is commonest in September, October, ana part of November, 

when the waterpools and rank forest growth of the rains are drying 

up. Diarrhcea and dysentery, most prevalent in July and part of 

August, are due to exposure to the wet and damp of the rains. Ey^ 

affections are common at the beginning of the rains, and skin 

diseases, itch, ringworm, and guineaworm prevail throughout tbe 

year, brought on by the bad quality of water used for drinking and 


1 Mem. GeoL Snr. VL 200. 

s The detailB of the V^halkhor section are at the baae a thick bed of laterite ; next 
yeUow clay ; then a bed en pipe clay ; next sand pawing into limeetone abounding to 
nummnlites, ^pwteropoda and other foesilB ; above the limestone a band of sandstoo^ 
and then latente agam containing pebbles. Mem. Geol. Snr. VI. 200. 

s Mem. GeoL Sur. VI. 201. 

4 Colonel Full James has left the following mdUmcal notes of the oonntry from 
Chhota Udepnr south-west to the lin^jts of Broacn : Chhota Udepur to Kar&li fifteen 
miles south-west, a series of low hilli, 4he rocks mica schist with blocks of quartz and 
felspar, Kar&li black soil and a trap hiU ; KarAli to VAsna ten miles north-west, 
lightish black loam, a ridge of mica schist, and then deep Uack loam ; Visna to Agar 
twelve miles south-west, a line of sandstone hills, a jklain of black sen], and a second 
ridge of sandstone ; A^ar to TalakvAda on the Narbada eleven miles south, no rooks, 
black soil ; TalakvAofa to N&ndod ten miles south-west, black loam, no rocks ; 
alonff the left bank of the Narbada twenty-seven miles south-west thitmgh back loam 
cut hv local streams. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIIT, 105-109. 

s The lowest recorded thermometer-readings are 36* and 3S*. But cases of frost 
are weU known. 

• The local belief is, that the climate of the forest or fkll country suita women thongb 
it does not suit men. The men of Sunth on the Chibota river are, the provttb says, * 
lean as monk^ and the women as stout as asses. 

T Report of the Apothecary attached to the Bewa Kintba Agency, dated lOtb 
July 1975, 




Trb Bewa Kantha has a considerable store of mineral wealth.^ 
Building stone abounds. In the north a rather low class stone is 
found near the Bdriya village of Valandi and in the Hadap river, 
and farther north in Sunth, an easily worked blnish stone, said to 
be better than Porbandar, has been much used in Bdmpnr and in 
the chief's palace at Sunth. Slabs of a black, soft, and smooth 
stone fonnd bv Bhils and Kolis in Sunth are used by barbers for 
shai'pening their* razors ; the part of the hill where they are found 
is called the barber's hill, gdnja glidti. Between Yasna and Agar, 
about twenty-five miles south-west of Chhota Udepur, a whitish 
sandstone found in large slabs would make an excellent paving 
or building stone. In the south the limestone of the nummuUtic 
rocks ifiTwell suited for building. There is also near the centre of 
the district a good supply of lime from the metamorphio rocks of 
Clihota Udepur, and from the nummulitic rocks in the west. Of 
ornamental stone the metamorphic rocks near Chhota Udepur yield 
four kinds of g^ranite, red, white, grey, and nearly black, and seven 
miles north-east of Chhota Udepur good specimens of white, yellow, 
and grey marble have been found. Of minerals near J&bug4m 
on the Or river about twenty miles west of Chhota Udepur, mica 
occurs in considerable quantities. Iron seems to have once been 
worked on a large scale along the west limits of the district. Near 
Jambughoda about twenty miles east of Udepur the ground is so 
widely covered with slag and scoria as to point to very extensive 
iron works. In the south of the district on the west of the village of 
Limodra about twenty-five miles west of N&ndod are large mounds 
of iron slag, evidently from an iron furnace. It contained (1852) 
out of 100 parts 53-64 of silica, 5-39 of alumina, 10*49 of lime, 28*96 
of the protoxide of iron, and 1*52 lofs with traces of magnesia and 
manganese. Farther south at Bhilod near Batanpur, some good 
iron ore has been found, and at Tadkesar not far to the south oi the 
Rajpipla border, piles of iron slag mark the sites of old furnaces.' 
Of precious stones there are the agates and camelians, for which 
since the days of Ptolemy (150) B^pipla has been &mous. The 
a^tos found in the conglomerate and sandstone rocks to the west 
oi Rajpipla, are supposed to have been orig^inally formed in trap 

Chapter II. 


1 Bom. Gov. SeL'XXin. 101, 102, 105, 107, 109, 110. 
3 Mem. Geol. Sur. VI. 3, 216, 218. 
B 561-1- 

[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter II. 



from the soakiii^ in of water laden with flinty sud to have been 
brought to their present position during the time when the earlier 
trap flows were being worn away.^ Though the stones are found iu 
trap rocks^ amongst th^ gravels of the tertiary rocks, and strewn 
over a considerable area on the surface^ the chief workings are* 
near Batai^pur on the left bank of the Narbada about thirteen miles 
east of Broach, where the plain is dotted with small hillocks, the 
sites of former mines. The only agates of value are found in a 
thin Jron-bearing bed, to which they probably owe their special 
colourthg. The pits, generally about thirty feet deep, are entered 
by holes cut in the sides^ Under ground the earth is dug in the 
ordinary Indian system of rabbit warren-like holes barely large 
enough for a man to get through squatting. The agates are 
chipped at the mine, and those thought good enough are taken to 
Ratanpur and exposed to the sun. They are then burned and again 
chipped, and if properly coloured sold to stone-dealers, chiefly 
Gambay Musalmans of the Bohora sect.^ 

Great part of the Rewa Kdntha is forest land. The chief trees 
are the mahuda, Bassia latifolia, found in the greatest plenty in the 
districts of Chhota Udepur and Bariya. The timber is much used 
in house building ; the flowers are a chief article of food and drink 
for the poorer Bariya and Udepur tribes, and from the seeds or berries 
called doll, the doliu oil is extracted. Teak, sagvdn or sag, Tectona 
grandis, is abundant, but except in mdlvana or sacred village grove8 
is stunted. The timber is used for house building, the seeds and 
flowers are given in cases of colic, and the leaves are made into 
thatch. Blackwood, sisam or sisu, Dalbergia sissoo, is not fonnd 
in any large quantity. Tamarind, dmZi, Tamarindus indica, i» 
plentiful, the timber used for house building, and the fruit for 
pickling. The Mango, dmha, Mangifera indica, is chiefly valued as 
a fruit tree. Of the Bamboo, vam,s, the poles are used for roofing, 
the young shoots are pickled, and the wheat-like seed is ground 
into flour and made into bread. The Rdyan, Mimusops indica, is 
abundant and valuable. Its tough wood is used in making nativo 
sugar mills and mortars, and in the hot season large numbers of the 
poorer tribes feed on its fruit. Sddado, Terminalia arjuna, timber 
is largely used in house building and for other purposes. Of the 
Khdkhar, Butea frondosa, the leaves are made into platters, the 
flowers called kesvda are used as a dye, and the wood for fuel. Its 

Sum serves the place of Indian.A:tno. It is given in cases of chronic 
iarrhoBa and is an external astringent application. Of Beheda, 
Terminalia belerica^ the fruit used as a dye is astringent and forms 
an ingredient in the compound powder used by native doctors, and 
called triphala. Of the Timbarrun, Carissa carandas, the fmit 
commonly eaten is believed to lessen the effects of opium. Its wood is 

> Mem. Geol. Sar. VI. 3, 56, St». 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIIL 110, and Mem. GeoL 8ur. VI. 3, 219, 220. FuUer details 
e ffiven in the Statistical Account of Gambay. The position of the agate hills in 
Ptolemy'i map, and the Feriplus (247 a.i>.) details of i^e Broach agate trade, seem 
to fir the chief carnelian mines m some Central Province range rather than iu the 
JUjpipla hills. 





hard and is the abnus or ebony employed in making boxes and other Chapter 11. 

artit'les of hoosehold fomitnre. Bili^ iEgle marmelos^ is sacred Prodoction. 

to Shir, oyer whose image its leaves are strewn. Its fruit when 

<lry is made into snnff boxes. The pnlp of tlie unripe fruit is useful 

m cases of dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. Gliaroli, Buchanania 

latifolia, seedfl are a favourite native spice. Dhdvdo, Anogeissus 

iatifoIiBy wood is used for fuel and the gum is mixed with some 

medicinal drugs and eaten as a cold weather tonic. Ougali, Boswellia 

serratft, a sweet-scented gum^ is burnt in religious ceremonies^ and 

sometimes nsed to strengthen lime. Alardi, Morinda exserta' wood 

is used for fuel, and the leaves are given t» cattle when grass and 

forage are scarce. Kker^ Acacia catechu^ timber is valuable not 

suffering from water, useful as fuel, and yielding the astringent 

substance callod kath^ Terra japonica. In Bdriya, during February 

and the three following months, kdth making gives employment 

to a large number of Kolis and N^ikdas. Branches stripped of 

their bark are cut into small three or four inch pieces and 

Ixitlod in earthen pots till only a thick sticky decoction remains. 

A narrow pit five or six feet deep is dug and a basketful of the 

extract placed over the pit's mouth, the water soaks into the earth 

and the refuse remains in the basket, leaving the. Icdth in the pit. 

The extract is then taken out of the pit and dried on leaves in the 

sau.' The kher also yields a white powder called hhersdl given to 

ciire coughs. The soft wood of the Jcaledi tree is made into wooden 

plates aSad used for fuel. Kalam or kadam, Stephegyne parvifolia, 

sacred to Krishna, is used for house building. Haldharvo, Adina 

cordifolia, soft and yellowish is also a useful timber. The Nim, 

limhilo, Melia azadirachta, is sawn into planks and used for house 

building. Its bark serves for cinchona and the leaves are used in 

fomenting swollen glands, bruises, and sprains. The expressed oil 

of ltd seeds is used in cases of leprosy. Piplo, Ficus religiosa, 

and Vad or Banyan tree, Ficus indica, are common. Of the Wood 

Apple tree, kothi, Feronia elephantum, the fruit is eaten ripe or 

fuck led, and the astringent pulp is given in cases of diarrhoea and 

dysentery. Moheno wood is used for fuel. Tanach, Dalbergia 

cKijeinensis, wood is tough and used in cart building. Bdval, Acacia 

arabica, wood is used for fuel and in making cart wheels. Its gum 

is valuable and its astringent bark is used in tanning. Of the 

Palmyra, tad, Borassus flabelliformis, the juice yields toddy and the 

leaves serve for thatching. The juice of the Wild Date, hhajuri, 

Pbamix sylvestris, yields toddy, and its fruit is eaten by the lower 

clases. Blont-leaved Zizyphus, bordi, Zizyphus jujuba, fruit 

is eaten, and is a favourite food with bears. Samdi, Prosopis 

spicigera,i8 worshipped on the Dasera festival (September-October). 

Its pods called aangri are used as vegetables. Custard Apple, 

fUdphal, Anona squamosa, is chiefly valued for its fruit. Kanji or 

knranj, Pongamia glabra, yields an oil useful in cases of itch and 

burning. Bohen, Soymida febrifuga, bark yields a dark red dye. 

^ Bom. Got. Set XXIII. 154. In 1826, as it itill is, tke price was aboat ten pounds, 
•^r9, a rapee (Ra. 1-8 to Bs, 2-8 a man). The export was then estimated at GOO- 
700 moAf ; corresponding returns are not now availaole. 

[Bombay Oaietteer. 



Chapter IL 



It tastes bitter and may be used like Peruvian bark. A good tonic 
in intermittent fever^ it causes dizziness if too mucb is taken. 
Kado, Wrightia tinctoria, flowers are mixed with curry and taken 
as a vegetable. The seeds called itidrajau are useful in dysentery. 
The bark, formerly exported to Europe under the name of Concan 
or Tellicherry bark, is astringent and bitter and is employed in 
fever and dysentery with much success. Sevan, Gmelina arborea, a 
light wood, is used in making carts and some articles of furniture. 
Simlo wood is soft and is hollowed into canoes or small boats* The 
fine c&tton-like wool that covers its seeds is used for stuj£ng pillows, 
and its gum, called kamarkas, ground to powder is drank in milk as 
a tonic. Pilvu, Salvadora persica, berries are aromatic and pungent 
to the taste. Rohedo, Gs^alpinia sappan, is supposed to euro a 
swelling in the belly, and the disease known among native doctors 
as congealed blood. A tree of this kind is kept with great care by 
the R4ja of B&jpipla. Agathio, Sesbania grandiflora, flowers are used 
for food and the bark as a tonic. The seeds of the Arithi, Sapindus 
emarginatus, known as soapnuts, are used in cleaning the hair. 

The following are some of the principal shrubs and medicinaJ 
plants found in the Bewa K&ntha forests. Achyranthes aspera, 
the seeds are given in cases of hydrophobia and snake-bite, the 
juice of its flowering spike for scorpion bites, and the ashes of the 
burnt plant have been successfully used in dropsy. Oorakh dmli, 
Adansonia digitata, the pulp is a good refrigerant in fe^er, and 
the bark a useful substitute for quinine in low fever. Kariainri, 
Agathotes chiraita, an infusion of its leaves is used as a tonic and 
febrifuge. Samudra shok, Argyreia speciosa, the leaves are used 
to foment boils and abscesses. Shatdrasi, Asparagus racemosus, 
the root when fresh is a mild tonic. Qokhru, Asteracantha longi- 
folia, the root is a tonic and diuretic. Dholi sdtardi, Boerhaavia 
diffusa, the root is said to be a strong emetic. Eranda kdkdi, Garica 
papaya, the milky juice is reckoned one of the best vermifuges. 
Oarmdla, Cathartocarpus fistula, the pod pulp acts as a strong 
purgative. Indrak, Citrullus colocynthis, the pulp of the fruit is 
purgative. Dhoh dkdo, Calotropis gigantea, the root -bark is 
used as a diaphoretic, an emetic in large doses, and as an alterative 
in leprosy. MusK, Curculigo orchioides, the root slightly bitter 
and aromatic is used in gonorrhoea. Amarvel, Cuscuta reflexa, 
the stem is used as an alterative, especially in bilious 
disorders. Ndgar motah, Cyperus rotundus, the fresh tubers 
are a stimulant and diaphoretic. Jangli suran, Dracontinin 
polyphyllum, the roots are used as an antispasmodic in asthma. 
J^alu ganthi, Eclipta prostrata, the root is a purgative and 
emetic, used in cases of enlarged spleen, liver, and dropsy. TTior, 
Euphorbia 'nereifolia, the milky juice is given as a purgativ(9, and 
is put in the ears to cure ear-ache. Pitpdpdo, Fumaria^ parviflora, 
the whole plant is used with black pepper in common agues. It is 
said to be a diuretic, diaphoretic, and aperient. Sdgu^goia^ 
Guilandina bonduc, the kernels of the nut are very bitter and 
powerfully tonic. They are given in the form of powder mixed 
with spices in intermittent fever. Brahmin Hydrocotyle asiatica^ 




\he whole plant is considered diuretic. It is a good alterative 

and has been used with success in skin diseases* It is said to 

cure brain disorders. Ad/uso, Ailanthus ezcelsa^ the juice of the 

leavea and flowers^ expectorant and antispasmodic^ is given in 

chronic bronchitis and asthma. Bhui cha/mpo, Kesmpferia rotunda, 

the roots ore stomachic and applied to swellings. Tumbdi^ Leucas 

linifolia, in snake-bites the leaves are bruised and a teaspoonful 

of the juice given to be inhaled through the nostrils. Bhui amldi, 

Phyllanlhos nirari, tbe roots, fresh leaves, and young shoots are 

ased as diaretic> the roots and fresh leaves in jaundice or bi]ious 

complaints, and the young shoots as an infusion in dysentery. 

hap^l, Plantago isps^^a, the seeds mudjjaginous and demulcent 

mavj mixed with sugarcandy, be given in the form of a cold infusion 

thrice a day in cases of dysentery and gonorrhcea. Ldl chitrak, 

Plumbago rosea^ the fresh bark is made into a paste and applied 

to indolent buboes and tumours. Bdvchi, PsoraJia corylifolia, the 

seeds aromatic and slightly bitter are said to be stomachic and 

are used in cases of leprosy and other skin diseases. Gajkami, 

Rhinacanthus communis, the juice of the leaves and roots is applied 

as a Qire for ringworm. Mund(wlif SphsBranthua hirsutus, the seeds 

oonsidered to cure worms are prescribed in powders. The powdered 

root is stomachic, and the bark powdered and mixed with whey is 

a yabaUe remedy for piles. Oulveli Tinospora cordifolia, the stem 

is a good tonic and diuretic. A cold infusion has been found to be of 

mach benefits in chronic rheumatism and remittent fever. Kdliiiri, 

Vernonili anthelmintica, the seeds are very bitter and powerruUy 

anthelmintic and diuretic. Reduced to powder and mixed with lime 

juice they &re used to destroy lice. Nagod, Yitex nigundo, the 

roots are used as a decoction, as a vermifuge, and as a diaphoretic 

in protracted fevers. Dhdvdi, Gnslea tomentosa, the flowers are 

powerfully astringent. A decoction is used in cases of diarrhoea. 

MiUhdnguni, Celastrus paniculata, the oil of the seeds is a diuretic 

and has been used successfully in healing sinuses and fistulas. 

EanmLJ, Adiantum lunulatum, the leaf of this fern is used in 

cases 01 fever and cough. Balhaja is used for ascites occurring in 

children. KoUjan, Alpinia galanga, the root is used in cases of 

cough and rheumatism. Oani, the seed is used in constipation. 

ifihphal, Nymphcea lotus, also called jpoyana, is used generally in 

the iorm of a syrup in cases of fever. Rwm tulH, Melissa officinalis, 

IB used for headache, fever, pain of the intestines, and colds. 

N"irgundi, Yitex bicolor, the miit is used for gleet and debility. 

Cherdn, considered a good tonic, is said to heal broken bones. 

Among Bewa K&ntha grasses the most important are viran or khas, 

when wetted a well known screen for cooling hot winds, and elephant 

grass, haru, whose stems are used for native pens, kaiam. 

The Bewa E&ntha forest reserves are of two kinds ; state reserves, 
^i^acts in the large forests where the state only can cut, and sacred 
^lU^ groves called mdhan, where the finest timber of tiie district is 
{oond. Except for the wants of the state, or when the villages are 
^rced to make good losses caused by some general fire or flood, the 
fear of its guardian spirit keeps the people from cutting in their 
^^Uago groves. Moat villages have two kinds of nfhdJ/vans, one never 

Chapter IL 



[Bombay Qazetteer, 



Cihapter n. 



cut except on emergencies^ the other less sacred and generally felled 
at intervals of thirty years.i The B&riya forests were once famous 
for their large stores of high class timber. But of late years from 
the growing demand and the stricter conservancy in the neighbouring 
Panch Mahils^ they ha^e been greatly cut down^ and except in the 
sacred village groves few large trees are left. Except in the easterp 
86gb&ra range^ the timber of the R&jpipla hills, teak, kher, blackwood, 
lancewood, addar, mahuda, and bamboo, is not of good quality. The 
trees are stunted and damaged by fire. The timber is sent down the 
Narbada and the T&pti, and by land to Anklesvar, M4ndvi, and 
other .British towns. In B&riya the former custom was to farm 
every year the customs duties on timber exported from the state 
inclusive of the monopoly of the right of purchase and of the sale of 
the supplies for export. The contractors could not fell woodj but 
only buy it from the villagers. The people of the state could buy 
for home consamption, not for export. After November (2nd Kdrtik 
avd) the villagers coiild export on their own account. Those who 
bought from the contractors had to pay timber f ees.^ Villagers 
brought the timber they cut to the Simalia market. At the close of 
the contract, contractors might carry away free of duty any supplies 
of timber they had bought. This practice, when the demand 
increased, led to a very rapid felling of trees. The restriction, that 
the contractor could only buy and not himself cut, was of little use 
as he could easily arrange with the villagers to have such trees 
as he wished cut down. The result was that all good-sized trees 
disappeared. The villagers suffered as they were seldom "able to 
export on their own account and generally sold very cheaply to the 
contractors. This contract system has now been discontinued and 
the people are allowed on payment of a fee ^ on each cartload to fell 
timber from places not reserved, and export it for sale. People 
from other districts have to pay an additional fee called van katdi. 

The domestic animals of the district are buffaloes, cows, horses, 
camels, asses, sheep, goats, cats and dogs. The cultivating classes 
keep cows and buffaloes. Br&hmans and other townspeople prefer 
cows to buffaloes as less costly. Bullocks are chiefly kept by 
the cultivators as the country is too rough for bullock carriages, 
y&ni&s and others, who have to go into the rural parts of the district 
instead of driving, ride ponies. Some Musalm&ns keep camels and 
let them out for carrying goods. Besides by potters and rice-beaters, 
asses are much used as beasts of burden. Every year after October, 
divdli, camel-men called B4yk£s or Rab&ris bring camels from 
Meyw&r and M&lwa to graze in Lun&v&da, Sunth and B4riya, paying 
a fee of two young camels the herd, and return a little before the 
rains. So too Ch&rans from K&thi&w&r bring buffaloes and settle in 
good grazing villages. Bharv&ds and Bab&ris keep goats and sheep. 

1 CoL Andenon, Biriva Adminittrntion Repori, 1869.66. 

9 On a cartload of teak Bo. 3-4 ; of liambooa Ra. 1^ ; of 9ddar wood Ba. 1-8 ; of 
other wood Ra. M. On a car-load of timber bought by people of other districta from 
the eontractora at the Simalia wood station, Ra. 1-6. On a cartload of rafteia Ra. 1-2. 

s On a cartload of teak Bm, 3, and leas for other timber. 




Except among Bhils, who look on them as witches^ cats are foand 
in every house. Some of the Bhils hare dogs of a better breed 
than the common Tillage pariah. 

Thoagh all traces of them have long disappeared^ wild elephants 
were as late as the seventeenth century found in the B&jpipla and 
Chkota Udepur forests.^ Tigers and hill panthers^ though yearly 
becoming fewer, are stiU found in considerable numbers. A common 
way of lalling tigers is to stuff the carcase of an animal he has 
killed with rninia kodra, Paspalum scrobiculatuni. Eating this^the 
tiger becomes giddy and is either beaten to death withclabs or shot 
by arrows. Another plan is, near where t^rs come to drink, to 
build a small hollow brick and cement pillar furnished with loop- 
holes. In this, large enough for a man but too small for a tiger, 
the himter hides, and through the loop-hole shoots the tiger when 
he comes to drink. Bears and wild hog are common in the forests. 
Of deer, edmbar, Busa aristotelis; spotted deer, chital, Axis 
macolatos ; blue bull, nilgai, Portax pictns ; and chinkd/ra, Gazella 
benettii, are found over great part of the district ; and bison, hama 
U^ensa, Bos gavceus, in the Sagb&ra forests in the extreme south-east. 

The oock and hen, reared by Kolis and Bhils, are the only 
domestic fowls found in the Rewa K4ntha. 

Of game birds the Painted Sand Grouse, Pterocles f asciatus, though 
properly belonging to open country, are often found in the forest. 
Common Band Grouse, Pterocles exustus, are found in great numbers 
in barren, sandy, or rocky tracts. The Bed Spur Fowl, jalkukdi, 
GallopenHx spadiceus, are found in thick forests. The Painted 
Partridge, IcU iitar, Francolinus pictus, and the Grey Partridge, 
^^ar, Ortygomis ponticerianus, are common everywhere. Of quail 
the common Bosh Quail, Idvri, Perdicula asiatica, the large Grey 
Qaail, Cotumix communis, the Black Breasted or Bain Quail, 
Coturnix coromandelica, and the Bustard Quail, Tumix taigoor, are 
'ommon every where. Of snipe the Common, OtkUinago soolopacina, 
the Jack, Gallinago gallinula, and the Painted, Bhynchaea 
Wugalensis, are found. Of geese there are the Black Goose, nuktah, 
iSarcidiomis melanonotus, and a smaller sort, name unknown . Of teal 
the Cotton, Nettopus coromandelianus, the Whistling, Dendrocygna 
javanica, the Common, Querquedula crecca, and the Blue-winged or 
Oargauey, Querqaedula circia, are common. The Buddy Shieldrake 
or Brdhminy duck, Casarca rutila, is found on large rivers. The 
Shoveller, Spatula clypeata, the Grey Duck, Anas peecilorhyncha, 
the Widgeon, Maz^ca penelope, and the Pochard are well known. 
Florican, karma^, Sypheotides auritus, are found in the west of 
K^ipipla, and Pea-fowl in all the forests.* 

Of the Mahi and Narbada fish, some details are given in the 

Chapter II. 


^ Iat^ •lephanto were fonnerly honied in the territories of B^pipla. Bat the 
{MugB IB the mooDtAtne being now (1760) clooed, they are no longer ionnd. Bird. 
Mini ^Ahmadi, 101 . 

' From a l«t of game birds fumiahed by Mr. Dunbar, Forest Officer. Panch 
HibiJi. •^ 

a5(n— 3 


[Bombay Gazetteer. 

Chapter II. Broach and Kaira statistical accounts. Those of chief importance 
Prodnetioii. *"^ ^^® mdhsir, marel, pdlva, boi, dangri, roi, surmai, and zinga. 
j». The alligator^ maga/r, abounds in the large rivers, and from his 

boldness and greed is .often the terror of a whole neighbourhood. 
Collecting where bodies are burned in the hope of having part of a 
half -burned body thrown, into the river, they press to the shore so 
boldly that according to native belief they sometimes dash water on 
the pyre and carry away the unconsumed corpse. They also seize 
cattle and sometimes children, or even grown men and women. 

Tne stores of fish in the large rivers are made little use of. So 
great is the influence o^ the higher class of Hindus that professional 
fishermen, M&chhis, can practise their calling only by stealth. There 
is no trade in fish, and the Michhis earn a living either as ferrymen 
or peasants. Besides Mfichhis and Bhois fishermen by caste, Kolis, 
Bhils and other of the lower fish-eating tribes net fish, especially 
when a ppnd overflows, or when a small water-course is flooded 
with rain water. . The nets and the way of catching fish do not 
differ from those used in Broach and Kaira. 





Unth; 1872^ the Bewa K&ntha people were nerer numbered. The 
1872 census showed a total popalaticm ol d05^32 souls or 105 to 
the square mfle.* Of the whole number 485^423 or 95'98 per cent 
were Hindus ; 20,104 or 8-98 per cent MusalmAns ; 198 pdrsi&; 
Christians ; and two were brought under the head ' Others^ 

The fc^owing tabular statement gives for the year 1872 details 
of the population of each state under the Agency, according to 
religion, age, and sex : — 

Reioa KdfUha Populatum, 187S^ 




Not more than 
H jmn. 

Above 12 and 

not more than 

80 years. 

Above- SO years. 


















































































• ihou Udepur 










|«Akfae(UlUlivihl ... 






























Votak ... 










^The prenure of population varies considerably 
greatest ^'^' ' "' — — *^ - • «._._,.. _ 

in the different states. It 

^ s ■■LI I iMM^r—1 square 

«iile pressure varying from 77 in Sanjeli to 72 in Clinoia' TJoepu^^Wext as regards 
fewness of people comes Kad4na wit h 97 inhabitants to the sauare mile. Although 
^«r the greater part covered witii hills Mvd farests p eopled entireW by.Bhilg.\Dth hanOy 
wxty inhabitants to the square mile Rdipipla . navmg some nve thickly populated 
<^»tricts on the banks of the Karbada, has an average densify of 79 souls to tne squaie 
niile. In the statee bordering on the Mah i there is a marked increase in the population : 
^ the Pindtt Mehyia the prCTSure is 283 to thesquai« mile ; m EiUisinor further north, 
^^ ; in the aajoining state of LunAvida, through which the Mahi passes, 192 ; and 

lu 8unth farther to the eastward, 126. The variation of population within a very 
toor t_ distanc e is remarkable. Thus in the Bprsad smb-division of the Kaira 
'"*tnct, which holders on the Jg^j^^ jifdijrds, thtTTTShsity is 749 to the square mile, . 
• Kile in the latter it is only about 8B. an^^ the state of Biriva TTfie shortest distance 
''twctea which and Borsad is not more than thirty miles»«the population to the square 
'• '1^ i* uitder 

Chapter III 


[Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter IIL 


Itewa Kdntha PopulaluM, 187i — cofUinueiL 




Vot more than 
12 7eara. 

AhoTe 12 end 

not more than 

80 yean. 

Abote 30 years. 













Bantli ^ 




B4riya ... ... 

P4nda HehyAa 
ChhoU Udepnr 
BankhadaMehTte ... 

RAjplpla - 

















• •• 




















TV>U1 ... 
















Pindn Mahvia 

Chhoto Udepor 
Eankhada M ehria ... 


Political AffenVs Gamp. 

• * « 

• • • 

• • ■ 





'** 2 








*" 8 




• •• 

"" 2 



• •• 

*" 4 

• •• 




• •• 

• *• 

• •• 


• ft* 




• •• 


• •i 
■ »• 

• ■• 



• •• 





ToUi ... 










Kadtoa ., 

Sunth ... 




Banya ... ... ... 

Pindu MahTAfl 

Chhoto Udepur 
Bukheda MehTto ... 


PoiiUoaIAg«nVs Ounp 






















































Total ... 










From the above statement it appears tliat the percentag6 
of males on the total population was 53*41 and of females 46'lf9, 
Hindu males numbered 259^165 or 53*38 per cent, and Hiiidtt 
females numbered 226,258 or46"62 of the total Hindu populatioo; 
Musalm&n males numbered 10,797 or 53*71 per cent, and Musalmii^ 
females 9307 or 46*29 per cent of the total Musalmdn population ) 
P&rsi males numbered 120 or 60*60 per cent, and Pirsi female* 
78 or 89-40 per cent. of the total Pdrsi population; all the fi^« 
Christians were males. 


TliB total number of infirm persons waa returned at 20S1 (males 
-liy, females 862), or forty-two per f«n thousand, of the total 
population. Of these 48 (males 29, females 19), or one per ten 
thousand, were tnsanes ; 296 (males 184, females 112), or ail per ten 
thousand, idiots; 432 (males 296, females' 136), or nine per ten 
Ttousand, deaf and dumb ; 101 1 (males 481, females 530), or twenty 
por leu thousand, blind, and 294 (males 229, females 65), or sii per 
ten thousand, lepers. 

The following tabular statement gives the number of the membere 
i)f each religious class of the inhabitants according to six at 
Mepent ages, with, at each stage, the percentage on the total 
population of the same sex and religion. The columns referring to 
the total population give up the &tinction of religion, but keep 
Che difierence of sex : — air 

Sttea KdHaa PopuJatioa kg Agt, Wt. 

Hwiii:.. 1 Ilusu-Mi'm. 










:: JJ ; S ■■■ 
- » " « ... 

■ «^ „ w 





















ToUl .. 






PiuisudChustiim. I Tirtiu 











•to 1 ud "e 

: i ;; S ": 

■»".■■?: ::: 







24 M 





T..^ ... 

Kl 7. 1 S70.0»9 


Amko Kdnlha Hindu Sects, 1S7S. 



= " 







SmuTiii ToTAt. 









iMi m,ia 

Chapter III- 


The Hindu population of the district belongs, according to the Beligion. 
1872 cAisna, to the following sects : — 

[Bombay Oazetteer, 



Chapter m. 




From this statement it would seem that of the total Hindu 
population^ the Vaiahnavs numbered 56^210 or 11*58 per cent ; the 
Shaivs 27,744, or 5*72 per cent ; the Shravaks 1515, or 0'31 per cent ; 
and the Unsectarian Classes 399,954, or 82*39. 

The Musalman population belonged to two sects, Sunni and Shia^ 
the Sunnis numbered 17,818 souls, or 88*63 per cent of the whole, 
and the Shias 2286, or 11*37 per cent. Of the Parsis 132, or 66 67 
per cent of the total P&rsi population, were Shahanshdis and 66 or 
33*33 per cent Kadmis. The five Christians were all Boman 

According to occupation the census returns for 1872 divide tho 
whole population into seven classes — 

I. — Employed under Government, or Municipal, or other local anthonties, 
numbering in all 5437 or 1 *7 per cent of the entire population. 

II.— Professional persons 3288 or 0*65 per cent. 

III. — In service or performing personal offices 4672 or 0'd2 per cent. 

IV.— Engaged in agriculture and with animals 125,931 or 24*9 per cent. 
V. — Engaged in commerce and trade 4365 or 0*86 per cent. 

VI. — Employed in mechanical arts, manufactures, and engineering operations, and 
engaged in the sale of articles manufactured or otherwise prepared Utr 
consumption 40,705 or 8 per cent. 

VIL — ^Miscellaneous persons not classed otherwise (a) 133,878, and children 
182,505, in all 316,383 or 6256 per cent, and (b) miscellaneous pereons 
4951 or 0-98 per cent ; total 321,334 or 63*54 per cent. 

The following gives some details of the different castes and races. 

Under Brahmans came twenty divisions : N&gar^ with f&ur sub- 
divisions, Vadnagara, Visnagara, Sathodra, and, Chitroda ; Audich, 
with two sub-divisions, Sahasra and Tolakia ; Mev4da, with two sub- 
divisions, Bhat and Trivedi; Modh ; Shrigaud; Khedd.v41; Khadayata ; 
Udambar; Rodhv&l; Shrimdli ; Gomtivdl; Bhdthela or An&vla ; 
N&ndoda; Chovisa;Mot£la; H^yathala; Rdyakv^l; Maratha Br&hmans, 
with three sub-divisions, Deshasth, Konkanasth, and Karh&da ; 
Kdyatia; and Tapodhans. In proportion to its size, Lundv£da 
contains more Brahmans than any other state under the Agency, 
having 7976 Brahmans and an area of 388 square miles. Siriya 
with 813 square miles had only 431. B&jpipla, with 1514 square 
miles had only 4360, Sunth, nearly the same in area as Lun&vida, 
had but 700, and Chhota Udepur with 873 square miles 
only 276. Most Lun&v&da Brahmans follow secular pursuits. 
Those at B.djpipla and the Sankheda Mehv&s are principally 
attached to the various shrines and temples on the banks of the 
Narbada. The Vadnagara N&gars came into the Hewn, K&ntha 
for Government service. They are very few in number, and are 
generally well off. The Visnagara Nigars, almost entirely 
confined to the town of Lunavdda, are divided into two parts, local, 
Talabda, and settlers from Idar, Idariya. These eat together, but 
do not intermarry. During the rainy, and a part of the cold 
season, many of them go to the petty states of M^wa and Central 
India, and recite Veds and Pur&ns. Lun&v&da is the only place iu 
Gujai^t, where a large number of Atharvan Vedic Br&hmansof this 
class are found. Son^ of these act as bankers and traders, and 
are tolerably well-to-do. The Sathodra Nagars are only found m 




the town of Chanod on the Narbada, and are poor, living mostly on 
jilmsi The ChitToda N%ars probably came into the Rewa Kintha 
rn Government service. The Audich Sahasras are very nnmeroua 
m Lxmix&ia, N&idod, and the Sankheda Mehvlis, and are tolerably 
well oS. The Audich Tolaki&s, mostly found in B&riya, are seceders 
fyom the Audich Sahasras and seem to have come from the Kaira 
district. The Trivedi Mevfid^a, chiefly found in Lundv&da, are 
mostly peasants. As a class they are poor, many of them going 
every year to Baroda, where they earn their living as water- 
carriers. They spend large sums in caste feasts, meldvds, 
considering it a great honour to offer their guests clarified Butter. 
Thitf honour ia so much coveted that people frequently ruin themselves 
in their efforts to be enrolled among the upper 27|, sddi sattdvis, who 
have the privilege of giving their guests butter. The Bhat Mev^das, 
much fewer in number than the Trivedis, are also poor. The Modhs, 
regarded as experts in the art of begging, are mostly found in the 
tjwn of Balfeinor. They travel over the whole of Gujarat, and 
even as &ir as Bombay, and obtain alms by many tricks. A few 
of them are now in Gt)vemment service, especially in the education 
department* The Shrigaud Brdhmans, divided into two sects new, 
and old, juna, are famous for their power of drinking 


melted darified butter, ghu This power they attribute to the favour 
o{ their goddess, a lamp decked with flowers and ornaments, and 
:3et in the midst of the butter drinkers. At their marriage feasts, 
these Brdhmans for fun make some of the bridegroom's party wear 
boards cmd mustachios, fasten wheat and pease-meal cakes, vadds, 
with holes in the centre to their ears, pat conical hats of khdkhra, 
Butea frondosa, leaves on their heads, and on the hat a lighted 
lamp, and break wafer biscuits, pdpad, over their heads. The 
Khed&val Br&hmans have lately settled in the district for service or 
trade; they are well-to-do. The Ehad^yata Br&hmansact as priests, 
gom, to yiniia of the same name. The TJdambars, priests, gors, 
of the Nima Vanias are few in number, and are said to have come 
From SamUji in the Mahi K&ntha state of Idar. Of the Rodhvdl 
Brahmans very little is known. The Shrim&lis act as priests to 
the Shrim&li Yanids, and are in middling circumstances. The 
Oomtivdls, chiefly cultivators, are found mostly in the town of 
Rampnr in Sunth. The Bhathelas, or AnSvlds, are settlers from the 
Surat district. The Ntedoda Brdhmans, named after the town of 
^^ondod, are found in Rajpipla and the Sankheda Mehv&s, and are 
mostly poor. Not much is knovTu of the two classes, Mota and N£na, 
into which the Chovis&s are divided. The Mot&l&s are also settlers 
from the Surat district. The Bayathalas, originally settlers from 
Bikanir or Thali in Marw&r, are mostly found in the town of 
Ltmavada^ They are disliked and the sight of them thought 
ill-omened. The Rdyakvdls are beggars from the neighbouring 
diatricts. The Maratha Brdhmans have come into the Rewa K^ntha 
on service and are well-to-do. The K&ya,ti6s are regarded as low 
k cla«8 Brfihmans, and perform funeral rites for Shudras. The 
Tapodhans, worshippers of Shiv, if Br4hmans at all, are Br&hmans 
•f the lowest class. In Lunav&da, wh^e they are found in 
i'onsiderable niunbers, most are peasants. 

Chapter IIL 


[Bomlmy Oflsetteer* 



Chapter IIL 





The Rajputs of the district are^ according to their class and the 
places they come from, divided into the following thirty-seren 
sub-divisions: Yirpura or Solanki; Parm&rj R4thod; Chohin ^ 
D&bhi; Puravia; Y&^hela; Gohil; Dia; Kachhotia; T4&k ^ 
Chud^vat; Bihar; Sisodia; Makvana; Gujar; Dodia; Ohelot; 
R&val; Yedia; Padi4r; Jodha; Khunt&r; Cham&rpa; Mohal; 
Padh&-; Bh4ti ; Ehav&s ; H&da; Jadia; B&rad; Bihola; R4na; 
Sojantria; K&rodi&; Jalia; and Yadv^ia. In proportion to its 
size, Lunfiv&da^ contains a larger number of Rajputs than anv other 
states under the Agency. Many of this class, chiefly relatioi-S of 
the different chiefs, are large landholders ; the rest are peasants, 
soldiers, and messengers. 

Under Mercantile, Trading, and Shop-keeping classes camo 
the Yfinils, belonging to fourteen divisions : PorvAd ; Nima ; 
Khad&yata; Mev4da; Shrimdli; Nagar; Y4yada; Umad; OsvAl ; 
Mini; Desh&v&l; Modh; Jh&rolaj and Ldd. Many of these 
classes are divided into Dasa and Yisa. The Porv&ds are mostly 
found in Lun4v^a and Sunth. Some of them are Shravaks. The 
Nimds are numerous in Bariya, Lun&v4da, and B&ldsinor, and are 
partly Shravaks and partly Meshris. Among the Khad^yatas 
marriageable girls are scarce, and consequently large sums have to 
be paid to the bride's father. Some of the Mev&d^ in the town of 
LunSv6da are goldsmiths by profession, and are known by the name 
of their craft. The Shrimdlis are partly Shravaks and partly 
Meshris. Some of these also follow the occupation of goldsmiths. 
The Ndgars are not numerous. Ydyadfa are tolerably well off. 
The Umads are immigrants from Meywdr. The Osv&ls are all 
of them Shravaks. The IM&rus are said to have come into the 
district from MdrwAr. The Deshdvals are not found in lar^ 
numbers. The Modhs, found chiefly in RAjpipla and the Sankheda 
Mehvfis, are mostly oilmen by profession, and are therefore called 
Gh&nchis. The Jh&rol&s and L&ds are only met with in the 
southern parts of the Rewa K&ntha. 

Of Cultivators there were five classes : Kanbis, with four 
sub-divisions. Leva, Kadva, Anjna, and Mardtha ; Eachhids, with 
two sub-divisions, P&daria and Sag&ria; M&lis; Pateliyfis; and 
Rajputs. The Edchhids and Mdlis cultivate gardens, growing 
flowers and vegetables. The Pateliyds are said to have come from 
Ch&mp&ner, and are believed to be the descendants of Rajputf?. 
They are divided into four classes, Parmdr, Solanki, Chohan and 
Gohil. At marriages they have the peculiar custom that the bride's 
mother[^touches the bridegroom's head with a yoke and some other 
field tools, before he enters the house prepared for him by the 
bride's father. They use animal food and worship Ktii, the goddess 
of the Pivligad hUl. 

Of Manufacturers there were two classes, Gh&nchis, oil pressera 
and Ghhip&s, calenders. 

1 LunAvAda, 388 Bquare inileB, 2677 Raipute ; lUjpipla, 1514 square railoa. 68^3 ; 
B4riya, 813 square miles, 542r; Chhota Udepnr, 873 square miles, 2407 ; Sunth, 394 
square miles, 626 ; and Sankheda Mehviis, 311 square miles, 4S43, 




Of Artisans there were ten classes : Kumbhirs, potters, with two 
8ub-di>isionfi, Deshi and Mdrv&di; Suth^s, carpenters, with two 
rab-diTisions, Mevida and Vaishya; Sonis, goldsmiths; Darjis, 
tailors ; Lohirs, blacksmiths j Kansdrfe, . coppersmiths ; Sal&ts, 
masons ; Chundrds or Kadiyfe, bricklayers ; Kharddis or Sarinife, 
tamers ; and Lakh&rds, makers of lac bangles. 

Of Bards there were two classes, Bh4ts, bards, and Chdrans, 

Of Personal Servants there were two classes ; Hajims, barbers, 
belonging to four sub-divisions, Limbochia, Bhitia, Mdlvi; and 
Hindustani ; and Dhobhis, washermen. • 

Of Herdsmen and Shepherds there were two classes, Bharv&ds, 
keepers of goats and sheep ; and Rabdris, who rear camels and cattle. 

Of Fishen and Sailors there were two classes, M&chhis and Bhois. 
Besides fishing, the M&chhis till land, and act as ferrymen across the 
JWii m the rainy season. The Bhois also till land, grow sUngodas, 
Trapa bispinosa, in the beds of ponds, carry palanquins, and by 
means of large earthen pots, golds^ ierrj passengers across the 
nver P&nam near the town of Lun&v4da. 

Ouder Labourers and Miscellaneous Workers came fifteen classes ; 
Kandois, sweetmeat sellers ; Bhidbhunjas, grain parchers ; Golds, 
nee poanders ; PinjArfa, cotton cleaners ; Ods, well-diggers ; KaUls, 
iiquor-seUers ; Dalvddis, brickmakers; Thoris, makers of wooden 
enrobe and plates and beggars; Vdghris, fowlers, hunters, and 
beggars; Ravali&s, cotton tapemakers and beggars; BajAnids, 
^7n^^ Vanjar&, grain carriers; Lab^nfa; Ndiks; Bhartharis 
and Hijdis, beggars. Besides their ordinary business, the Golas 
8«U rice and carry it on donkeys. The Vanj^r&s carry merchandise 
(^n pack bullocks, and also trade in grain and salt. They and the 
closely allied tribes of Lahinis and N&ks have settled in some of 
Ibe Biriya villages, where they till land. The Bhartharis play on 
a kind of rude violin, and sing songs, particularly in praise of 
™g Bhartrihari, from whom they are named. The Hijdds, 
uemiaphrodites and eunuchs, are singers. 

L ^^^^®^ ^ Leather, there were six classes : Mochis, shoe- 
makers ; Dabgars, makers of leather jars ; Khflpis, Bhfanbhis, and 
Ibamadias, tanners ; and Tirgars, who make arrows and carry away 
oead cattle. 

Besides the three classes of tanners and the Tirgars, there were 
r^ ^^P^*8«d Castes : Dheds, weavers of coarse cloth ; Garud^, 
^ned priests ; Turis, Dhed minstrels ; and Bhangife, sweepers and 
niakera of bamboo baskets and mats. 

There were Devotees and Religious Beggars of various names, 
such as Sanyisis, Gosiis, Khikhis and Sddhus. The Khflchis have 
a monastery, math, called Ndth Bdvdno Ahhddo, at Lun4v6da, which 
^aa acquired much local celebrity. It has an important branch at 
Ahmedabad called NUkanthno Akhddo. Of GosAi monasteries, 
^*if^, those at Sarsan in Sunth, and Ch&v&dia in Lun&vfida, are 
^oe best known. 

Chapter III. 








[Bombay Oasetteer, 

Chapter m. 

UnaetUdd Tribes. 





Of Unsettled Tribes there were six classes with^ in 1872^ a total 
strength of 307,199 souls. Of these 172,328 were Bhils, 94,157 
Kolis, 30,780 Dhink&s, 9660 Naikdds, 155 YilviB, and 119 

The Bhils are f onnd in large numbers, especially in the south^ea^t 
of the Rewa K&ntha. The bulk of the population in B4jpipla, 
Sankheda Mehvas and Chhota Udepur, they become gradually 
fewer till, near the hills forming the watershed between the Narbada 
and Mahi, they give place to the Kolis. The Rewa K4ntha Bhil is 
gen^jdly of middle size, strong-limbed, muscular, and wonderfully 
active and dirty. Bhil houses, built neither in groups nor rows, are 
scattered some distance from each other, so that the village covers 
an area of three or four square miles. For this there are three 
chief reasons : the fear that their neighbour may be a witch and 
bring some calamity on them ; their great dread of infection, which 
they believe to be the work of evil spirits, so that the favourite cure 
for a Bhil who has been long sick is to change his house ; and lastly 
there is the fear of fire, fires being kept burning in every hut both for 
heat and light. The Bhil hut is built of two forked uprights of kher 
wood, Acacia catechu, with a beam of teak laid across, upon which are 
&stened light teak rafters or bamboos. The rafters are fastened to 
the ridge pole by boring holes through their upper ends, and passing 
small male bamboos, generally through four rafters at a time, two 
of them going on one side of the roof and two on the other. If 
bamboo poles are used as rafters, they are chosen long etfough to 
form both sides of the roof. From the underside of the centre of 
the bamboo a piece is cut, and this resting on the ridge-pole, tho 
two ends of the bamboo fall on either side, shoots of creepers and 
strips of bark helped by the weight of the thatch keeping the rafters 
in their place. On the rafters some layers of teak leaves are laid, 
and over the teak leaves is a thatching of rough forest grass. Tho 
walls of the hut are made either of brushwood or of opened bsLmboos, 
plastered inside with mud and cowdung. To make these strips or 
bands of opened bamboos, across each point of a hollow or female 
bamboo pole, a number of up and down scars are cut. Then one 
large slit is carried from end to end, and the bamboo opened, and 
by the help of the joint cuts laid flat on the ground in one broad 
band. These bands are then interwoven and plastered inside with 
mud and cowdung. The hut has usually one opening protected 
by a wattled bamboo door. Outside the hut is generally a small 
covered stage for water pots and grass, high enough to let cattle 
stand below it. Of household goods, each hut has a short cot,^ a 
few jars for grain and cooking, earthen drinking vessels, and field 
tools, generally a wooden plough, a small pick, a hatchet, a bill- 
hook, and a few baskets. 

As regards dress, the Bhil and KoUs of the pdl, are divided into 
two classes j potadids or waistcloth wearers, and langotids or 

> The Bhil k ganenlly lon^r than hia cot, aooordsng to hia saying * The oot ihould 
not swallow the body, out the body the cot.' 


I wearers. The fonner, besides a waisteloth, wear a short 

garkh'i, and h tnrhan, ptigdi, generally white but Bometimes 

L few, iD8l«ad of the waisteloth, wear short drawers reaching 

r knees. Thtt latt^^r have only a vecy narrow strip of cloth 

Jly plain, but sometiraes among the Rathvas, Koli settlers 

lie Malwa district of Rtith and yonnper Bfails, with red 

I, paesud bL'tween the legs and fastened at either end to 

iBg buH, A Bhil woman usually weal's a coarse sddi, a 

petticoat, gftdgro, and a cheap bodice. On holidays she 

I a silk giUU and a mmfhru. petticoat, half silk anjl'half 

On liiilidays mtin wear red or white turbans with peacock 

'van in them, and round their shoulders pieces of white or red 

or unong their headmen a piece of scarlet broad cloth. 

il'» dress costs, as a rule, from 10«. to \2». (Rs. 6-6) 

ifi » Bhil woman's from 14s. to 16«. (Rs. 7-8); and a 

I 6*. to 8ir. (Rs. 3-4). Both men and women wear 

ifly of silver, brass, and glass. Men wear wristlets, 

leta, and necklaces, viddalide, all of silver. Women 

WBerings, hinto or viiti ; silver or brass earrings, dodis; 

Idalidi and hnnadis of silver or brass and glass beads ; 

', of brass, lac, or cocoanut shell, worn in tiers from 

3 wrist; wristtets, gujri, fiuger rings, and tiers of 

1, pjnjdm'afi, from the ankle to the knee. A man's 

B worth from lOe. to £1 (Rs. 5-10) and a woman's 

2 10«. (Rs. 20-25). 

/ food of a Bhil varies with the different seasons of 

L the cold months (November to March) it consists 

1, made of the flour of Indian com or other coarse 

. f/aiiH, Panicum spicatum, with occasionally split 

E'haseolus mungo. Sometimes they eat Ifhichdi, a 

e of coarse rice and boiled split pnlse, adad, Phaseolns mungo, 

F^Pliaseolus radiatus. In the hot season (April to June), 

B short of grain, they eat boiled maknda berries, or 

a mixed with a little Indiaji com flour, sonred with 

' mangoes or dried jujubo apples, and a buttermilk 

m flonr porridge. In the rainy season they live on 

d roots, eked oat with smno, a wild self-sown grain 

_) after the first few showers of rain. To these are 

r vegetables, chiefly onions and chillies, grown in plots 

r Ints. The Bhils occasionally add to their scanty supply 

ly hunting and killing wild animals, and when these are 

ry stealing and killing cattle. On holidays and festivals 

noT«r without animal food. The Bhils are habitnal topers 

b given to -mahuda spirits. The yearly food charges of a 

iU4ch1o Bhil family, a man, his wife, and two children, may be 
'" ■ 1 to Tary from £7 12s. to £8 16«. (Rs. 76 - 88).i 

% of Ihe Bhils are peasants, but their scanty crops do not last 
B than three or four months. During the rest of the 

._ ro! gnun, Rs. }16 to4S; mol«»ae«. It«. S':oUrified batter, gM, Kb. 6; 

t 1-9 ; talt, H*. 6 ; liquor, Ks. 13 ; opJuDi and tobupo,Ri. 12 ; uid condinieute. 

Chapter I 



[Bombay Qaietteer, 



Chapter III. 



year thej depend for support on the sale of forest produce, timber, 
mahvda, honey, wax, and lac. 

A Bhil is truthful, thriftlessj superstitious, and fond of drink. 
His truthfulness is due hither to a want of readiness in telling lies 
than to any inborn or acquired love of truth ; all are wanting m 
forethought. A thrifty BIul is almost unknown. As a rule, they 
live from hand to mouth, deeply indebted to the village trader, and 
seldom receiving the full value of their labour or produce. Such is 
the Bhil's love of spirits that all their religious and social rites end 
in a gf^eat debauch. A rude still is made on the spot, a quantity 
of mahuda flowers is thrown in and the spirit drunk raw and fier}'. 
At such times, both men and women mad with excitement, often 
commit serious crimes. Weapons are handy and a few taunting 
words provoke a discharge of arrows or a fatal blow with an axe. 
Afterwards they admit their fault, pleading drunkenness as an 
excuse. The M&liv&d Bhils, in the north of Lun&v&da, were at one 
time most lawless and unruly. They defied the authority of the 
"R&jis of Lun&vida and openly and fearlessly made raids into the 
neighbouring villages. Under British management they have been 
brought to order, and their leaders caught and punished. A trace 
of their former oppression remains in the bullock-driver's favourite 
curse, ' May the M&liv&ds catch you/ Mr. Hall, who surveyed the 
district between 1867 and 1871, found the central or Bdriya Bhils 
orderly, honest, well-disposed, willing, and cheerful. Of the south 
or Rdjpipla Bhils, Lieutenant PoUeron, who surveyed tlie district 
between 1852 and 1855, has left the following account.^ ^The 
Bhils are for the most part of middling stature, clean limbed and 
muscular, endowed with extraordinary activity and remarkably 
expert in the use of the axe on which their livelihood greatly 
depends. Mild and inoffensive, they are highly susceptible of 
kindness, and at the same time are wonderfully patient under 
oppression. Not even the smallest article was ever taken from my 
camp, though had they felt inclined, nothing could have been easier. 
I never heard of a theft or a murder. Their one fault seems to bo 

A Bhil*s religion consists largely of a belief in charms. Tbey 
worship female deities, known as mdtds, represented by symbols 
rather than images, by wooden posts, earthen pots, toy horses,] 
wicker baskets, and winnowing fans. They believe in witches and 
in the evil eye. They have their wise men called barvds, exorcista,! 
whose office is hereditary, and who are in special request when an| 
epidemic breaks out. Then the heads of the different village 
communities wait on the holy man with offerings, praying him to 
point out the cause of the visitation. The wise man generally namea 
some old woman as the cause. Small mercy is shown her. She i| 
seized by a raging crowd, swung by the heels or otherwise ill-treated^ 
probably losing her life unless the police hear in time and put a BtoJ 
to the riot. 

> Bom. Gov. Sel. XJUII. 320. 




On tlieir holidays and festiyalB, they dress in their gayest attire, 
and spend a little money in buying sweetmeats and other cheap 
Inxuries. Their chief holidays are Holi, 15th Phdgan 8vd (Febmary* 
March) ; Dasera^ 10th A* so Sud (September - October); and Gk>kal 
^tham^ 8th Shrdioan Vad (July-Angnst). The Holi holidays last for 
a week or more. During this time the Bhils do no work^ drink liquor, 
dance, and sing obscene songs, and large bodies of them, men and 
women together, go round Y inia and other high caste houses asking 
for small money presents, goths. One &yourite ceremony callea 
the hearth, chulo, is to dig a wide trench, and filling it with ]tfgs of 
wood set it on fire. As it bums, the men get drunk, and run over 
the fire without burning the soles of their feet. Another of their 
frolics is to plant a small tree or branch firmly in the ground. Round 
this men and women gather, the women round the tree, the men 
ont«ide. One man rushing in tries to uproot the tree, when all the 
Women set on bim and thrash him so soundly that he has to retire. 
Another man steps in, and he too is belaboured, and makes his escape. 
Thns the play goes on, till one man luckier or thicker skinned than 
the rest, bears off the tree, but seldom without a load of blows that 
cripples him for days. On Dasera day, 10th A' so Sud (September - 
October) they gather in large numbers in towns where their chiefs 
go b procession to worship the ahami tree. On the Gokal Atham 
or 8ih of Shrdvan Vad, they attend fairs at the temples of some of 
their mdtd^ or goddesses. Other yearly festivals are Naudarva, 
held in^hravan (July- August), and Jh&mpaheldinfaWiA; (October- 
NoTember). At the first animal sacrifices are offered to Naudarra, 
spparently nava daro or new grass, and eaten by the villagers ; liquor 
is dnmk and tbe day spent as a holiday. The Jh4mpa, in October - 
November, is the harvest day, a more important festival. In both 
of these the whole village joins and each villager has to pay his 
share of the general cost. Goats and fowls are sacrificed to the 
pod Bdbddev, offerings of liquor are poured out, the exorcist, 
^arco, performs some mummeries, and the day ends with feasting 
Bud drinking. The village headmen, patfla, take a leading part in 
these entertainments, and where the appointment is disputed, fights 
take place, sometimes ending in bloodshed. 

The occasional festivals are the In and the Jdtra or Y&tra. The 
in is the result of a vow taken by some of the villamrs. A branch of 
the htlani tree is set in a hole, and the hole filled with rice instead 
o! earth. The branch is then worshipped with animal sacrifices and 
liqaor, the offerings being eaten by the whole body of villagers. 
The;a^a is also held on account of the fulfilment of a vow taken 
hy some one of the villagers. On this occasion the god is worshipped 
^th the usual accompaniments of animal sacrifices and liquor, and 
the people who come from all parts of the neighbourhood eat, drink, 
and mske merry. No invitations are necessary to attend a jdtra. 
Any one hearing the sound of the village drum may join the party, 
sure of a welcome. 

Of festivals held at longer intervals than^ year, the chief is Bdba 
^^t er the father god, held on the top of Devgad hill near the 
town of Bariya. The story of ike festival is that when Dungarji, 

Chapter IIL 



[Bombay Oazetleer. 



Gliapter in. 



the grandson of the Pat&i B^val^ retired to B&riya after the 
Mnsalm&n conquest of Ch&mp4ner in 1484^ a Bhil was cutting 
wood on the top of the hill which overlooks the present town of 
B&riya. As he cut^ he struck his axe against two small round stones 
and blood gushed out. The axe was shivered to pieces. The Bhi) 
told the eioled prince, and he finding the stones, had a shrine built, 
and made the rule that once in twelve years the B&riya chief should 
visit them with great pomp. The shrme is on the top of a high 
hill called Devgad or the god's fort, approached by a very rough 
and iiTSxiding path about a mile and a half long. The stones are 
worshipped under the jaame of Devgad Bapji or the Devgad 
Father. They are set on a small raised verandah covered by a flat 
terrace and before them are numerous wood and clay horses, 
cocoanuts, oil, and other offerings. Near the shrine is a sacred brick 
and cement reservoir, kund, about twenty feet square and twenl^-f our 
deep, whose water is believed to purify from sin. The chiefs 
twelfth yearly pilgrimage takes place in Chaitra (March or April). 
On the 2nd of this month, every twelfth year, a Bhil exorcist, barva, 
goes to the shrine and there spends a month in devotion. During 
this time the holy man and his companions are supported at the 
B&j^'s expense, and are furnished with a guard. This office is 
hereditary in a particular Bhil family, who live in the village of Rai 
Bara, about six miles from Bariya. On the appointed day, the 15th 
of Chaitra, the Rdja and his retinue climb the hill on foot, and 
remain there for thirty-six hours. On arriving at the shrine rich 
offerings of animals, grain, and money are placed before the objects 
of worship and afterwards given to the officiating Bhils.^ When all 
is ready, the officiating Bhil begins to tremble and to personate the 
deity who is supposed to have become incarnate in him. Thus 
inspired he is believed to possess the power of prophecy ; and not 
only the followers of the B&ja, but the R&ja himself approach him 
with deference and respect, and making known their wishes, humbly 
pray that they may be granted. Through his assistants the Bhil 
gives answers to the different applicants, generally laying down 
certain conditions, one of which eJmost always is the payment of 
a sum of money. Besides answering questions, the Bhil foretells 
whether the coming year will be one of plenty or of want, and 
whether the B^j&'s affairs will go well or ill. Lastly he blesses the 
B&ja, telling him that the deity is well disposed to him, and that 
his country will flourish. Then the chief gives a parting present, 
sarpav^ and the priest gives him and his followers, rice, flowers, 
and leaves of the hili tree. Separate ceremonies, much the same in 
detail^ are performed in honour of the minor deity. The right to 
officiate belongs to a Bhil family, who live at the village of Udh&vla 

iThe details at« : 4| cwts. (12 9?&an«) of MfcAdi ; 60 Ibe (1} moitt) ol mlMk^ 
or vMoMo, bread made of flour, bntter, sogar, and other ixigredienta. T6 these, 
according to some, are added 4f cwts. (12 ina«w) of boiled gram called h^kioi and 41 
cwts. (12 mwM ) of adady made up into cakes oalled noc&fa ; 12 nude buffiiloee ; 12 
goats ; 12fowls ; 12 vessels of spints ; 12 veosels of oil ; I small ftrore of a house partly 
of gold and ^tartly of silver, ttie whole weighing 2) UMb \ and lOr. (Bo. 5) in ca«i« 

•The details are : onetaiban worth lOf. (Ba. 6) ; one shoulder cloth, sAeAs, worth 
lOf. (Bs. 5) ; a waistolotb worth 20. (Re, 1), and 10s. (Bb« 6) in cash. 




aboat two mQes from B&riya. Similar but less valuable presents 
are giTen. Before the ceremony is performed a raging tiger is 
believed to destroy the B4riya herds^ and if the Raja makes no 
pilgrimagej some calamity will fall on his^family or people. The 
last pilgrimage year fell in 1873 when the state was nnder British 
management. There was no tiger^ no procession^ and no 

Thefie aboriginal tribes hold no festivals in honour of the birth of 
a first child or of the first pregnancy of their wives ; the only«mily 
events en which they spend money are igaarriages and funerals. 
Before a marriage or a funeral feast^ to every family that is to be 
askedj a string is sent with a knot for each day till the feast. Each 
day the guest unties one knot^ and^ when all are untied^ he comes to 
the entertainment. 

The Bhils have some peculiar marriage customs. In some 
instaacea the match is made^ as is usual with other tribes^ by the 
parentB of the bride and bridegroom. Sometimes the young couple 
arrange matters unknown to their parents. They disappear and 
after hiding for some days in the forest^ come back and declare 
themselTes man and wife. The parents as a rule accept the 
situation and after settling the bride's dowry which is generally from 
£6 to £8 (Bs. 60-80)^ the marriage is celebrated in the usual 
form. li the matter is not quietly settled^ a feud runs on between 
the families until a bride is seized by force from the bridegroom's 
family or his cattle are carried off. Sometimes a woman boldly walks 
into the house of the man she wishes to marry^ and declares that 
he IB her husband. Should he be willing he sends for her father, and 
making him a present of from £6 to £8 (Bs. 60-80), the latter 
consentfl to the match. If the man is unwilling he is no way forced 
to make the woman his wife. Again, if a Bhil wishes to marry and 
is unable to pay his wedding expenses, he joins his future father-in- 
iaw as a serf, and contracts to serve him for a certain number of 
yeara^ at the end of which he is entitled to the girl's hand add to 
have all marriage expenses paid. During this period of probation 
he and the girl live as man and wife. Polygamy is allowed among 
the BhilB and it is not necessary that the bride should be younger 
thaa the bridegroom : in some cases the wife is double and even 
treble the age of the husband. A Bhil woman cannot marry a 
fiecond husband in the lifetime of the first, imless she obtains a divorce 
with his consent. Divorce Is as a rule very easily granted. Women 
leave their hosbands and take up with other men, and if the paramour 
is willing to pay £6 to £8 (Bs. 60-80), to make up for the husband's 
marriage expenses, nothing further is done. After the. marriage 
ceremony is completed some women hide a ring and a few 
graoiB of Indian com in a dunghill near the house, and tell the 
bride and the bridegroom to find them out. It is lucky for the 
bridegroom to be the first to lay his hand on the ring. After this 
the maternal uncle of the bride taking the i^arried couple on his 
shotilders, dances along with the gfuests assembled for the occasion, 
singing songs to the accompaniment of a drum. The marriage 

Chapter III< 




[Bombay Gaietteeti 



Chapter in. 






feast is boiled Indian com and gram^ some animal food and large 
quantities of mahuda liquor. Each guest^ if a friend or relation of 
the host^ brings with him a potful of liquor and a goat. The 
guests sing and dance all nighty many of them drinking till they 
fall senseless. 

The Bhils bum their dead. On their way to the burning ground, 
they make several halts picking up stones at each and heaping 
them in a pile near the burning ground. On the next day the stones 
are thrown away. On the tenth day^ the Bdyalia^ or Bhil priestj brings 
a brazto horse or a cow to the house of the deceased and places it on 
a piece of cloth. The people present sprinkle water on it and place 
before it a pie or a handful of Indian com. The B&valia then sets 
the image in a brass dish filled with water^ and placing the dish on 
his head dances and sings^ the guests joining him. If the image in 
the dish moves they think the horse is possessed by the spirit of the 
dead and the people bow before it singing songs. Some rice and 
clarified butter are then given to the crows und next day the gnests 
are feasted. As on marriage occasions^ each of the hosfs friends 
and relatives brings with him a goat and a potful of liquor. 
After the feast is over they present turbans^ pdgdis, to the eldest 
man in the deceased's f amily^ and sddis to the widow or other women 
of the house. 

Of the Bhils there are forty-two tribes or clans, gots, some of them 
claiming a strain of Bajput blood and bearing such Thames as 
Parm4r, Y&ghela and B&thod.^ Intermarrige is allowed between 
the members of the different clans. 

The head man of a Bhil village usually called jadvi possesses 
considerable influence among the villagers. He either enjoys rent- 
free land or is freed from the payment of other state dues. He also 
receives a small fee on marriages and money presents on Dasera. 
He presides at the feasts and ceremonies held in honour of the 
village gods, devs. 

The l^pligaredividedinto twenty-one tribes,^ jro^«, belonging to two 
great sub-divisions, Talabda and TSh&nt, which are so distinct that 
between them marriage is forbidden. The B&thva Kolis, originaUy 
settlers from B&th, a district in Ali B&jpur under the Bhop^var 
Agency in Central India, are found chiefly in the states of B&nya 
and Chhota Udepur. They live in the forests which they clear 
so quickly and well, that their axes are believed to have the virtue 
of never allowing a tree which they have once cut to grow agftin. 
They do not settle long in one place, moving from one tract to 
another, clearing them of wood and growing crops on them. ^^ 

1 The clans are : Parm&r ; Vilghela ; Rithod ; Mnnia ; Bh&bhar : Rat&ra ; Tidvi ; 
Biriya ; B&mania ; Kinbia ; Pargi ; Bilv&l ; Ninima; Bhuria; Makna; VAsania ; l>tmox ; 
A'niali6r ; KAtuja ; Dangi ; Kiaori ; Charpota ; KaUra ; Qan&va ; Didor ; Siiighi<^ ; 
PaUw ; Uim ; Buka ; Machhir ; Hatila ; Ad ; Tibed ; Mohania ; Heval ; Bibam ; 
Bivat ; BMtl ; M&liv4d ; Garv&l ; MakvAna ; and VAhiga. 

• The tribes are : Pagi;BAriya; Dumor ; ChohAn ; Solanki ; Rija \dr%t Kutar: 
D4man ; Kat&ra ; Patel ; D4era ; Senvii ; Gimor ; Dhilkania; Budel ; Gad&l ; BheUni ; 
B4mania ; Timte ; Dabhol i and R4thva. 




their habits And way of living they arc more like Bhila than Kolis. 
They wear do dress except a loin-band, langoti, and are very dirty. 
The EohV food, dress, and houses are of the same description 
as the Bhila^j with only this difference, thafr the Talabda Kolis, who 
^ak themselves superior to other Kalis, do not eat beef or the flesh 
of any animals that have died a natural death. Most of the Kolis 
are jpea^ants, but idle and unskilled far below the Kanbis. Nearly 
as tnriftless as Bhils, they are deeply indebted to the village Yanias, 
who, leaving them grain enough for food, seed, and rent, take the 
rest They are more cleanly in their habits, and are n^ such 
simpletons as Bhils. Both classes are in\r^eterate thieves; but the 
Kolis ky their plans with much more method, boldness, and 
canning than the Bhils. They have better organizing powers 
and much more skill in concea^ng their actions. They lie in the 
most unblushing manner, and, when found out, they take their 
punishment with the greatest coolness and good temper. The Kolis 
are less superstitious and pay more respect to the Hindu religion 
than the Bhils. They worship all the Hindu gods, but chiefly 
Indra and Hatmal. They respect Br&hmans and employ them to 
conduct their religious ceremonies. 

Polygamy is allowed among the Kolis, but it is not necessary 
that the bride should be younger than the bridegroom. When a 
Koli wishes to get his son married, he generally, although the 
marri&gQ may have been arranged long before, goes through the 
form of starting off to find a bride. On leaving his house, he must 
Bee a small bird, called Deyi, on his right hand. Till he sees a 
Deri, he will not start, even though he is kept waiting for weeks 
or even mouths. After he has chosen a bride and made all 
tho preliminary arrangements, he is asked to dine with her father. 
During the dinner, the women of the bride's family strew grains of 
corn on the threshold, and as the boy's father is leaving the house, 
they rush at him as if to beat him, and he, making for the door, 
elips on the grain and falls. This is all done intentionally that 
the boy's father may fall on the threshold of the girl's house, an 
omen so important that without it no marriage could prosper. When 
the marriage contract is settled, the bride's father sends half a pint 
(} »er) of oil to the bridegroom, and kee|)s the same quantity at his 
own house to be rubbed on the bodies of the couple, until the 
marriage is over. The bridegroom generally goes to the bride's 
village. On his approach, the patel with a lamp in one hand and the 
other on his moutn, comes out to receive the bridegroom and his 
party. Among Kolis, when a man dies leaving a widow, it is usual 
for hia younger brother to marry her. But if she wishes to marry 
some one elao^ she can do so, if her future husband pays the younger 
brother the deceased husband's marriage expenses. 

The Kolis bum their dead. On the 11th day after the burning, all 
the fellow-villagers of the deceased, together with his friends and 
relations, meet at some river or pond and have their mustachioa 
shaved. They then take a stone, and pouying water on it believe 
that the soul of the deceased has entered the stone. 
s«l-^ +- 

Chapter in. 




[BomlNty GhttettMT, 



Chapter III. 





The Ndikdd s^ cling to t he hills which separate B&riya from 
Chhota Udepur . and are to be found almost exclusively in these 
two states. They are considered lower than the Kolis and Bhila. 
Their touch like the tonch of Dheds and Bhangids is thought to 
defile. Of their origin two stories are told. One that their ancestora 
were grooms in the service of the Mnsalm&n nobles in the prosperous 
times of Champdner^ who took to a plundering life when tbe 
city became deserted. The other account states that they are the 
descendants of the Ndeks^ attendants sent by the B&ja of Baglan 
with nis daughter on her marriage with one of the R^j&3 of 
Ch&mp&ner. They eat tl^e flesh of all animals^ except the crow and 
the donkey. They show no respect to Brdhmans. The common 
belief is, that they consider the killing of a Br&bman an act of 
merit ; as their proverb says that, by the death of one Titvctn, or 
man with a sect mark, tilu, a hundred are fed, referring to the 
feasts on the llth, 12th, and 13th days after a Brahman^ death. 
They worship Hanum&n and female powers, mdtds. Formerly the 
N&ikd&s were celebrated freebooters, and even now ' May the 
Naikdds take you' is a common imprecation among bullock- drivers. 
In 1838 their raids became so formidable that it was fonnd 
necessary to remove the superintendence of the SdgtAla district 
in which they are chiefly settled, from the Rdja of Bdriya and place 
it under the direct orders of the Political Agent. Strong measures 
were taken against them, and the disorders were suppressed. In 
1868 they again gave some trouble, but the disturbance Wks soon 
quelled. Since then they have given up their predatory habits and 
begun to take to tillage. But they have still so bad a name that, on 
the restoration of the management of the Bariya state to the present 
B&ja, the Ndikda district was kept under the charge of the Political 
Agent. The organization of the N&ikdds is much better than that 
of the Kolis and Bhils. Each N^ikda community has a chief with 
a minister, vajir. At the sound of their chief's drum the N4ikdas 
gather from all sides and without a murmur obey his orders. 

The Dh&nkds, a sub-division of Bhils, are found only in the 
Narbada nSasin. They and the Vdlvis and Chodhr&s have few 
points of difference from the other unsettled tribes. 

Of the whole Musalm&n population of 20,104 souls, 4155 were 
returned as settled in the state of Baldsinor, 3088 in Lun&vida, 
808 in Ead&na, 1038 in Sunth, 48 in Sanjeli, 1095 in Bfirip, 
1515 in Chhota Udepur, 2066 in Sankheda Mehvds, 5257 in 
B&jpipla, 1523 in P&ndu Mehvfis, and 11 in the Political Agent's 
camp. In addition to the four main divisions, Syeds, Sbaikht^i 
Mo^ialSj and Path&ns, numbering altogether 6325, or 81*47 per 
centj of the total Musalm&n population, there were 1228, or 6*11 
per cent of other Musalmans, not natives of India, consisting of 
47 Afghans, 482 Arabs^ 181 Balnchis, 544 Makrdnis, and 24 Others. 
The remaining portion of the Musalmdn population, 12j551 souls, 

' ^ FqU details of the Kiikd^ are given ia the Pancb Mahili Btatiitioal Aoconot. 
Bombay Gasetteer, IIL 222. 




were mostly descendants of converted Hindns^ consisting of 1667 
Bohor&j 21 Memans^ 2 ELhojas and 10^861 others. Most of the 
Path&QSy ArabSj Balachis^ Makranis and Mpghals are in the service 
of the d^erent chiefs. The Arabs^ besides fightings guard their 
diiefs' treasuries and palaces ; the others are employed only as 
soldiers. The Syeds^ as the descendants of Hasan and Hnsain^ the 
^Tandsons of Mnhammadj hold the highest place among Musalm&ns. 
The Maliks and Shaikhs are mostly employed as messengers. The 
Ghanchis, generally called Bohora Gh&nchis^ are SnnnJ^i by 
religion, and probably descendants of Hindu oil-pressers.^ The 
Pirz&d^s are the descendants of Dariy&ish&, the celebrated saint^ 
pir, of Virpur in B^lasinor. Besides the above, there are Haiams, 
barbers ; Kalals, liquor-sellers ; Bhistis, water-carriers ; Bhathiar^, 
professional cooks ; Tais, weavers ; Kh^tkis, tanners ; Chit&rds, 
painters ; Dhuldhoyfa, gold-dust washers ; Att&rs, perfume sellers; 
Madaris, strolling players ; Fakirs, mendicants ; Mirs, songsters ; 
and Kasbans, prostitutes and dancing-girls. 

Of the total P&rsi population of 198 souls, 147 were settled in 
the Rdjpipla state, 17 in B&riya, 17 in Chhota TJdepur, and 17 in 
Sankheoa Mehv&s. They are chiefly engaged in liquor-selling and 
other trades. 

The five Christians were all native converts. 

AccorAing to the 1872 census returns, there was in the Bewa 
Kantha one town or village to about every three square miles of 
land, each village containing an average of 145 iiihabitants and 
about thirty-two houses. With the exception of the people of three 
^QSfiSi numbering 28,266 souls ( NAndod with 9768 inhabitants, 
L qgdvada with 9662, and B^l^sinor with 8836) or 5*59 per cent of 
the entire inhabitants, the population of the Rewa K&ntha lived 
in 3481 villages, with an average of 137 souls to each village. Of 
the whole number of villages 2862 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 
477 had from 200 to 500; ninety-nine had from 500 to 1000; 
thirty.four from 1000 to 2000 ; eight from 2000 to 3000 ; and one 
from 3000 to 5000- 

As regards the number of houses there was in 1872 a total of 
113,210 or on an average 26*65 houses to the square mile. Of the 
tocal number 18,014 houses lodging 75,930 persons or 15*02 per 
cent of the entire population, at the rate of 4*22 souls to each 
hoose, were buildings with walls of fire-baked bricks and roofs of 
tile. The remaining 95,196 houses accommodating 429,717 persons 
or 84*98 per cent with an average house population of 4*51 souls, 
included all buildings covered with thatch or leaves or whose outer 
walla were of mud or sun-dried brick. 

Rewa K&ntha villages may be divided into t wo classes ; the better 
^ages with houses close to one another, and the hamlets of 
^ a borigina l tribes whose huts are scattered over a large extent 

Chapter III. 






J The word Bohora is here, as it pretty often is, used to mean W' 
^e fton-annbeaiiDg classea. 


[Bombay Oaiettoeti 



Chapter III. 

Movements of 
the people. 

of ground. In Bhil and Koli villages there is no staff except the 
patel or tadv i who is both the revenue and police head of the 
village. Either the whole or part of his land is rent-free. In the 
better class of villages^ 'besides the headman^ there are watchmen^ 
rakhds or paqis^ chiefly Kolis or Bhils whose duty it is to guard the 
villages. They are Bometimes paid in «am by the yiUagers and 
sometimes enjoy rent-free lands. In a few villages are havald ars, 
who look after the fields, see that no cattle trespass on them, and 
help ^he commandant, th dnddr^ and accountants, taJdt ia. Each 
thdnaUr has under him one or more taldti a who live with him and 
not in the villages under their charge. They sometimes go to 
their villages on duty and return to the t&luka town. The talaiis 
are paid by the state in cash. In some villages there are hoivak f 
chiefly Bhils or Kolis who do miscellaneous work. Their place is 
sometimes supplied by Bha ngiis or Dhed s who are either paid in 
grain by the villagers or enjoy rent-free land. Traoking is done by 
rakhds and pagis. The rakhas are bound to. p av compens ation for 
thefts c ommitted in villages under their charge, the amount being 
se ttled by a village cp m mittee or by the thdmddr or police oflScer. 
The village artisans known as settlers, vasvdvdsy are chiefly 
potters, barbers, an^ tanners ; carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, and 
shoemakers are found only in large villages. They are generally paid 
in grain by the villagers, and by strangers or others in cash. The 
CMmadias supply leather to cultivators for buckets, being paid in 
oash ; and sometimes when a cultivator gives up his buffalo's carcase 
to a Ch&madia, he is entitled to receive from him leather in exchange. 
Except in Bhil villages where R&valifa act as priests and are on 
special occasions fed and presented witli grain, 'there are seldom 
any village priests, gors. In a few villages shops are kept by 
Yani&s and Bohor&s, who sell what is required by the villagers and 
buy whatever local produce they can get cheap. These shop-keepers 
have houses jn other places where they go when trade is dull. 

Bowa K&ntha Y&nilLs seldom go to distant towns to trade. A 
few Lun&v&da Bohoras have shops in Bassein, M&him, Bombay, 
and Poena, where they stop part of the year selling glassbeads, 
bracelets, and other petty wares. Ahmedabad, Kaira, and Edthiawar 
merchants come to Lun&v^a and B&lfisinor to buy grain, batter, oil, 
and leather. Godhra Bohor&s and Anklesvar and Broach P^is 
come for mahuda flowers, vuihuda berries, oil doliu, and timber. A 
few Anklesvar Pdrsis have opened liquor shops in some B^jpipl^ 
villages and live there part of the year. The Godhra Bohorfa havo 
shops in the states of Bariya and Chhota Udepur. A few Vtoias 
of the Sankheda Mehv&s and of the Gr&ikwar's territory trade 
to Chhota Udepur. Some merchants of Ahmedabad, Kapadvanj, 
and Baroda come here for Bombay hemp, sim. A fe^ 
Ahmedabad Y&ni&s come to Lun&v£da town eveiy year to sell bits 
of kinkhdh and silks for women's bodices. Some Visnagara 
Nagar Br£hmans of Lun&v&da go during the rainy season to Malwa 
where they recite PuJdns or Veds. A few go to Kithiiwir and 
obtain money by reciting the Veds. Some Audich and Mevada 
Brahmans of Lunavada go to Baroda and serve as cooks or water 




carrieis. A few Modh Brdhmans of Bdl&Binor go out on begging 
tours. Of artisans^ barbers go to Baroda where there is a great 
demand for them. Carpenters seldom go ont of the Bewa K&ntha 
limits^ while bricklayers find employment ^ times in a few of the 
Auich Mah&ls towns. Vdg ad st one-maso ns are sometimes employed 
in Simth and Lon^vida as they are thought more skilful than the 
local bricklayers. M^rv^di b lacksm iths who move from villasFe to 
village pick up odd jobs. SomeMarv&di immigrants have settled 
in the Bewa Kantha where they work as day-labourers. The 
AhmedabadV^hiis occasionally come here and either beg or m the 
rainy season sow vegetables and sell them. The Bhils are migratory^ 
oft€n changing their place of abode. They sometimes go to other 
districts during the mahuda season to gather the flowers and 
berries. Kanbis and other better class cultivators seldom move 
into the Bewa K&ntha^ but Bhils from the Panch Mahfils, and 
B&thv&B from M41wa sometimes settle in the wild parts of the 

Chapter ni. 

Moyements of 
the people. 

[Bombay Chuetteer. 



Cliapter 17. Within the Bewa Kantha limits are great varieties of soil. In the 

Affrici^tiiTfi« north near the Mahi and in the south near the Narbada are rich 
^^ tracts of alluvial land. In Lun&v&da and Bdl&inor in the norths 

light brown, ^oradu, though not so rich as that of central Gnjarit^ 
is the prevailing soil. There are also a few tracts of grey, besar, 
land^ generally growing rice. Near the river Shedhi are some 
patches of land called bhejvdli, very damp and yielding a cold 
weather crop of wheat and pulse^ but not well suited for cotton. 
In Sunth, the black, kdlij soil holds moisture well and without 
watering yields two crops a year. The B&riya lands, light brown, 
gorddu ; deep black, kali ; and sandy, retail are considered as good 
as any in Gujar&t and capable of yielding any crop, except totecoo. 
The black loam of the Sa^heda and P^du Mehv&s is nearly as 
^Reh as the cotton lands of Amod and Jambusar in Broach. *IUjpipla, 
especially its Narbada districts, is exceedingly fertile. In the 
hilly parts the soil varies much, but in the open districts it is 
black throughout. Except a few tracts of rocky and inferior black 
soil^ the Rewa K&ntha is on the whole fertile. 

Tillage, I& the open country, with Kanbis and other high class husbandmen^ 

the tillage is the same as in central Gujarat. In the hilly and 
woody tracts inhabited by Bhils, Kolis, and other unsettled tribes^ 
cultivation is of the rudest kind. Most &imilies have a few fields 
and near every hut is a plot of ground called vdda or kdchha, sown 
with Indian com or some other food grain. Manure is used only 
for the plots near the houses, and is hardly enough even for them. 
In Bdriya and B&jpipla, the want is to some extent supplied by 
burning dry sticks and leaves on the ground, shortly before the 
rains (June). This system of wood*ash manuring is called vahalra 
in B&riya, and dadhia in B&jpipla. Among the Bhils, there is almost 
no irrigation. The river bcuoks are too steep to allow of their water 
being used, and the people have neither the means nor the wish to 
build wells. In ordinaiy years the black loamy soil keeps moist 
enough to yield a cold weather crop and the want of water is not 
felt. Their field tools are a small wooden plough, the coulter and 
share formed of a bar of iron about three-quarters of an inch square, 
its lower end pointed and slightly bent towards the front. Besides 
the plough, they use a small pick^ a hatehet, and a bill-hook. The 
plough is used only byithe better class of Bhils in lowland clearings. 
Drawn by weak^ ill-fed, oxen, it does little more than scrateh the 
surface of the ground. When the land is too rough for the plough. 




it is tilled with hoes and pickaxes ; their rude carts are of wood 
without a bit of iroiij occasionally with wheels formed of solid 
Uocks of timber. The axle tree is generally of dka/man, Grevia 
Asiadca^ a very tongh white and plentiful wood. 


The Rewa Kfintha Crops are, of Cereals : maize^ makait Zes, mays ; 
nee, ddvgar, Oryza sativa ; Indian millet, juvdr, Sorghum vulgai'e ; 
millet J byri, Penicillaria spicata; barley, ^av, Hordeura hexastichon; 
wheat, oAtati, Triticum sestivum; rajgaro, Amarantas paniculatns; 
hdra, Paspalum scrobiculatum ; banii, Panicum spicatum j Jbdvto, 
Panicam frumentaceum ; kdng, Panicum italicum ; chino, Panicum 
maliaceum. The wheat grown in the district is of two kinds, 
mjia and kdtha. The rice is of a coarse description called vari. 
Of kodra a kind called minia kodra has a narcotic property, 
which is to a certain extent neutralised by washing and drying two 
or three times before grinding. Of Pulses : tuver^ Cajanus indicus ; 
maih, Phaseolus aconitifolius ; mag, Phaseolus radiatus ; adud, 
Phaseolus mungo; vdl, Dolichos lablab ; gram, chana, Cicer arietinum; 
peas, vatdna, Pisum sativum; and guvdr, Cyamopsis psoralioides. 
Of Oil seeds ; castor oil seed, divela, Ricinus communis ; gingelly 
oil £eed^ ial, Sesamum indicum ; and rape seed, sarsav, Brassica 
DBpns. Of Fibres, cotton, kapds, Gossypium herbaceum; and 
Bombay hexnp, san, Crotalaria juncea. Of miscellaneous crops, 
tugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum; and tobacco, tambdJcu, 
Nicotiana tabacum. Of Vegetables : potato, batata or aZoft^oJ 
Solanum tuberosum ; sweet-potato, aakaria, Convolvulus batatas^ 
onions, kdnda, Allium cepa ; garlic, lasan, Alium sativum ; yam, 
ratdln, Dioscorea alata, and ahingoda, Trapa bispinosa. The other 
vegetables are, eggplant, vegan, vantidk or ringana, Solanum 
nieloDgena acute ; angled cucumber, turia, Luffa acutangula ; galku, 
Lufia peta&dria ; kdrela, Momordica chai antia ; common cucumber^ 
kdkdi, Cucnmis sativns; the long white gourd, dudhi bhopla, 
Cucurbita lon'ga; and red pumpkin, kohlu, Cucurbita melopepo. 
The root of the dudhi bhopla is said to be alterative and the seed 
and juice of the bitter gdlhc are violently emetic and cathartic. 
When given in infusion they are a bitter tonic and a powerful 
diaretic. The leaves of the bitter variety of the red pumpkin are 
said to be useful in cases of jaundice. Chikan, a wild species of 
Uhdi, is very cold and indigestible. Of Spices and Condiments 
there are, turmeric, haldi, Curcuma longa ; chilly, marchi, Capsicum 
aQnunm ; ginger, ddu. Zingiber officinale ; coriander, dhdna, 
Coriandmm sativum ; and cumin seed, jiru, Cuminum cyminum. 
Of Fruits, melon, ahakarteti, khadbucha, or gota, Cucumis melo ; 
water melon, tadbuch, Cucurbita citrallus; guava, jdmrvJch or 
jamphdl, Psidium guava ; custard apple, sitdphal, A.nnona sauamosa; 
fl^d plantain, kela, Musa paradisiaca. The fruit of tne wild 
plantain is too stunted and full of large seeds to be eaten. 

Kolis, Bhils, and N&ikdas form the bulk of the agricultural 
classes. These are very indifEerent husbandmen and are in poor 
circumstances. The higher class cultivators %re Kanbis, K&chhi&s, 
Malis, Patelxy&s, and Rajputs. 

Chapter XT. 


[BomlMiy QMrtteeTi 

CSiaptar IV. A hilly well watered land, its rongh tribes accnatoined to liye on 

Agrienltiire. fruits, roots, and wild vegetables, Rewa K4nt]ia, though it has 

Faminflt. passed through years of great distress, has never been entirely 

wasted by famine. The first famine of which the memory remains 
was in 1746-47. Hardly any rain fell, and the crops did not ripep. 
Many people died, but the wild inhabitants kept themselves and 
their cattle alive by eating forest roots and locusts which abounded 
at the time. The next year of scarcity 1790-91, caused by the 
failure of rain, appears to have been the nearest approach to a 
geneflgl famine on record. Poor people sold their children. The 
Bhils lived on wild roo^ and berries. Many lives were lost and 
much cattle perished, and the country was infested with bands 
of marauders. The chiefs doled out daily food to the destitate, 
but no public works were undertaken. Another failure of rain 
caused scarcity in 1 802, but the distress was not so great nor the 
failure of crops so general. In the famine of 1812-13 the distrsss 
was almost as severe as in 1790-91. Millet was sold at eight pounds 
the rupee, and rice at six pounds, and as in 1 790, from the state 
stores doles of grain were distributed. Twelve years later the season 
of 1825 was one of scarcity, but of no widespread suffering. lu 
1833-34 matters were worse. The rainfall was scanty and the small 
harvest was destroyed by swarms of locusts. Still there was grain 
in the country, and the people helped by their chiefs passed throngh 
the time of scarcity without much loss of life or of cattle. The British 
^•^emment remitted £5295 4«. 7id. (Rs. 52,952-5-3) rfrom the 
tribute. Since 1834 there has been no famine. On account of 
scanty rainfall, £2790 6«. 9d. (Rs. 27,903-6-0) of tribute were 
remitted in 1839, and £426 ISs. (Rs. 4269) in 1849. In 1804 
scanty crops and the very high value of cotton raised millet to 
twenty-two pounds the rupee, and caused much distress among 
the poorer classes. During the last two years (1877-78), the great 
exports of grain to the Deccan and Southern Maratha districts, 
and poor local harvests have once more brought back prices to famine 
pitch, millet selling in 1878 at fifteen^ and rice at ten pounds the 




Thk chief money-lenders are Ydnifis and Brahmans. Of bankers 
there are only a few in such large towns as Nandod^ Lnn&v&da^ and 
Bnlasinor. In smaller towns some bankers deal in grain and other 
articles. Others have shops in villages, living there part of the 
yeaTj and making bargains with the people, advancing them money 
and seed. In the Bewa K&ntha every Bhil or Koli has his own Y&nia or 
other money-lender who has more power over him than even his chief. 
So much is this the case that sometimes a village is spoken of as 
so and so's village not because he is its owner but because its people 
are Ms debtors. In bad years the money-lender sometimes helps 
his debtors with new loans of money or seed grain. If he refuses, 
the Bhila apply to some one else and the first creditor would then 
have little chance of recovering his money. Debts are handed down 
from father to son, many of the poorer classes passing their whole 
life, sank* in debt. Harvest over, the money-lender with one or tw 
friends starts on a collecting tour. And while in his village the 
debtor, however poor, has to pay his share of the money-lender^s 
expenses. With much wrangling, in which the ignorant Bhil is 
always worsted, the accounts are balanced, the debt running on 
^hile the original amount lent continues to increase. Money or 
^in is taken in part payment of debts, and however scanty his 
debtor's stock of grain, as much as can be seized is carried ofF. 
Etccpt when his payments stop for two or three years, and he finds 
that his debtor has begun to raise money from some one else, the 
creditor seldom takes his debtor into a civil court. If he does, as 
a role, he makes little by it, as the whole of his debtor's property 
in seldom enough to satisfy the decree. 

When a lender is put in possession of a house or a plot of land, as 
^ rule, no interest is charged. When a gold or silver ornament is 
pledged, the yearly interest varies from three to six per cent, and on 
['en«oiml security the well-to-do borrow at from six to twelve per 
fwjt. In the case of Bhils, Kolis, and others of the lower classes, at 
•^ ^Ui in October the beginning of the new year, a quarter of the 
^■'Jioiint due is added to the principal, and if the whole is not paid 
J^nng the year, at the beginning of the next, a quarter of the enhanced 
^^nncipal is again added. This system is known as savad or one 
ticd a quarter. For seed grain one-quarter or one-half as much again 
^^ the original and sometimes even double the sum originaUy lent, 
J« recovered either in cash or in grain. Exoept alienated or part 
alienated holdings, from the large area of waste arable land and the 
uncertainty of tenure the right of occupancy has no sale or mortgage 
A 236-6 

Chapter V. 



[Bomlmy Giietteer. 

Cliapter V. 






value. Mortgaged alienated land may be redeemed at any time. 
JBhils and KoUs have no ornaments of value. Among them bufhloes 
or bullocks are the only movable property ever pledged. When 
cattle are pawned they generally remain with the borrower. Their 
huts would not be taken in mortgage. They are of no money valu^, 
and the timber and building site belong to the chief. Except wheai 
they have cattle to pledge, the poorer classes borrow either on their 
own or their friends* personal security. Their indebtedness is a 
by-word and their want of common care or thrift leaves them in 
theirvreditors' hands* A large number of money-lenders live on 
their debtors and a fevr grow rich. But the Bhils, when too hard 
pressed, are ready to leave the district, and the interest actually 
recovered is said to be not more than from six to twelve per cent on 
the sum advanced. 

The district has few craftsmen. In the rural parts the Kolia, 
Bhils, and other poor tribes supply their own wants, making tools,, 
carts, and huts, and in the towns the want of well-to-do customers, and 
the heavy labour and money taxes keep down the number of crafts- 
men. In some states when the chief wants work done, artisans are 
brought and forced to work without pay. In other states,when working 
for the chief, the better class of artisans, carpenters, bricklayers, and 
tailors are paid half their market wages, and potters and other lower 
workers get a day's supply of grain. In badly managed states this 
lgJ)our tax does not stop with the chie^ but is levied by, all stato 
^servants and relations. That these demands may be spread over 
the whole caste, the headman arranges that the members of the caste 
should work for the chief in turn. There are no trade guilds 
including the members of several castes. But among craftsmen of 
the same caste certain rules about work and wages are laid down 
and any one breaking them runs the risk of being thrown out of 
caste. If a caste-fellow dies, on the 11th, 12th, and 13th day after 
his death, and on caste-feast days, carpenters and bricklayers are 
not allowed to work. They may not take less than the regular 
wages, and in Lun^v&da town, are forbidden under fine from taking 
work on contract. In these two castes the headmen arrange that 
the members should in turn work for any one unable to work for 
himself. No barber is allowed to shave any one but the people of his 
own village. In the large towns the craftsmen show no lack of skill, 
and when well paid and given good materials, do as good work as 
in other parts of Gujar&t. 

Carpenters are paid daily at rates vaiying from 9cI.-2*. 
(6 a«. - Be. 1).^ When the lower rates are paid, they are 
generally given food in addition to their money wage. Their 
women do not help in their work. But when grown up their 
sons add to the family earnings. Bricklayers are paid less than 
carpenters, generally from 9d. - Is. 6rf. (6-12 as.) a day. Stone 
masons earn good wages Is, 6d. (12 as.) a day with, when they 
come from Meyw&r, their food besides. A skilled gold^th makes 

1 A carpenter's wage in Liuu&vida ia now (1879) U, 7ld, (13 oniNw). 




from £30 to £50 (Rs. 300 - 500) a year, and one less skilled who 
makes brass and tin ornaments for Bhil women abont £10 (Bs. 100). 
A skilled worker earns more, but an ordinary blacksmith's daily 
WHge variee £rom 6|(2. - 9^. ( as. 4-3 to 6-4). A tailor's earnings 
r^ge from CfiL - 9^d, {as, 4-3 to 6-4) a day. If specially skilled 
tkey may rim to Is, (8 as.). An ordinary barber makes from 168. - 
£1 (Rs. 8- 10) a month. A specially good man may earn as much as 
il4s. or £1 10a. (Bs. 12 or 15). A cotton cleaner, pinjd/ra, makes 
from 128. - 16s, (Bs. 6 - 8) a month, and a shoemaker from 16a. - 
£1 lOs. (Bs. 8*15). The monthly wage of a dyer is fron^ fi- 
llip. (Bs. 10-12), and of a weaver from 16ff.-£l (Es.8- 10). 
Among these craftsmen those who work at libme such as furniture- 
makers, tamers, goldsmiths and blacksmiths, are helped by their 
women in parts of their work that need no skill. Tailors' and gold- 
smiths' wives do some ordinary work and add to the family earnings. 
The clerks, gumdstds, of bankers and well-to-do traders are paid 
from £5 - £25 (Bs. 50 - 250) a year. A day-labourer's wage is 
for a man from 3d. - 6d. (2-4 as.) ; for a woman from 2^^. - 3e2. 
(1| • 2 as.) i and for boys and girls from id, - 2^(2.(2 pice - 1^ as.) 
Almost all wages, both of craftsmen and day-labourers, are paid 
either in cash or in grain, or in both. 

The carrent coins are silver rupees and copper pice. No rupees 
are coined in the district. The Baroda or siydsi rupee passes all 
over the Bewa K6ntha and the Broach rupee in the Bajpipla state. 
The Imperial rupee is used only to a small extent. Lunavada, Suntt^^ 
and Chhota Udepur have their own copper coinage passing only 
within their own limits. In Bdriya the old or Godharia copper pice, 
and in Bajpipla Cambay pice, are current. The value of the pice is 
subject to great changes, the Baroda rupee representing at different 
times from seventy to ninety pice. When a half pice is to be 
[Ktid the pice is cut or broken into two pieces, and one does duty as 
a half pice. The Imperial copper coins are current in all states, a 
Baroda rupee changing for fifty-six and a Broach rupee for about 
i^ixty4hree Imperial pice. 

In {ormer tunes, the absence of a local town population and the 
want of good secure roads, made grain prices lower in Bewa Kantha 
than in any other part of Gujar&t. But of late years the opening 
of the railway line to P&li, the making of good roads and the 
establishment of a better police have raised Bewa KcLntha grain prices 
to the level of other parts of the province. A statement of produce 
prices reaching as &r back as 1834 is given below. Up to 1871 the 
%ares refer only to Lun&v&da. Since then they are supposed to 
represent the average prices over the whole district. Excluding 
the years of scarcity the whole may be divided into three periods. 1 834 . 
was a year of scarcity. 1835 to 1842 was a time of moderate rates, the 
price of ldjr%,ihd staple grain, varying from twenty in 183.8 a year of 

Chapter V 


^ In the Santh town of Rimpur, Indian corn was once lower than 160 lbs. 
\* m^M) the nipee. Chafing nnder his loss of profit, a*grain merchant struck a heap 
^'corn with his shoe, and for this insult to Annadev, the god of food, was fined by the 
^unthchieL * b . ^ 

[Bombay Gasetteer, 



Chapter V. 



scanty rainfall, to seventy-eiglit and a half in 1841, and averaging 
fifty-one pounds. This was followed by eighteen years of cheap 
grain, prices varying from fifty-eight and a half in 1846 to 101 in 
1850, and averaging eighty pounds. The next sixteen years was a 
period of high prices varying from twenty-two in 1864 the American 
war time, known as the dhadmu dhdn or the ten ser year, to fifty-ono 
in 1874 and averaging thirty-eight pounds. Lastly in 1877, from 
the famine in the Deccan and Madras, millet prices rose from fifty 
to thirty pounds, and in 1878 a local failure of crops forced them up 
to fif^n pounds. 

Sewa idnOia Produce Prices, 1834-1878. 



BaooKs PnuoD 








. 1887. 







t. 1845. 



Indian millet, bdari. 



68 60 





►* 87* 






Indian com ... 















Rioo ... ••• 









\ 70 






Wheat.. ■ ••• 









1 28 














\ 85 






Pulse, teMT ... 

• •V 

• •• 


■ •• 

• •• 



• • 

• •• 


• •• 

• •• 


• •• 

Sboohd PiuoD-^oafimMi. 



1848, U 














Indian millet, hi^ri. 
Indian com 

142} 1 














■ •• 














• •■ 














Fulse, twoet ... 

• •• 














• «• 

• ■• 

• •■ 



• •• 

• •• 

... 1 


• »« 

• •• 

• •« 


• •• 

Thibo PniOD (1861-1876>. 











Indian millel;. 64/ri. 










Indian eorn ... 























• A* 











• •• 










Pulee, tmwr ... 





••• *%• 



..• ... 

Temo PERIOD (1861 - 1876)— eonMMMd. 












Indian miUet. A4^ 










Indian com ... 










S?" / 






80 . 













• •• 

S'?™ . 










Pnlae, iwm ... 

••• ... 








The weights and measures current in the Bewa K&ntha are the 
same as those in other parts of Gujar&t. The /oZa is equal to the 
weight of a Baroda i^ipee minus two raiis^ and of an Imperial 
rupee minus \\ vdls. The ser is equal to forty Imperial rui^eos. 
Grain and mahuda are weighed in mmttfj and manis of twelve mantf 




each. A hondred mcmis make one mcmdsa and 100 mcmdsds make 
a kanaso. In Baroda^ maihuda is weighed by the TcaUi eqnal to 
sixteen mans. In Lnn&y&da a rn/udo of cement^ chhoy weighs fifty 
maiis. A carpenter'a and cloth vendor's yard, gaj, is twenty-four 
iiU^hes, and a tailor's twenty-six. Cloth is measured by the Jwbth^ 
rather variable^ but on the whole corresponding with the cubit. 
In hankT&diA, where the survey system has been introduced, 
land is measured by acres and fortieths, gunthds, and in B&jpipla, 
the Sankheda Mehv&s, and a part of P&ndu Mehv&s, by 
hmhhds of nearly an acre, and in the remaining states by higlffis of 
about half an acre. The higha seems to be q;^ recent origin. In old 
title deeds land is marked either by its boundaries or by the amount 
ofacertam seed that might be sown in it. The Kewa Kdntha 
lumhlia is said to be the same as the Broach measure, but in practice 
it would seem to be somewhat larger. The weights in ordinary use 
are pieces of iron or stone. In the states under British manage- 
ment, these weights are from time to time tested by the police, when 
anything wanting is made up by adding a piece of iron. 

Chapter V. 

Weights and 

(Bombay Oaxetteer. 

Chapter TI. 




The Rewa K&ntha trade and the Panch MaMIs trade are in many 

e)int8 alike. Both have a th rough traffic bet wee n Gujardt and 
antral Lidia^ and a local trade west with G-ujardt and east with 
fiajputdna^ Central India^ and KMndesh. And in both districts, 
while the opening of railways through Gujar&t has increased the locnl 
trade westwards^ the through trade has dwindled, the old straight 
routes with their rough roads and heavy dues failing to compete 
with the safe railway journey by Bombay and Ehfindesh to Indor. 

Formerly Bewa K&ntha trade westwards set towards the 
coast, most of it cente ring in the ports o f Jambu sar a nd Broach « 
It is now diverted to the line of the Bombay Baroda and 
Central India Bailway, the western limit of all the roads leading 

m the Bewa K&ntha to Gujar&t. Besides the madti line of 
railway running north and south, twp f QgdgrSj^ in the north ono 
from A nand to Pdli, and in the south one f^om KajjaP-tOLCfe^^^^' 
pass east towards the Bewa Kdntha.^ The Bewa K&ntha roads 
end westwards in P&li, Baroda, Dabhoi, Ch&nod, Anklesvar, and 
P&noli, and eastwards in Dungarpur, Jhalod, Dohad, Ali B^jpur^ 
Indor, and Kukarmunda. Though most of them are fit for carts, 
these roads, except the main line from Grodhra to Dohad, are country 
tracks neither metalled nor bridged. They may be brought under 
four groups, centering at P &li. Baroda^ Dabhoi. an d A nklesvar- 
At Pali s even roads meet : a Dungarpur road running southThrougb 
P&idarvada, Virpur, Vardhari, and Bdldsinor ; 2, a Dungarpur road 
running south-west through Lun&v&da, Vardhari, and B61&&mor ; 3; 
a Jh£lod road running south-west through B&mpur, Lun&v^da, and 
B&l&sinor ; 4, a Jhfilod road running south through Sanjeli andShera; 
5, a Jh&lod road running further south through Bandhikpor and 
Godhra* ; 6, the great high road from Dohad-West through Piplod and 
Godhra ; and 7, a second Dohad road through B^riya and Grodhra. 
Four lines center at Baroda : 1, several small tracts from the Mebvfc 
estates northwar3"along the Mahi; 2, the Dohad road leading 
south- west through B&riya and K&lol; 8, the J&bua road passing from 
Central India west through KakurkhUa, S&gtdla, lULjgad, and 
K6njari;and4, the ChhotaUdepurroadwestthrough Jetpnr, Jibugaci 

^ A third branch line is now being made fr om Dabhoi toLBs4SttCB]Uui° B&rodA 
territory. i 

3 A new road has lately (1879) been made from Jh&lod through Dadbis ondi-^ 
Biriya, running into the main Godhra-Dohad road. 


I Va^na. T hreo roads ceoter at DabhoJ; 1, the Chhota tJdepnr (^ Chaptm- 71 
B ean-thwcst through Jotpur, J^bugdm, aod Sankheda ; 2, the Trad* < 

ivwl road west through Vfisna and Bankheda ; and 3, a second Ro«di. ■ 

iTntl T'ffni passing through KarfiH and Sankheda. Five roads 
Ipr a t. Ankleavar ; 1, the Ali Riijpur road south-west through { a 
tots Udepur, Karili, Viana, Nasvadi, Tilakvada, and Nandod; '-' 
kP4avad road joining the Ali Rajpur road at Karali ; 3, a Panvad 
' i oining the Ali Rajpur road at Visna ; 4, the Kavtint road 
I wwft tlirough N.Tsvfidi, Alva, VirpuFj and N&ndod, and from 
a pftSNiiig »onth-wcat through Avidha, Jagadia, and Grov&li ; 
road from Kiikarmaiida on the Tapti, west througlf Pfit, 
r, Patav, and Dharoli. Only one roftd reaches Panoli from 
nncda through Bad^ev and Luna. 

stlieisoaroad fit for cartsrimsllimilesuorth and south from 
a on tho Mahi to within a few miles of the Narbada at H&mp. 
I paexea through Sunth eight miles, Rdmpor four miles, 
BU twelve miies, liaiidbikpur eight miles, Piplod twelve miles, 
'ight miles, SAgtala eleven miles, Chhota Udepur twenty-five 
id eight miles, Savfint eight mOes, and Earapani ten 
1 Karapani ten miles on to the Narbada it is fit only for 
ollocks. This and other roads crossing the main stream of 
I as feeders, of small commercial value. 

ring details show tho present traffic along the chief [ T\ 

4. Of the Pali , road s the most northerly enters the 

a at the village of Detv&a in iCadana territory. Beyond ■• 

I IS hardly any cart traffic. Almost every thing la 

ok Itullocks, the Vaujarfis bringing grain and opium 

I taking back salt, tobacco, and cloth. At Detvaa 

lea, one hranch turning to the west by Virpur, the 

more diroctly south to LunavAda. Fi-om DetvAs tho 

s through Pandarvadatenmiles, and Virpur sixteen 

f these places is a local trade center, Pandarv^da tor 

iding Lnnavada district, and Virpur for the sub-division, 

{that name under Balasinor. From these two places 

!0, grain, 7nahwla oil, clarified butter, and timber, 

fujarat, and tobacco, spices, iron, copper, salt, and cloth 

Ibnntfffat back. From Virpur the road runs south twelve milea 

i, where it is joined by the south branch. This south 

ing Detvds passes through Ehanpur twelve miles, crosses 

r river to Madhv^ eight miles, crosses the Mahi to 

leven miles, to C'bampeli six miles, and crosses the Mahi 

Tardhfiri eight miles, or a total distance of forty-ona 

3 branches the west or Virpur, shorter, free from 

3f the Mahi, and in every way better, is used by 

rnjar^t trade. The town of Lunav^a (9662 souls) 

rable local traffic along the south route- The third 

I Pili roads, coming from Jhdlod, enters the Sunth state at a 

e colled Kundla four miles west of Jhalod. Until very lately 

I nssaed through the state to Luudvada by Parthampur 

miles, Anjaova twelve mites, and Baeta seven miles, to 

. six miles, a total distance of 36 miles. After leaving 


DBombfiy Gasetteer, 
48 ' STATES. 

CbxpUT VI- Parthampur it enters some diflBcult passes^ where untU lately 
Xrade- travellers ran so great a chance of being robbed and ill treated^ that 

very little traffic passed along it. Since the death of the Suntb 
chief (1872) a new road has been opened through R&mpor five 
miles, from Parthampur to Sunth two miles, thence to Sarsav six 
miles, to Thamba seven miles, and to Lun&v4da seven mlle^. 
Though a little longer this road is safer and has the advantage 
of passing through BAmpur, a local trade center of some consequence. 
From Bdmpur through Sunth to the plain country beyond, 
this road in four miles passes through no less than four ranges of 
hills. ^ But crossing them by the help of gaps it is nowhere very 
steep, and is well guarded by police posts. Before 1872, bands of 
travellers used in fear and trembling to make their painful way 
on foot or horseback over a mountain path, now the post passes 
regularly and single carts can travel without an escort. The next 
important line of communication is the fourth of the P&li lines, 
the south Jh&lod road by Sanjeli and Shera. This, much used 
by traders, passes through about eleven miles of Sanjeli territory. 
The fifth P&li line, the JMlod and Bandhikpur road, passing 
through some rather rough country, carries much the same trade as 
the Jhdlod and Shera line. The sixth P&li line, the great high road 
from Dohad to Godhra, passing through twenty miles of Bariya 
territory is the only first class road in the whole of Bewa K&ntha. 
It is bridged and metalled, and has a steadily growing traffic. 
Formerly travellers ran great risk of being robbed, now by* clearing 
« forests and placing police posts, all danger has been removed. Of 
its cross country feeders the chief are from Dudhia and Bandibar on 
the north, and B&riya on the south. A road now being made from 
Ash&di on the high road to Bariya will keep the Bariya traffic open 
throughout the year. Another road between Dohad and Godhra 
passing through B&riya, D&m&v&v, and Simalia, is very rough, 
winding through several hill passes. Since the opening of the groat 
high road, this route is, except for local B4riya traffic, little used. 

Of the rQjbds th at en d in Baroda, those from the Mehvds 
^."^ estates on the Mahi, passing chiefly ' through G6ikw&r territory 
are common country tracks. The Bariya and Baroda road 
leaves B&riya by the east gate and after a mile and a half 
crosses the P4nam river; thence it goes through a moderately 
flat and wooded country eight miles to D&m&v&v, and thenco 
passing through Simalia three miles, where there is a police station 
and wood mart, and crossing the river Groma it passes into Ktiol 
about thirteen miles from B&riya. The Jalena and Baroda road 
enters B4riya territory at Kakarkhila. Then passing over the two 
rough ELhalta and Kans&ra ridges, it crosses the Vsdva river and 
passing two villages belonging to Ratanm&l which are embedded 
in B&riya territory, it reaches the P&nam river about twelve miles 
from the frontier. Up to this point the road is very rugged and 
before 1875 was not fit for carts. Since 1875 the passes have been 
put in order and carts can travel. After crossing the P&nam tho 
road leads through a ^vvDoded country almost due west to S&gt&la 
twelve miles. Here in the heart of t he Naikda country is a post, 
thdna^ and from it a road leads northTo"Bariya eleven miles. This 


road has lately been cleared of brushwood and by day or night can Chapter VI. 
ho safely Q3€m1. From Sdgtala the western route passes without Trade. 

difficulty Birteen miles west over high ground to R^jgad, the head- VLrMdm 

quarters of another sub-division. From !{tajgad there are three 
rrnites to Baroda, one through K6I0I, another through Kameri 
two milee from Halol, and the third through Chdmp^ner. The 
Kt*cond is the straightest and most used. The distance from 
Rajgad to the frontier of the Bariya state by any of these routes is 
not more than five or six miles. 

The remaining roads, that running east and^west center in Dabho i /^ 

an d Anklesva r^ all lie to the south of Pa^gad and the chain of ^. 

hills which forms the water-shed between the Mahi and Narbada 

basins. The first in order is that from Malwa to Gujara t along the 

Or valley. This road comes from Ali Rajpu r and enters Chhota 

I'depurat the village of Kharakv^da. Winding through the hills it 

n»aches to Or about ten miles from the frontier, and after crossing 

it nins close along its right bank to Chhota Udepur seven miles 

further on, thence still skirting the right bank of the river it passes 

through Jejgad eight miles, Jetpur five miles, to Jabugdm seven 

miles, crossing the frontier three miles further on into Gaikwdr 

territory. Thence there are two routes, one direct to Baroda 

tlurough V^ghoria ; the other to Dabhoi through M^khni, Sankheda, 

and Badharpiir. The former of these, not more than 250 miles long, 

U tho shortest and most direct route from Indor to Baroda. If the 

oliiefe through whose lands it passes were to improve the present 

rouj^h track, save travellers from robbery, and lower their transit* 

dues, this might be made a most important line of communication. 

At present it has not one-tenth of the traffic it might have. Indor 

and Baroda merchants prefer to send their goods &om one place to 

the other by rail through Bombay rather than trust them to the 

roagh usage and exorbitant demands on the direct route. Within 

Rewa Kdntha limits the line presents no difficulties. The country 

i^ level, the soil light and sandy, and the rivers few and easily 

bridged. But for through traffic, unless some change can be made 

&II iJong the line, it is of little use to improve the Bewa K&ntha 

section alone. 

The next line is the part of the Mhow and Dabhoi r oad that passes 

throDgh Chhota Udepur, This road enters Rewa Kdntha three 

miles east of P&nvad. West of this village the road divides, one 

branch passes north through Kardli fifteen miles, and thence 

to^warda Sankheda seven miles, to the frontier. I'he other branch 

passes west along the Heran valley and by Vdsna a Gdikw&r 

Tillage, eighteen miles from Panvad. Of these the north branch is 

less hilly and nigged, but neither of them is much used. Almost 

all the traffic finds its way through the Sankheda Mehvds, and 

CTOfisiug the Narbada reaches the Baroda railway at Anklesvar. 

Of these branches one from Chhota Udepur through Kar&li sixteen 

miles, and the other from Pdnvad meet at Vasna and continue in 

one line as far as Nasvddi, seven miles. Here they are joined by a 

lower road which passes through Kavd.nt. • This line enters Udepur 

territory about eight miles to the east of Kav^nt, and thence through 

1 661-7*- 

[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter 71. 



Paldsni sixteen miles to NasTadi «ix miles. From Nasyddi the 
united road passes south through Sayli six miles^ to Alva three 
miles, Uchhskd three miles, an.d Virpur three miles, where it crosses 
the Narbada. Another.route of about the same length orosses the 
Narbada two miles lower at Tilakvdda. 

As the Narbada cannot be forded at either crossing the traffic 
through the Udepur state and Sankheda Mehvas is almost entirely 
on pack bullocks. After crossing the Narbada, the united road 
passes eight miles through country much broken by ravines to 
Nandod, the capital of Bajpipla. A mile west of Nandod it crosses 
the Karjan river at a ford, and thence passes, through Partdpnagar 
eight miles, Haripura eight miles, Avidha five mileSj Jagadia five 
miles, and Govdli four miles to the frontier of the Il^jpipla state 
thiree miles further on and about four miles from Anklesvar station. 
Between the Karjan and the frontier this road crosses many small 
streams and is used only during the feir weather. Lately (1875) 
the Raja of Rajpipla has had surveys and estimates prepared for a 
bridged road along this routeu This when finished will be a great 
boon to the people of the district. 

The next important line is that from Khdndesh to Guja rat 
t hrough Rajpipl a, This road after leaving Kukarmunda on the Tdpti 
and passing through eighteen miles of Kh^ndesh enters Rajpipla a 
little to the south of Sagbdra, and through Pdt five miles, and Kupi six 
miles, divides at Badddev, eight miles further on. From Bfidadev 
the upper road follows the course otthe Karjan river for fi^e miles 
%o Vadvadra ; then turning west it passes through Motra ten miles, 
and Patar ten miles to Dharol four miles, and reaches the western 
frontier of the state eight miles further on, and about the same distance 
from Anklesvar. The lowerroad after crossing the Karjan at Badadev 
winds through the hills to Khdmb, nine miles, thence passing a rang© 
about 600 feet high it crosses the Tokri river, sixteen miles, and at 
Luna, three miles, crosses the Kim. Six miles further it reaches the 
west boundary of the state about seven miles from Pfeoli on the 
Baroda railway. Both these routes were once lines of great traffic, but 
are now very neglected. They are mere cart tracks passing through 
dense forest and hills, badly provided with water, and with no village 
accommodation for travellers. Prom the carelessness of the Rajpipla 
chiefs almost all through trade has left them. 

This completes the description of the chief lines of road between 
Bajputdna, Mdlwa, and Gujarat. The increase of its local traffic 
shows how keenly traders feel the advantage of a thoroughly 
well made road like that from Godhra to Dohad. But east of 
Pohad the Central India chiefs do nothing to improve their roads 
and their heavy transit dues are, especially since the opening of 
the Indor railway, driving trade from the direct route round by 
rail through Bombay, 

The small streams and water-courses need no ferries. During 
the rains no carts can move, and foot and horse travellers can 
always easily ford the streams, At other times all traffic passes 
without hindrance. DuAng the rains and the first months of the 
cold weather the Mabi and Narbada cannot be forded. The chief 




pbces where they can be crossed during the hot months have beeu 
mentioned under the head ' Rivers.' The Narbada can be passed 
withoat much difficulty. But its banks are so steep and its bed so 
heavy with sand and shingle, that to pass, the Mahi is always a 
woA of great labour. Across the Narbada, when it cannot be 
{oraed, at Ch&nod^ Y adia, and Tilakvada, goods and passengers are 
carried in small well built ferry boats. On the Mahi at Lun&vada 
and Kadana small uncouth canoes hollowed out of aimla wood 
and generally tied two together take the place of ferry boats. The 
right of plying these canoes is every year farmed by the state to 
the highest bidder. At LundviLda when the Pdnam is in* flood, 
under charge of ferrymen of the Bhoi cafte, travellers put their 
clothes in three or four empty narrow«necked earthen -jar s, golds, 
tied together by the necks. These the fishermen force mouth-down 
tmder the water, and the traveller either sitting on them or leaning 
over them^ as in swimming, is with the help of the Bhois ferried 

There are six post offices, four at Bdl&sinor^ B^riya^ Lun&vdda, 
and lUi^nir maintained by the British Grovemment, and two at 
Chhota Udepnr and Nandod by the Udepur and Rdjpipla chiefs .^ 

The Bewa Kantha with its scanty unsettled population has little 
trade andiew manufactures. Trade comes under two heads, home 
trade and outside trade. The home trade is carried on by Ydni£s 
and a few Bohoras -and Parsi shopkeepers. These petty traders, 
adTanciujQ^ money or seed to the peasants, are paid in grain at 
harvest time, lliis they either sell in the district, or send to other * 
Gajarit market towns. Well-to-do husbandmen sell the produce 
of their fields to the local grain dealers or send it where they find 
the beat market* The outside trade is carried on by the better class 
of husbandmen and by strangers, some of them from the Panch 
Mahals and Kaira, and others from Broach and Surat. These men 
specially in October, Dvvdli, at the early harvest time come in 
numbers into the hilly districts and barter with the Bhils taking their 
spare stores of rice and pulse and giving cloth, tobacco, molasses, • 
salt, salt-fish, and spices. Many Parsis chiefly from Anklesvar have 
Betded among the Kajpipla BhUs, getting in exchange for liquor and 
rent advances, large quantities of grain and clarified butter.^ Another^ 
branch of the outside trade is in the hands of Vanjaras and Ch6rans. 
The Tanifirda whose head-quarters are in Mdlwa, Khindash, and. 
Meywdr bring droves of pack bullocks into Gujarat laden with 
gram and go back with loads of salt. On their way they do a 
Kitle bngrnesa with the Rewa Kdntha Bhils. The Chdrans in smaller 
Dombers come from KathiSwdr and follow the same track as the 
Vanjards. They also carry on a small trade with the Bhils giving 
them bullocks and buffaloes and getting the price either paid down 
in cash or in grain in the next year. 

The chief Eewa K&ntha exports are of field produce, grain of air 
kindff, cotton, oil seeds including castor oil, diveli, sesamum or 

Chapter VT 





^ Bom. Gov. Sel XXIIL 316, 317. 

CBomlMf QMifttwr. 

dutptar Vl« ging^lly, ial, and rape, sarsav, saffiower, tobacco ; of forest produce, 
mZT ^ mahuda flower and frait^ timber, firewood, bamboos, and catecliu, 

hatha ; of animal produce, clarified batter, honey, bees' wax, lac, wool, 
Hxporte. i^njj hides ; and of manuf actured^articles, grind-stones, stone-platters, 

and soap. 

Grain, chiefly millet, Indian com, pnlee, and oil seed, goes in 
large quantities from all Rewa Kantha states to the nearest railway 
station, or to any Gujarat market where prices are favourable. 
Cotton is grown chiefly in the Pdndu Mehv&s on the noth-west and 
in the Sankheda Mehy&s and in some parts of Bajpipla in the south. 
Rdjpipla cotton of an average value of about £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000) 
is brought to Anklesvar, cleaned in steam European ginning 
factories, and sent to Bombay. Cotton from the Sanloieda Mehvas 
worth in ordinary years about £2000 (Rs. 20,000) is sent chiefly to 
• Dabhoi, ginned there and forwarded by rail to Bombay. The P4ndu 

Mehvas cotton is also sent to Bombay chiefly from the Baroda and 
Pdli stations. Clarified butter and oil seeds go in large quantitieB 
to the neighbouring market towns of Gujar&t. 

The most important Rewa Edntha exports are forest produce, 
timber, firewood, bamboos, and mahuda flowers. As regards timber 
cutting, except the old charge an export fee on every cart-load of 
timber, the roles vary greatly in the different states. In Bal^inor 
and the P&ndu Mehvls in the north-east, and in the Sankheda 
Mehvds in the south, timber is so scarce that only a very little is 
exported. In Lundvdda, only husbandmen are allowed to fell timber 
free of charge for their houses, carts, and field tools. Others have 
to pay for the timber cut. In Sunth any one may fell timber but 
only for local consumption. From these places little timber is 
exported. On the other hand in Bdriya, Chhota Udepnr, and 
Rajpipla, except that outsiders have to pay a fee, there is scarcely 
«ny restriction on the. felling of timber. The hills to the north-east 
of Rdjpipla, though they suffer from yearly burnings, have Bome 
fine timber. But it is most difficult to get at, and, except a little 
floated down the Narbada to Chdnod and Sinor, none is exported. 
The work of cutting timber and floating it down the Narbada ia 
followed by a special class of Bhils known as Kabddis ^ or timber 
carriers. Teak is chiefly found in the south-east of Rajpipla, in 
S^gbara the teak, sag, land, and in Nans&r, Panchmoli, and Ganra^ 
It is cut about Holi time (April), after the forests have been fired, and 
during the rains is floated down the T6pti. Without its wood trade 
the people of Bdriya would be very badly off. From very old times 
the husbandmen have been allowed to cut, and on the payment of a 
•mall fee to export, timber. So dependent are they on the wood 
trade that they are seldom able to pay the duty till on their way 
back after selling the timber. The chief sorts of wood exported are 
teak, kher, aadar, Rud biya, all used in house building and bought in 
large quantities in Baroda, Godhra, P&Ii, and other Gujar&t markets. 

1 Bom. Got. SeL XXlllP0i19 «nd 305, The word Kabddis comes from kaM. 



Mahtida treei grow in great numbers in B4riya and Chhota Chapter TX. 
Udepor* In Bariya alone there are belieyed to be from 20,000 to Tzade. 

25,000 trees.^ The Bhilg and Kolis of those parts set so high a 
value on mahuda trees that they are often the canse of bloody fends. Bzporli- 

Most of them careless hnsbandmen and snnk in debt, their little 
stSreof gnun is soon either wasted or made over to a creditor. 
They pay their rents from timber and live almost entirely on the 
(iroceeds of the vuihuda flowers, which they gather at the end of 
the cold season (March) and sell to the nearest Ydnia or Bohora. A 
Bhil woman looks on the mahttda flower as her parent from whose 
kindness alone she can buy a petticoat, or a bit of cloth for a bodice. 
When mahuda flowers are scarce, or whenp the price is low, the 
Bhila are in a very bad plight, finding the greatest difficulty in 
keeping body and sonl together.' , 

Of minor forest produce honey is f onnd in the wild parts of the 
Rewa Kantha. There are two chief sorts, a better called rice honey, 
iangamt^ made at the time of the rice harvest (November), white, 
very sweet, and about as thick as frozen butter, and a poorer sort 
called kefudiu or khdkhru, Bntea frondosa, honey made in spring 
(April) when that tree is in flower. The Honey is gathered by Bhils 
and Naikdas, bought from them by Yanias and BohorlLs, and sent to 
different parts of Oujar^, where especially the ddngariu fetches 
high prices. 

Gum, lao, and other minor forest products are largely exported 
by petty traders, who pay the state a small yearly sum for the right 
of opening shops in the BhU, Koli, and Ndikda villages. Gum, chiefly 
torn the bdvalf Acacia arabica, kher. Acacia catechu, and dhdvda, 
Ajiogeisaus latifolia trees, is gathered by Bluls and Kolis and sold 
to Vaniis who export it. At Lunavada bdvali gum is sold at Sd. a 
p>imd (Bs. 5 a man) ; kheri at 6d. a pound (Rs. 10 a main) ; and 
&avdii at \\d, a pound (Rs. 3 a man). The gum, supposed to be 
ttrengthening, is largely used, especially by women at the time of 
child birth. The dh&vda gum is also used in dyeing cloth. The export 
^ lac was in the seventeenth century ' a very large trade, and is still 
of Bome imporfcance. The chief lac-yielding trees are khdkhra, 
Bates frondosa, and pipla, Ficus religiosa. The lac is gathered by 

* Bom.Ccnr. 8eL XXm. 153. 

' The foUowing detaila give some idea of the valaa of the BAriya makuda crop. In 
187S-74^ at the rata of l^d, on forty pounds (1 anna a man) the export mahuda duty 
yielded ded66 10«. Cd, (Ra. 8055-40). Thia imptiea a total of (1,38,484 mans) or at 
the nte la. for forty pounds, the local price in that year, a total revenue of £6924 4a. 
(^ 69,2^. Daring the last five years the price of mahuda in Biriya has varied 
(ton £2to 8a. (Ra. SO -4), and aveiaged 18a. (Ba. 9). Mahuda is ezpoorted from the 
«Uier Reva Kintiia atates also, but in smaller quantities. 

* Saokheda (1638) produced every year SS^OOO pounds of lao. Mandelslo in Harris, 
Q. 1 13» Of the abundance of aealins wax made at Ahmedabad in 1660 the greatest 
pvt caoM tram Siadi Kera (Sankheda). ' It drops firat out of aeveral sorts of trees 
luxt milike the thorn and plumb tree. When the wax is raw it is dark-brown, then it 
M beaten aod melted with red, green, or black, and put on sticks and sent to Europe 
tn leal lettem. They vamiah many ships with it as also tables, cabinets, and other 
tttidaa.* Ogilby's Atlas, V. 214 ; Sankheda (1666) «dnt great quantity of lao to 
Bvoda. Theveoot^ V. 94. 

[Bombay tewttMr, 

Chapter VI. the nnsettled tribes and sold to the Bohon and V&iia merchants 
Trade. ^^ from thirteen to fourteen pounds the rupee, who export what is 

left after home consumption. Before ezportationy the lac is heated 
and purified and mixed with various colouring substances. Of the 
whole supply a little is locally worked up into bracelets. It is also 
used by turners for lackering wood and by goldsmiths for fiUinglip 
hollow ornaments. 

Imporii. The chief imports, both for the local and the through trade are 

Europe and country piece goods, metals wrought and unwrought, 
grain of all sorts, salt^ tobacco, sugar, molasses^ opium, cattle, 
grocenes, and sundries. The import trade is genersdly in the hands 
of village dealers, and Tanj4r&s and Ch^rans. In the mahuda and 
grain seasons, and on market days, hat, the wild tribes buy large 
quantities of cloth in exchange for mahuda, grain, gum, laCj honey, 

• bees'-wax, and other forest produce^^ 

Detailed trade returns for 1878 give, for the leading Bewa Edntha 
states, a total value of £831,969 (Rs. 88,19,690). Of this 
£810,793 rils. 31,07,930) was the value of the exports ; £166,881 
(Rs. 16,68,810) of the imports; and £355,484 (Rs. 35,54,840) of 
the goods in transit.' 

To the total amount of exports R&jpipla contributed £188,016, 
LundvAda £ia,356, Bariya £32,866, Ohhota Udepur £21,120, 
B&lfisinor £18,355, and Sunth £13,950. To the total amount of 
imports Bdl&sinor contributed £45,647, Rdjpipla £40,511, Luniv4da 
£37,368, B4riya £20,596, Sunth £14,764, and Chhota Udepilr £9185. 
* To the total transit trade B4riya contributed £238,183, Bal4sinor 
£36,523, Chhota Udepur £33,489, Lunav4da£21,300, Sunth £13,320, 
and R&jpipla £10,670. Among exports the chief were cotton 
£139,149, timber £53,731, mahuda £27,257, grain £23,442, oil and 
oil-seeds £14,224,. opium £12,784, and clarified butter £12,527. 
Among imports the chief were groceries £35,754, grain £34,437, 
cloth £31,361, opium £14,269, salt £10,249, and clarified butter 
£10,069. Among articles in transit the chief were groceries worth 
£200,040, grain £64,372, cattle £20,638, cloth £15,924, timber £8083, 
opium £7968, and oil and oil-seeds £7502. 

The following statement gives all available details. 

> Of the Bdriya trade in 1826 Mr. Willonghby has left the foUowiog deteib : 
The chief imports and ezporte are iron, copper, pewter, lead ; pearls, dianumds and 
other precious stones ; woollen and other European clotii ; Guiardt and M^wa cloth ; 
grain, cattle, and spices of almost every kind, sugar tad molasses, opium, tobacco^ 
■alt, clarified butter, ginge^ country medicines, catechu, nuxhuda flowers^ oils of 
▼arious kinds, timber, ivory, Detelnut» sa£9ower and Indian madder, sura^iffL 

* This return has been supplied by the assistant political agent Mr. Nandshankar 
TnljAshankar. Though much care has been taken from the extreme difficulty of 
getting correct trade returns, these values should not be considered moN than roogh 




Jltroa Kdntka Trade, 1878. 













& • 



























CUriAed batter ... 



• • • 






• •• 

• • • 












• •t 







• • • 


• •• 

• •• 


8-', Motato 





• *• 






• •• 

• •• 






Oil aad OQ-Medt... 



• • • 
















• • « 







• •• 



• •• 





• •• 















• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •« 

• •• 


























Ciarifitd butter ... 



• • • 


















• •• 



t 1 Hides 





• •• 



J^Jfol^i. ^, ... 



• * • 


• • ■ 








• •• 





• • * 

• •• 



• • • 





• •• 







« •• 




• • • 



• •• 

* • • 
















• •• 





LSandriei ... ...1 








***•*■ *^ • • • • • • 




















• • • 




CUrified batter ... 

• •• 




• • • 



• •• 













• • • 






• •• 


• •• 

• • 




• • • 



• •• 







• • * 

• • • 

• • • 

• •• 



• •• 





• •• 





• • • 



• •• 











8622 , 

■ a • 



• •• 


leuwJrUi .'.'.' ",. 









ToUli ... 








The following return shews for Bdriya the approximate values of 
the imports, exports, and goods in transit during the seven years 
ending 1876 : 

Bdriya Trade, 1870-1876, 


. I Cloth 

g [Oroceriei 

p ^ Opitxm 

calt ... . . . 



» I tin ... ••• 

I J Grain of all sorte.. 

& :0iland0U- 
K Timber ... 
LSondrlea ... 
' ?Catt:e 

•< Orooerief ... 
Timber ... 
^Bondrice ... 





















































































































































Gbapter VI. 


tBomtey QueUHr, 



Chapter YX. 



Traniit Dutiei. 


For Lnn&y&da and ■Snnth the following statement gives such 
trade figures as are available for the nine years ending 1878 : 

Lundvdda and Sunih Trade, 1870 '1878. 










1870 ... 

1871 ... 

1872 ... 
1878 ... 
1874 ... 
1876 ... 

1876 ... 

1877 ... 

1878 ... 




























• •• 

• •• 



• •• 

• ■« 


A comparison of the available customs and transit revenue details 
gives the following results. In Bajpipla between 1776 and 1785 
they varied from £1300 to £4000 (Rs. 13,000-40,000), from 1794 
to 1819 they averaged about £1000 (Rs. 10,000), in 1821 they fell to 
£695 (Rs. 6950), and in 1827 to £770 (Rs. 7700). In 1878 they had 
again risen to £5560 (Rs. 55,600). In Bdriya the duties amounted 
in 1818 to £1400 (Rs. 14,000) ; in 1825 to £1797 (Rs. 17,970); in 
1865 to £5133 (Rs. 51,330) ; and in 1878 to £7438 (Rs. 74,380). 
Prom July 1878, Bdriya reduced its transit duties on the Godhra- 
Dohad road, and, instead of levying rates proportioned to the value 
of the merchandise, takes, as an experiment, a moderate toll on the 
carts passing through its portion of the high road. In Lunavada 
the duties amounted in 1870 to £2637 (Rs. 26,370) ; in 1874 to 
£2281 (Rs. 22,810); in 1877 to £2481 (Rs. 24,810); and in 187Sto 
£1352 (Rs. 13,520). In Sunth the duties amounted in 1872 to 
£853 (Rs. 8530) ; and in 1878 to £785 (Rs. 7850). 

The present duties are a great hindrance to trade, and, since 
the opening of railways through Grujardt and to Indor, have had the 
effect of driving the through trade from the roads to the railway. 
At present the states cannot well afford to give up so large an item 
of their revenue. But as tillage spreads and the land revenue grows, 
it will be more easy to free trade from the burden of transit duties. 

The Rewa K&ntha manufactures are of little importance. In the 
Ratanpur sub-division of Rdjpipla iron of excellent quality used to 
be smelted. But probably from the fall in the price of iron and 
the rise in the price of fuel, this industry has for some years 
ceased. From the Rlijpipla village of Ratanpur or the gem village, 
considerable quantities of "^ VB fillf ^T lf* are sent to Cambay.^ To those 
given in the Gambay Statistical Account, the following local details 

> Son. OoY. S«L XXm, 318. 



of tlie manu&eiiire of Cambay stones may be added. Camelians Chapter VI. 

were formerly burnt only in the village of Limodra in the Jagadia Trade- 

sub-division of R6jpipla^ when the business was monopolized by a few 

Masalm^ familios. Lately two other establishments have beeA 

opened, one under a Rajput at the village of •Sult^npur, the other at 

RffiTpur under a Kanbi. The miners are Bhils. The season lasts from 

October, A;shvin, to May, Vaishdkh. The miners, besides food, tools, 

and a little oil to bum in the pit are paid 2«. (Re. 1) for six baskets 

full, each on an average holding twenty-five pounds, sere, of stones. 

After the mining season is over, the stones are gathered at the 

villis|;08 of Ratanpur, Sult&npur, and R&nipur, and as described in 

tihe Cambay account, are baked with fire. Quring the rains (June - 

October) work is at a standstill, and the last year's pits are broken 

in by the rain, and new pits dug at the opening of the next season. 

Of the value of the outturn of the camelian mines nothing certain 

is known. According to the Limodra dealers, they are paid from 

£2 10«. to £5 a man of forty pounds, and in a year sell from £800 to 

£2000 (Rs. 8000 - 20,000) worth of stones. Of the three colours, 

red, white, and yellow, red is the most valuable. During the last 

century, the camelian revenue after falling, in 1810, to £150 

(Rs. 1500), and in 1825 rising to about £500 (Rs. 5000), had in 1876 

gone hack to about £300 (Rs. 3000), the amount they yielded one 

bundred years ago.^ 

Daring February and the three following months the making of 
ca techu, •k diho^ from the bark of the kJter^ Mimosa catechu, tree 
employs many Bdriya and Rdjpipla Kolis and Ndikdas. The process 
though rude is simple and cheap. Kher branches are cut, stripped of 
Itark, and chopped into three or four inch pieces. These put into 
earthen pots full of water are boiled, and the water passing off in 
((team leaves a thick sticky decoction. A pit is dug five or six feet 
deep and narrow enough to be covered by a small bamboo basket. 
'Vhe thick substance is placed in the basket, and as it strains, the 
water sinks into the ground, the valuable part stays in the pit and 
the refuse is left in the basket. The extract is then taken out, 
placed on leaves in the sun, and when dry is sold at B^riya at from 
St. to bs. (Rs. 1^ - 2^) a 7nan. From Bariya it is sent to Malwa and 

Soap like that made at Kapadvanj is manufactured in the towns 
of Cunav&da and B&l^sinor. To make it, salt earth, us, is mixed 
with lime and water, and poured into the top of a row of cement 
cisterns bnUt one above the other. Each cistern has a hole in the 
bottom and the water, charged with the soda and lime, soaks 
throogh and ia collected at the foot. Mahuda oil, doliu, is thrown 
into an iron cauldron and heated. Into this the soda and lime 
water is poured, and after standing some time is allowed to flow out. 
This process is repeated daily for seven days when the oil becomes 

* The detaiU are : fnmi 1776 to 1785, Rs. 3000 ; from 1784 to 1803, Rs. 2000 ; from 
1804 to 1810, Rs. 1800 ; from 1810 to 1819, Rs. 1500. In 1621-22, Rs. 3500, in 1825-26, 
E6. (V204, in 1826-27, Ea. 5001, in 1827-28, Rs. 4001. Bom Qov. Sel. XXIU, 269. 

B561— 8 

[Bombay Gasetteer, 



Chapter VL 


like thick butter. This paste is then placed in wooden troughs 
mixed with hot soda and lime water, softened by a wooden ladle 
and laid on a cement floor to dry. When it has hardened^ it is 
rolled into balls, stamped with a sesd and sold for about four pence 
the pound (3 piee \ sen^. This soap, sold in all Bohor^' shops, is 
much used for washing clothes. In 1876, soap worth about &!M0 
(Bs. 50,000) was exported half from Lundv^a and half from 

Coarse doti cloth and tape for cots are still ratber important 
manufactures, and the Bhils make good bamboo baskets and matting. 
Other *Bewa K&ntha industries have of late years declined. Since 
its iron furnaces stopped, the swords for which Nandod was once 
famous are no longer made. Machine-woven cloth has to a large 
extent taken the place of the old hand- woven varieties, and, unable 
to hold their own against European competition, the Nandod weavers 
have ceased to work their fine-cloth looms. 




Or the early Aiyan conquest and settlement of the Bewa K&ntha 
a few traces remain in its old name of HuUmba Van or the forest of 
HicUmba. a gij^^yitfaf^- who according to the story married iBhim of 
ilahAbharat fame (1400 B.c.f). Of this wedding the memory still 
Fiirnves in the north of Lun^y^da, where of several old rained 
buildings, one is still known as the marriage hall, chori, and a large 
fitone lying near it as the mortar where the opium was prepared for 
the marriage feast. In another part of the district one of the hills 
oi Bilftdnor is sacred to Bhim and his giant wife. 

Soon after the beginning of the Christian era R&jpipla must 
already have been a place of some consequence as Ptolemy (150) knew 
of its Sardbnyx hill, *where the sardonyx stone is found.'^ About two 
hundred years later, Godhrahaka or the Cow's Lake, the modem 
(jodhra in the Panch Mahils, seems from the evidence of a metal- 
plate inscription, to have been the head«quarters of a chief dependent 
on the Valabhi sovereigns.* With the rise of the Anhilvdda kings 
(''^), a new power was introduced into eastern Gujar&t, and 
C bampane r became, and till the fall of Anhilv&da (1304),*continued 
tlio most important pla ce in this part of the province. 

Under tha firat AT^^ilvida dvnastv (746 - 942), except Chfimpiner, 
almost all the Rewa Kdntha lands were under the government of 
Barivfa, tli ftfc ia Koli and Bhil chiefs . In the eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth centuries, driven south and east by the pressure of 
Mnsalmin invasions, chiefs of Baput or part Eajput blood took the 
place of the old Koli and Bhil leaders. The first established of 
these Rajput houses was that of the R&ja of R&jpipl a. As early as the 
iniddle of the eleventh century (1064) Limodra, the head-quarters 
of the agate trade, was the seat of a Rajput chief .^ This lUja, if 
Absconded from Chokhdrana the son of the Rdja of Ujain who first 
^"^tabUshed himself in the village of Pipla, must have belonged to 

' B«vtiat* Ptolemy, 199, 203. Ptolemy places the Sardonvx hill next to the 
>iTu]hyAQ nuige. "Bat its position in his map and the remark in the Periplns of 
Ai! '7^^'""''' 3^ {^ • 1^) ^^^ the Broach onyx stones came from Paithan in 
Ahmcdfia^r (MeCrindle's Periplus, 127) would seem to place the chief camelian mines 
'^ we D«c»n or Central Provinces rather than in Rilj pipla. 

: hj^. Ant. LXIII. 16. » 

Tlic chiefs name was Prithipdl. The inscription is on the footstool of the imago 
'^i RM^vdcv iu the village of lamodra. 

Chapter VIL 
History* * 


Early Hindus 
to 1484. 

[Bombay Gasetteer^ 

Chapter VII. 

Early Hindus 
to 1484. 




Local Kevival, 



tbe Parmdr tribe of Rajputs.^ Soon after this a part of the Lonay ida 
territory would seem to have been under a Bajput chiefs with his 
h ead>»quart era at Godhraor some place near^ whose family was, about, 
the middle of the fifteenth century, partially overcome by tho 
ancestors of the present Lun^vada chief.^ In the middle of tho 
fourteenth century a body of Khichi Ch ohAns. driven south t)y<ho 
Musalm&ns, settled at Champaner, which since the overthrow uf 
Anhilv&da (1304)4would seem to tave fallen into obscurity.' Under 
its Choh^n rulers, until its overthrow by Mahmud Begada (14 84). 
Ch&mpaner was one of the chief seats of power in eastern Ghijarat. 

During this time the Musalman dynasty of Ahmedabad had l>eeii 
established and had brought great part of the Bewa Kantha under 
its sway. By the fall of Chdmpaner and the establishment then* 
for about fifty y ears of the head-quarterg j?lMusalm6n power, alniot't 
the whole oi tne Rewa !]S!^antha was brought under submission and 
much of it well tilled and enriched. After the &11 of ChampauiT 
the d escendants of Jayasin g. the last Baval, founded the states of 
Chhota Udepur and Bariya . In the seventeenth Century thou^'^Ij 
trade and prosperity were not restored to the northern parts of tho 
districts, a n important trade rout e passed through the south int'* 
£[h&adesh and Sankheda, and some other places were centres u( 
considerable commerce. 

In the eighteenth century, though Musalmdn ascendancy in tiw 
Bewa Kfctha was increased by the conquest by a men^ber of tho 
famous Bdbi fami ly of the territory of Balasinor in the north-we«^i , 
the power of the Gujarat Viceroys began to decline, and the Imperial 
claims, that had formerly included lands as rempte as the Virpur 
sub-division of Lundvdda, ceased to be regularly enforced. The local 
chiefs no longer paid tribute, and began to levy demands from villages 

1 A person named Chokh^r^bia the son of SaidAvat Rilja of Ujain, a Bajput of 
the Parmer tribe, quarrelled with his father and retiring to the western hills the A 

Mokhd^ji the chief of Piram and Gogha, Chokhdriina must have flourished in tlic 
middle of the 14th century. 

' T^wjes, of this older Lund ydda family are found in an inscription dated 1120 in 
a Shaiv temple in tKe village of JDehjar and in another dated 1328 in the temple •</ 
Ked&reshvar Mah&dev in K&kaohia on the Mahi. These chiefs aro supposed t> U^ 
still represented by the ThAkors of Mehlol in Godhra. According to an account 
supplied to Mr. H. A, Acworth, C. S., by the family bard of the Mehlol chief, tht 
founder of the house a Solanki Rajput, Gadsingii by name, some time in tbe eight li 
century established himself at Godhra. The head of the family remained at G<j<ilirft, 
his territory beinc separated from Chdmp&ner by the small river that runs thnniiih 
Vi Jaipur in K^lol in time the family spread, one branch gaining an estate in tliu 
Pdndu Mehviis and another at Sonepur m Th^Lsra. Defeated by Mahmud Bewail:) 
(1484) they retired from Godhra and about 1500 established themselves atMolilol 
They consider that they belong to the Rewa Kdntha not to the Panch MahAls. in 
Someshvar's Kirti Kaumudi it is mentioned that in the 13th century the chiefs of 
Godhra owned allegiance to the VAghela chiefs of Dholka, One of theni naiPt.l 
Dliundhal insulted his superior, who sent an army against Godhra, plundcriMl thv 
town, and making Dhundhal prisoner, carried him to Dholka whore bo coromitUil 
suicide. Bhagvinldl's Hia^ory of Gujardt, 110, 111. 

3 Acconling to banlic accounts Pdlhansingt the first Ohehin of ChdmpAnor ruled 
in tho middle of the 13th century « ' 


Weh they had Itrng been shut out. This revival of local power 
kA long. By 1 730 the Maratbas hiid appeared in force, and 
ing iDtrtt of the plain lands, levied tribute from all but the 
il romott'st chiefs. At the same time the anthority of tlio 
mis neTor firmly established, and the chiefs paid their 
y under the prtisaure of military force. 

■ Ibcse unt^ido changes, t he younger brancbea of the 

lilies had fj-om time to time been torcod to lea ve their 

I win tor themselves new estates. These cadets of the 

tea, a few daring adventurers, and the descendants^^of the 

I diiofs, form the present Th^oiy or landlords of the 

' Itnod P^nda Me^ vas. iJuring the early years of the present 

r the weak misrule of Baroda these small chieftains, 

hnnder military pressure, refused to pay their tribute. They 

Ithd couDtry round and as the Gaikwar failed to keep 

"^ e of the district was ondertaken by the British. 

ibsing, Rdja of Rajpipla, died leaving two sons 

Narsing. Those two brothers contended for tho 

1810, RAmsing died leaving a putative son Pratapsing. 

IS in possession Pratapsing was declared Bdja. Soon 

broke out between him and his uncle N&raing, and in 

formally claimed the chiofsbip on the ground that 

Rfirasing'B son. Karsing's claim was not admitted 

continued till, in 1815, under the plea of settling 

lite, the Baroda Government took over the whole , 

P of the conntryT^ ~~ 

lained in this state till, in 1 S: 

BJdent at Baruda was sent to Bajpipla to inquire into 
■ claims. After inquiry he decided that PratSpsing 
lug's sou. In the same year an agreement was 
h His Highness the Gdikwar, under the terms of which 
E all tho Baroda tributaries vested in the British 
At the close of 1821 Mr. Willoughby was placed 
E Bijpipla and spent noarly throe years in putting its 
tw. In 1823 he also settled the position and tribute of 
(tlie Sankheda Mehv^ to the north of the Narbada. 
e completed in 1825, and, in the same year, 
thorities placed tho ton-itoriea of the petty chiefs of 
's on the banks of tho Mahi under British control. 
B the political control of Sindia's Panch Mahils was 
British, and the Bariya state was transferred 
r Political Agent. For the charge of these new 
oial officer was wanted, and on the 6th February 1 826, 
' was appointed Political Agent of Rewa Kantha, 
, ' t, Sindia's Panch Mahals, the Mehvdsi states on the 
[ebv^ states on the Narbada, Bdriya, and Chhota 
Soon after, the states of Lunavada and Suntb that, since 


Chapter V 

[Bombay Gazetteer. 

Chapter YII. 1819, had been under British control were transferred from the 

History- Mahi K^tha to the Bewa K&ntha Agency. In 1829 the appoint- 

B 'tiah S • ■ ment of Political Agent was abolished, and for several years the 

1820-1879. ^°' Bewa Kfintha chiefs, thongh nominally under the assistant to tha 

Political Commissioner, were left very much to themselves. Jhis, 
in 1836, ended in disorder, and in 1839 special control over lEc 
N4ikda country was vested in the assistant commissioner*^ In 1842 
(12th January) under the order of the Court of Directors the office of 
Political Agent in Bewa K^tha was re-established, the criminal 
powers of the chiefs were graded, and, except of Il4jpipla who wa$ 
granted the power of life and death, the supplementary jurisdiction 
of the chiera was vested in the court ox the Political Agent/' 
No further change took place till, in 1853, the state of Bal&dnor was 
transferred from the Ksura Collector to tiie Bewa K4ntha Political 
• Agent ; and in the same year Sindia, for a period of ten years, handed 

over the administration of the Godhra Panch Mahals to the Bewa 
Kdntha Political Agent. Again, in 1862, the Panch Mahals were 
exchanged by Sindia for districts nearer G-walior, and became firitis}i 
territory. Two years later they were removed from the control of 
the Agent, and formed into a separate charge. Finally in 1876 the 
Panch Mahals were raised to the rank of a district, the officer in 
charge of it having control of the Bewa Kantha states.^ 

Ndikda SUhg, Since 1825 the peace of the Bewa K&ntha has thrice been broken ; 

^ 1838. jj^ jggg i^y ^ Ndikda rising ; in 1857 by the presence of a rgbel forco 

\ "* from Upper India; and in 1868 by another Ndikda disturbance. In 

1838 the Ndikdas of Bdriya, Chhota Udepur, J^mbughoda, and 
Godhra were guilty of such excesses that the British Govemmeut 
was forced to take measures to bring them to order. Captain Outrain, 
Political Agent in the Mahi Kantha, drew up the plan of a 
campaign, and a force was organized and, in February 1838 nnder 
command of Major Forbes, was despatched to the disturbed parts. 
Military posts were at the same time stationed at several places on 
the frontier, the fastnesses in which the ^N'dikda leaders had taken 
refuge were surrounded, and inducements were held out to them to 
surrender. Before the close of the year, with the help of the chiefs 
of Bariya and Chhota Udepur and the rulers of Baroda and Gw^ior, 
the leading N^ikdds were either caught or had submitted. Several 
of them were sentenced to terms of imprisonment, and on giriii^ 
• security for good behaviour the rest were released. Tlie5U 

disturbances were caused by two chief gangs of outlaws. Keval oi 
Bara in the district of Bariya, his brother Jalam Bupa Ndik, and liis 
manager Onkdrsing, the leaders of one of the gangs, helped by 
Makranis and some malcontents from Udepur and J^bugboda, 
carried off cattle 'and other property of the Baja of Udepur. The 
other gang under Viram N&ik, Mah4dev N&ik his brother, and Ainra 
Naik, laid waste and almost depopulated the lands of Bajgad. To 
prevent future disorder the lawless sub-division of Sagtdla was 

» Bom. GoVi,Sel. XXIII. 200-217. 

* Aitchison's Treaties, IV. ura. 

^ This change has not yet (1S7D) taken efiect. 




detached firom B&rlya and placed under the direct supervision of the 
Political Agent* A post was fixed there^ order was established^ and 
ibe deserted Tillages resettled. 

On the 26th November 1858 Lieutenant Yibart, commanding at 
[V>ha4 ^ ^h^ Panch Mahdls, heard from the Indor Bhil Agent that 
:i body of rebels had entered his districts, and that Tatia Topi had 
i)D the 24th been at Th&n on the Bombay road between Khorampur 
and Tnlvada. Three days later (November 29) the Indor Bhil 
Agont sent a further message that Tatia Topi's force, about 3000 
htr«*mg, had on the 26th crossed the Narbada by a ford ];)elow 
Chikald&j and moved to Kuksi, a meeting^ place of roads from 
Ga}ar6t, Milwa^ and Nim^r, and that on the next day (27th) a column 
uuder Brigadier Park had, at Moipur, crossed the Narbada in 
piirBQit of the rebels. Shortly after, the manager at Amjhdra 
rc'ported that the rebels were at Xuksi on the 28th and that they 
intended to move on Dohad through Ali B&jpur. At the same time 
the Political Agent heard that on the 25th T&tia Topi was attacked 
find defeated by a detachment from Mdlwa^ that his troops fled 
towards Vadv^ ford on the Narbada thirty miles off^ and were 
porsoed on the 26th. On the 29th the rebel force entered the 
Udeptnr territoiy. Hearing of their approach the chiefs then in the 
district nettling the land revenue^ returned to Udepur and shut the 
gates of itB small fort. On the following day (30th November) the 
rebels arrived and plundered the town. But next morning at day- 
break Brigadier Park surprised and dispersed them. Small parties 
Hod aonih and south-west and at Jh&bug&m several of them were 
made misoners by a detachment from Baroda. A large body with 
Tdtia Topi and the person called the Bao S&heb arrived at Bariya 
(fQ the morning of the 2nd Hecember much worn out^ and other 
small parties wandered about in the Bariya forests. The main body^ 
with all their elephants but one^ had on the first alarm doubled 
back and made their way through the heavy forest east to Bhabra. 
Prom Bhabra they made their way to Bariya, the whole joining on 
the 5th at the B^ya village of Piplod. Meanwhile the Bdriya 
party joining the other fugitives had moved south-west threatening 
the HIIoI and Baroda road and returned to Piplod. On the 6th^ 
leaving a covering party at Piplod^ the whole force began to retreat 
the direction of Jhdlod. On the next day Captain Muter's 


detachment advanced from Godhra to Piplod and on the evening of 
the 8th reached Dohad^ the rebels retreating before them but not 
liraving tin thev had plundered the towns of Limdi and Jhalod. 
Bngadier Park 8 colnnm arrived at Bariya on the llth^ marched to 
Limav&da on the 13th^ and thence on the 14th went to Kad&na^ 
wh€?re (^ptain Thompson's detachment had arrived from Godhra. 

On the 17th news came that from ten to twenty thousand rebels 
were to be at Enksi on the 18th; and a telegram from Sir 
Hngh RoflO told that a body of 700 or 800 rebel cavalry^ popularly 
known aa the army of the Peshwa^ had crossed the Narbada. As it 
was mmoiired that this force would enter Gujarat by the route 
taken by Tatia Topi^ Captain Collier with two companies of 
Native Infantry was posted at Chhota Udepur. Jhalod was occupied 

Chapter VII. 

British Supervision, 

The Mutinies^ 

[Bombay Qaietteer* 



Chapter VII. by about eighty men of the 33rd Eegiment, and Bariya by the rest 
TTi ff t^ry. ^i ^^6 33rd and two guns. Colonel Collings stopped at Damu 

Y&v in Bdriya so as to command the rebel flank^ should th»\v 

" 1820 -"^S^***"* advance from Udepur towards Baroda. Lundy^da was protected hy 

The Mutinies ^ British force, and Bdl&sinor strengthened by 100 men of the Kaira 

1867. ' police. The freedom of the district from any further inroad* (»i 

hostile troops was probably due to the careful distribution of tlic« 


During the mutinies^ besides from T&tia Topi's raid, Rows 
K&nt}^a suffered from local disturbances. Unsettled, perhaps inciuil 
by the mutineers, the ^hils and Kolis raised their hands agaiii>' 
their well-to-do neighbours, and foreign mercenaries and 0Btla^v^' 
defied their chiefs or tried to persuade them to rise against tin- 
paramount power. In Lun&y4da in June 1857, as his claims to tli»' 
chiefship were not admitted, Surajmal went into outlawry, attatkt J 
the town of Lun&,vdda in July (1857), and failing in his Memyi 
. fled to Salumbar in Meywdr. He remained in outlawry for nonx' 
months. But at length, satisfied by the liberal terms offered by tho 
Il^ja, he returned to his obedience without causing any disturbaJit«*. 
In 1857 Jamdddr Mustafa Khdn, the head of the Sunth foreign 
mercenaries, advanced a claim of £467 8*. (Rs. 4674) for arrears ot 
pay. This demand was accompanied with such threats that tbe 
chief applied to the Political Agent for protection. A party of tlic 
Oujar&t Irregular Horse under the command of a European officii' 
was, in August 1857, dfeputed to arrest the Jamaddr. The Jamad^r 
* resisting the attempt to arrest him was fired at and killed. Hi^ 
followers fled and order was restored. 

About the middle of August 1857, gne Syed MorAd Ali attemptod 
to raise a disturbance in Rajpipla and about the same time the 
chief or vasdva of Sdgbdra also gave trouble. Later, in 1858, ud^^^^^ 
the leadership of Keval Dama and Rupa Gobar, the Naikd& tcm- 
in open rebellion and were not put down till a large body of troo[i5 
had acted against them for eight months. This disturbance waschit'ly 
in the Panch Mah&ls to which the two leaders belonged. Witbi" 
Bewa K6ntha limits there was some fighting in Udepur and B^rlyh 
but no action of consequence except on the 18th January 1850 a 
night attack on Lieutenant Richardson's camp. On the 10th Marob 
Keval D&ma the leading outlaw surrendered to Major Wallace, a^" 
• on the 23rd May, Rupa Gobar to Captain Hayward. Early in I8t^«'- 

there were gatherings and threatening movements among tbe 
Sankheda Mehvds Bhils. In the month of March the Political 
Agent moved into the district, convicted nine of the ringleadersi 
and restored order. 

On the 2nd February 1868, Rupsing NAik of Dandiipnr in tk; 
Panch Mah41s district of Jdmbughoda, one of the pardoned 1^-'' 
rebels, with about 500 men attacked the post of Rdjgad in the 
state of Bdriya. He failed in his chief object, the murder of tno 
Bdriya Superintendent, who had very shortly before left Rijgad. J" 
other respects the attack was successful. Three of the defenders wf iv 
killed and three wounded, and about £80 (Rs. 800) in money, ^^^'' 
arms and ammunition of the post, two horses, and much privaio 

Ndikda Ifiaing, 

' 1868. 



property were carried away. After the attack on Rajgad, Rupsing Chapter VII. 

retired into the Panch Mahals, and being joined by Naikdas and History. 

•^%-oral Makranis, sacked Jambughoda and threatened Halol. Among 

Kuji8ing^« companions was Joria Bhagat, who claimed supernatural ^'*'^i82o"i879'**^"' 

j'^jo-er and was styled God, Parme8hvar. Such panic did he inspire ^'dikda Risina 

iin6n^ the ignorant people of the district that he gained his first isos^ 

ritrbts without suifering any loss. Flushed with success, on the 6th 

J'fbruaiy he attacked the post of Jetpur in Chhota Udepur. But 

• • 'ing* met by the chief who with some followers was hunting close by, 

t hrt**» of his men were killed. Though this loss to some extent shook 

\ ht: oiutidence of the Naikdas, their leader sent so defiant a meiJfeago 

tj J the Udepur chief that, giving up the posts ti Kadval and Jetpur, 

hf <f ntped his troops for the defence of Chhota Udepur. Before 

<iiWrfler spread further, the Bhagat's head-quarters were attacked 

ijy a British force, one of the leading men was slain and two wounded, 

iTid open resistance was crushed. Rupsing, the Bhagat, and 

Rupsin/^'s son Galalia, followed up with untiring vigour, were caught, 

fried, and hanged.^ This rising was almost entirely confined to 

I *'jLnch Mahals Naikdas. Only a few of Rupsing's followers, and these 

ineu of no position, belonged to the Rewa Kantha states. 

With these exceptions the public peaco has, during the last fifty Changes, 

years, Tetnained unbroken. For the levy of the revenue and tribute 18^0-1874. 

the display of military force is no longer needed ; the favourite 
i-riiuf^ of gang robbery and cattle-stealing have to a great extent 
\uH^u supjiffessed ; and disputed boundaries, the fruitful cause 
of ill-feeling and bloodshed, have been fixed. The last questions * 
t'» \yo settled belonged to one class, the relations of the Gdikwar to 
\ he smaller chiefs. Of these one of the most important was the 
-fftlement of the rival claims of the Chhota Udepur chief and the 
I^aroda Government to the sub-divisions of Vasna and Jhabugdm. 
The<se sub-division s, Vasna with thirty-four and Jhdbugdm with 
flight villages, under the double management of Chhota Udepur and 
Ban»da agents, fell into such disorder that, in the interests of the 
[jublio peace, they were in 1865 taken in charge by the Political 
Afirent. In the management of the revenues no change was made. 
Rents were realized as they had been realized before, and the share 
«»F t^arh claimant was handed over to him. At the same time steps 
WL^re taken to record the rights of each party in the different 
\ »IJ»oT>«, and at last in 1873, it was settled that the Jhabugam 
•.tih-division should be handed over to Chhota Udepur, and Vasna 
:tnd a few villages to Baroda. Another difficult point, lately settled, 
-* The control of the sacred town of Chdnod, at the meeting of 
th»? Or and Narbada. The question of ownership and of civil 
;«iid criminal jurisdiction was disputed between the Mandva chief 
i*rid the G^kwiir, the disputes giving rise to much ill-feeling, ending 
i^nnetimes in a breach of the peace. It has been decided that the 
j'lwn belongs to the Mandva chief, that civil and criminal 
jurisdiction rests with the Gaikwdr, and that the Mandva chief can — 

^ DeUiU are given in the Fanch Mahdls Statistical Account, 255-258. 
B 561—9 

. * 

» L 

[Bombaj 6«»tt€ei , 

: . ?* •. :e -^.^era "jiily as liis sabordinate. Again, there is a 

:.::^ £ tie soiie qnestioxi in the disputes between tli<' 

>.^ * %. •T.,v-emment and the petty Bewa K^tha Mehvas chiefs. 

^.vt^ K iium, as the foimer proprietors^ lands and revenues in 

•^ v^' vulafcres, an<f these clauns the Baroda Government has for 

twa^ -Lmiorted, either altogether or in great part^ to disallow. 

-*' infiv^L of the earlier Rajput chie&^ in villages conqnenl 

>*3 Mamthas, varies considerably. In many they still have th* 

«4.iwt vfuua, that is the ownership and control of one-fonrth ]xir 

- lu V lila^ ; in others they keep the share of the land^ bnt hnv* 

^v t'Muirul ; and in others both control and land have been W, 

u lit? rii^lic to lev^ a cess remains. By degrees the shares ■ ' 

IK' • : •^'iuiii chiefs were divided among heirs and dependents wh< 

. .,-i^i*u'd matters by disposing of them by sale or mortpi^"* 

r.>olc5> fht'jje claimants directly or indirectly representing th 

• ^Micil ciiiot^ and landlords, there are the descendants of succe^sf"' 

%^.ai» imd frt?ebooters, who, with no hereditary right, had in 

.^Lticd times succeeded in extorting payments from the villager?. 

'v.> & liuppened that in 1825 when the Bewa K^Titha Agency wa*" 

i>iit\l, there was scarcely a village in the neighbonriii^r 

. .t. . y turty years, chiefs and girdsids tilled their lands, gathert J 

• .1- i-oiits and money dues, and parted freely by mortga^, sale, or 

• vuh their interest in lands within Grdikwar limits. In 1^''^ 

ico Grtikwar ordered the levy from alienated lands of a 

. . ^ iih >dxiM\> of their rental, and attempted to enforce this levT 

V ^.J^ aud money claims enjoyed by Bewa KAntha girad'i^ 

. ».4.xv^itr limits. Had not the power of the Political Agc'Jt 

v> v<>*.vl to prevent it, this demand would have provoked a 

. i\» ivii!.-©* The Bewa K&ntha chiefs were persuaded to 

. V * uul leave their claims in the Political Agent^s hands. 

, . A v» ^ werument declined to admit that the guarantee given 

.^;^iu>v*s original settlement was enough to establish the 

.X : and points connected with this question were f< r 

w ^ lH>tween the Bewa Kdntha Political Agont and tb 

Vs. uiatters made no progress towards settlement it 

V. . tot i;;ed that the girdsia claims should be inquin d 

^ >• \^ ai ijpocial British officer.* The work of inquin 

>*% .X 

i..^^Hiti^ Report, 1870. 

>> ^•{t'iiiAl suits and 26 appeab have been brought before uiu 




EkcvT snch poTtions as they have gfven aVay the Rewa Kantha 
lands belong to the chiefs. The heads of the larger states take no 
share in the actual work of cultivation; some small chieftains, 
whose income is basely enough to meet their wants, have a home farm 
tilled by their servants ; and proprietors, tdluhddrs, whose estates 
are too small to let out to tenants, have no resource but to till their 
iiwn land. Except that they have to pay no part of their produce 
to saperior holders men of this last class do not differ from ordinary 

To collect the land revenue the larger states are distributed over 
Hobodivisdons, tMukas or pargands, each with a commandant, thanddr, 
who, besides police and magisterial duties,^ haa^ as collector of the 
rorenne, to keep the accounts of his charge,^ and, except where 
truddlemeif are employed, to receive their rents from the "villagers. 
Under the thdnddr to help in revenue work, one or more accountants, 
talatie, are generally engaged. In the smaller states and in the 
l>otty mehvoA estates, the proprietors helped by the village Vania 
« »r a clerk themselves perform these duties. In the small estates 
under direct &itish management the revenue is collected by officers 
called attachers, japtiddrs, with, if the estate is large, the help of 
fine or two accountants, taldtis. 

Rewa Kantha villages belong to two main classes, state villages 
hi^ld and managed by the chiefs, and private villages alienated or 
granted under some special agreement. Of private villages there 
ikre five varieties'; granted, indm ; held under an agreement, 
)i*^iavai ; given as a subsistence, ^ivafe ; temple, devastlidn ; charitable, 
'Jhanndda ; and held at a fixed rent, udhfod. Granted, i^wim, villages, 
j^ven for some public service to the chiefs, are, as a rule, held 
either rent-free or on payment of a quit-rent, and are without any 
condition of service. Agreement, patdvat, villages are held on 
condition of rendering military and other service. When the 
Bajpnts and other strangers overran the country their leaders, 
keeping the lion's share for themselves, distributed part of the land 
ajnong their followers on promise of help in times of war. Village 
holders of this class, besides helping their chie& in times of war, 
served with a certain number of horsemen as guards of honour, 
whenever the dbie& wen^ out of their territories on* pilgrimages or 

Chapter 7III. 


Landholders r 



* Is the Urge itatea onder the direct management of iSbo Britisli Govemmeat 
tUinddr* hav« no police or magisterial powers. 

[Bombay (hntteer. 

Chapter VIII- 





other peaceful errands. They were also bound to attend the chiefs 
on festive or ceremonial occasions, and to add to the grandeur of 
the Rajas' procession on the Dasera and other holidays. So niiicli 
honour attached to a large following of theso dependent gentiy, that 
in this form of display many of the chiefs sacrificed a great j»rt *)! 
their incomes. Villages held under this tenure pay a fixed reveiiu»* 
to the chief who has also the right to levy cesses from the lessees' 
tenants. These cesses are in most cases fixed, either paid by tb' 
lessees themselves or by the villagers direct. They are apportioned 
either to individual cultivators, or to communities of particular cjuste-. 
In tHe latter case the amount is not enhanced even though il)^^ 
community receives freSh members from other villages. A chief way 
resume an agreement, pata, on the ground of the non-performanic 
of service or other conditions, or on account of failure of heirs. 
Subsistence, jivak, villages, granted free of service, are held l>y 
members of the chiefs' families, or their relations. Though subjet t 
to resumption on the failure of heirs, the holder may generallj on 
paying a fee, nazardna, adopt a successor. The land revenue, 
vaJBj of subsistence villages belongs to the holder. But the cliitf 
has the right to levy cesses, vera, from the villagers. Templ< , 
devasthdn, villages cannot be taken back at the wish of the cliief. 
At the same time all are not free from the levy of certain triflinjr 
cesses. Charitable, dharmdda, villages were originally granted to 
members of the sacred classes, Brahmans, Bhats, Charans, and 
others in reward either for some religious or ceremonial act, or 
with the view of securing their blessing, or of gaining for the gi^tT 
a name for liberality. Some of these villages, alienated by thr 
original holdora, are either held by the alienees or have boon 
resumed by tho chief. Fixed rent, udhad, villages are mostly owiici 
by mehvdsisj the descendants of the Koli and Bhil chiefs, who bel«i 
the country before the Rajput conquest. Holding under tbe 
condition of police and military service, these men own their villag^*-^' 
paying a sum which is not liable to increase. 

The following statement shows that in the eight leading 1^^^'^ 
Kantha states, of a total of 2544i villages, 1832 or 71-95 per coi^^ 
are state, darbdr ; 88 are grant, indni ; 241 are agreement, _/'^^<^^'^^* 
146 are subsistence, jivak ; 22 are temple, devasthdn ; 103 J s^' 
charitable, dharmdda ; and 112 are fixed rent, udhad. 

Rewa Kdntlia Villages,^ 1S77, 






















Chhoto Udepur... 



Sun til 



Total ... 





• •• 








■ • • 


* * ■ 




• • ■ 


• • ■ 


• • • 




• « • 


• « • 


• ■ * 

• ft 









2611 i 

« Owinpr toihe nnacttled lmbit« of n large cla» of the cullivatora iii every state« Uie imnJ^'<'' " 
rillttgea Chan jfcs from year to year. The proportion of fitaic, darbdrt vlllagca ii» hifihc^t in t'litif'''' 
Udepur and lowest in Bdl^sinor. 




The state^ darhar, villages, held and managed by the chief, have 

generally a headman, an accountant, taldti, in charge of a group of 

Wllages, a messenger, Iiavdlddry and some families of watchmen, 

rakhds or pagis. There is only one patel tq a village, who is both 

ifae ^venuo, mnlki, and police patel. A separate police patel is an 

exception. Assistant headmeo, matdddrs, literally signers, are almost 

unknown- Carpenters, blacksmiths, and other village craftsmen, 

found only in a few large Kanbi villages, are generally paid in grain by 

the villagers. A few of them enjoy rent-free lands. Except when a 

village has been fanned to them for a certain number of years, headmen 

do not collect the rent. In state villages the headmen generally 

hCOTmpany the other cultivators when they pay rent to the thdnddrs. 

iumbi villages are seldom farmed and Kanbi or Rajput headmen rarely 

act as middlemen. In almost all villages, both state and private, 

the lands belong to two main classes, the alienated or part alienated 

and those held by the state or village proprietor. Of alienated 

ianils there are three main divisions : share, vdnta ; subsistence, 

jHisnita ; and reward, ranvatia or hddia. Besides the petty 

proprietors, tdluJcddrs, of the Sankheda and Pandu Mehvas who hold 

f^hares, vdntds, in Baroda and a few British villages, other Rajputs 

cmjoy share lands from their chiefs nominally for service, but in 

practice free from any duty. In LunavMa and Sunth, if unsupported 

by a deed, sanad, these lands have been made subject to the 

fstymeni of quit-rent. Lands of this class often include plots taken 

I'itheir hj^ purchase or other means from the original alienees. 

8ub5istenco, pagdita, grants, in north Rewa Kantha known as lot, 

karamm, lands,^ are either held by village servants or craftsmen, the 

ragi*dya lok or settlers. Some of them are religious or charitable, 

enjoyed by Hindu or Musalmfin beggars and strolling players, or 

are set apart to meet the expense of drawing water for the 

nllage cattle or for travellers. Hereditary service holdings, vatans, 

an* unknown in the Rewa Kantha. There are no hereditary village 

accountants, hulkarnis ; and the hereditary village headmen, patels, 

instead of a vatan, have either a pasdita- grant or are allowed to 

hold a certain area of laud free of assessment. In Lunavada and 

i>uiKth, where a quit-rent is imposed on all alienated lands not held 

aiiikr a deed, sanad, pasdita lands enjoyed by watchmen and other 

nllage servants such as barbers, potters, and sweepers doing state 

yenrice are excepted, while village servants, blacksmiths, carpenters, 

siDd tanners, who are useful only to the village community pay a 

quarter of the normal rent. Pasdita lands held by Brdhmans and 

others without deeds pay a quit-rent of one-eighth of the normal 

rent% Patela enjoy their pasdita lands, if supported by deeds free of 

all state demands or else receive a cash payment in proportion to 

the size and revenue of the village. Though with no power to do 

Sf>, the holders of service, pasdita^ land have in many cases sold or 

mortgaged their holdings, and in many villages the money-lender 

holds the land, and the services are no longer performed. To put a 

stop to this abuse it has lately been decided to make all pasdita 

Chapter^ VIII. 


* Karamni hknds 9ie held subject to no conditiou, and cannot, as a rule, be resumed 
by the chief. 

[Bombay Oaietteer, 






lands inalieiiable and to refuse to recognize any transfer by sale nr 
mortgage. Hddia is land granted by the state or the Tillagere in 
reward for the sacrifice of life on belmlf of village or public interesti?. 

In state lands the form of assessment varies from the rou^he^t 
billhook or plough cess to the elaborate system in force in British 
territory. The form of assessment levied from the rudest and 
most tlmftless Bhils and Kolis who till no land^ is known in Rdjpiplaj 
where they live chiefly by forest work, as the axe, kohddi, or the 
billhook, ddtardi, cess. In Barijra the corresponding tax is known 
as the Squatters', bethaUa, or non- workers', or the water, p&ni, coss, 
that is on those who do flothing but drink the water of the villago. 
The amount of this tax varies from 1 8, to 48, (a?w. 8 - Ha. 2). 
Somewhat above the foresters and squatters are Bhils and Kolis, too 
poor to buy or keep bullocks, but who close to their huts dig a plot 
of ground, vdda or Tcdchha^ with a spade or hoe and grow Indian 
com in it. These men pay a hoe, vdda or koddU, cess vaiying 
according to the size of the plot and the condition of the digger 
from Is. to 48, (ans. 8 - Rs. 2). From those a degree better off 
who are able to keep bullocks, a plough tax is levied, the amount 
on each plough varying according to the state and caste of tho 
cultivator, the number of working men in his family, and the number 
of bullocks at his disposal. One pair of bullocks is estimated to till 
from 2^ to 7J acres (5 - 15 bighds). In many places there is much 
arable waste and to tempt settlers, for the first year only^a small 
• charge is made rising gradually till, after three or four years, the 
full amount is realized. The plough rates vary greatly in differcui 
places. They are highest in some of the Sankheda Mehv& estates 
ranging in K&msoli &om £2 lOs. to £5 (Bs. 25 » 50) a plough ; in 
Palasni from £1 5«. 6d. to £2 5«. 6d. (Rs. 12|.22f); and in 
Chudesar from £1 12«. to £2 Ss. (Rs. 16 - 24). In the larger states 
the rates vary greatly; in Chhota Udepur from 10«. to £3 10^^. 
(Rs. 5 . 35) ; in Rdjpipla from 10«. to £1 18«. (Rs. 5 - 19) ; in Bdriya 
from 48. to £2 2*. (Rs. 2 - 21) ; and in Sunth from 48. to 1^5^. 
(Rs. 2 - 9). 

The next form of assessment is the crop-share system, hhdgbaial 
When the crops are ready to cut, the state managers, TcdmdiUti 
examine each field, and with the help of experts make and record an 
estimate, haUar, of the crop. On this estimated outturn the money 
value of the crop is calculated at the ruling price of grain, and tho 
state share is taken in cash. In some cases the estimate is mado 
after the crop is reaped and harvested. The state share varies 
according to the season, the price of grain, and the honesty of the 
assessors. It generally amounts to one-third of the rainy seasoDf 
hhcurif, and one-fourth of the cold season, rabi, crop. This systeui 
prevails in parts of B&l^inor, Sunth, and the petty estate o( 
Chudesar, and in .the alluvial, bhdtha, lands of M&ndva in tho 
Sankheda Mehv&s. Both under the spade or plough tax and under 
the crop share, bhdgbatoK, sjBtems, the chiefs for their own granaryi 
hothdr, take from some of their tenants, grain instead of cash. ^^ 
such cases the value of the grain is always fixed at something beloW 
current market rates. 




Among some of the more settled and intelligent commnnities a 

roagh form of tlie separate holdings khdtdbandi, system has been 

introdaced, and among others cash acre-rates^ bighoti, are levied. 

Ib such cases the holdings are roughly measured into highda or 

k^mhhas, ihe bigha geneTsHj representing* about an acre or lessj 

ihd *the kumbha varying in different states from one to five bighds. 

After measorementj the assessment is fixed at a certain cash rate on 

the bigha. This rate ranges in Rdjpipla from 48. to 80^. (Hs. 2-15) 

a lAgha, or, the B^jpipla humhha being equal to about 2| bighds, 

from 10». to £3 lbs. (Rs. 5 - 37^) a kvmbha. In the district of 

BoripL this assessment is levied in a very few villages at fsom 48. 

to 4i 6d, (Re. 2 - 2|) a bigha, and the rate* on sugarcane is £1 28. 

\Hb, II). In tbo state of Sunth it ranges irdm Is. to 5^. (Be. ^ - 2^), 

and the rate on sugarcane from 12^. to £1 4^. (Bs. 6 - 12). 

In Bfflasinor it varies from 6d. to 14«. {as. 4-Bs. 7) a bigha. 

The rate in the estate of Dorka is from 28. to 78. 6(2. (Be. 1 -3f) 

a bigkaj and lOs. (Bs. 5) a kumbha. In the estate of Mdndva in 

the Sankheda Mehv&s the rate is from 48. to £1 78. (Bs. 2 - 13^) 

^ktmhha, which is equal to about 1^ bighds. In the estates of 

Yaiina and Chudesar in the same Mehv^^ a kumbha is dqual to 

about 5 bighds; and the rates per kumbha in these two estates 

we from 10*. to £8 IBs. (Bs. 5 - 39), and 12^. to £1 lbs. (Bs. 6 - 17J) 

T^pectirely. In Jiral Kdmsoli the rate per kumbha which is equal 

to aboot l][ or 2 bighas is from 6^. to £1 4^. (Bs. 3 - 12). 

In tht state of Lundv&da where the land has been regularly 
Burreyed and classified, rates fixed, as in British districts, chiefly on 
U)o quality and position of the field, have been introduced under the 
sanction of the Government of Bombay. The rates vary in diy, 
jimyai, lands from 1^. to 5^. 6d. {as. 8 - Bs. 2}) an acre, and in 
addition a water rate of from Is. to bs. {as. 8 - Bs. 2^) is levied. 
The assessment on wells varies from 148. (Bs. 7) on each water-lift 
of nnbmlt, kachcha, well, to £1 and £1 12^. (Bs. 10 and Bs. 16) on 
(^h water bag, kos, of a built well, that waters at least 2| acres of 

Ikcept in the surveyed states, B&riya, Lun&vdda, and Sunth, 
vheie fixed rates are being or have been introduced, the rates 
leried under the hoe, plough, or crop-share systems are supplemented 
^7 ceeses of different kinds. Of the cesses no longer in force in the 
^^ surveyed states, the most important were those levied to meet 
Aq tribute duo to the British, the G&ikw^, and Sindia. In B&riya 
this, (^ed a horse cess, ghodi vero, was supplemented by another 
blown as chandi vera or horses' grain cess. It was levied in kind 
OQ every plough, the amount varying with the plough cess from 10 
to 130 pomids* In Lun&v&da it was known as the forcible one and 
A half, janmdno dodiyo, and in Sunth as the robber's cess, gaivimi 
vero.^ Another cess was the drma taa, dni vero, a surety's cess of 






Jtomdno df)di^^ probably a cormption of JtUmdno dodiyo or the forcible one 'and a 
°^, was called 1) because the original amount was railed by one-half. Qh&wm ghoda 
|*n», m Hindustini the robber's cess, was applied bv the Musalm&ns to all Mar&tha 
>vvicL Id thiQ Rewa Kintha the phrase is restricted to taxes imposed by Sindia. 

[Bombay Qazetteer, 

Chapter Till, one or two annas in the rupee of the regular assessment^ payable 
Lud partly to the state, partly to the Vania security. A third tax was 

Actmimstration. the currency cess, pota vatdv, half a per cent on the regular paymeut 
Cesses, ^ cover loss from bad or damaged coin. Besides these taxes skuuh 

villagers had to supply the state posts, thdnds, with gra^ either funj 
or at nominal rates, supporting at the same time the men who V^ro 
sent to gather in the grass. Butter and grain for the use of tie 
state were also taken from the villagers at less than the niarktt 
rates. In Sunth, besides the Maratha or robber cess, an October, 
Divdli^ cess varying from 10«. to £2 10s. (Bs. 5-25) was, at tLe 
time of«early harvest, levied on homestead tillage plots, vdda or 
kdchcha. Other cesses Twre the funeral butter-cess, shrdddhia ghino 
veroj a money payment instead of the share of clarified butter wanted 

• for the funeral rites of the departed heads of the state; tLc 
silver coin, mahmudiy cess levied from R^mpur Brahman, carpenter, 
and Ghdnchi cultivators, when they employ persons of other castes to 
help them in field work^; grain compensation, ped, a cess levied 
from certain heads of villages to make up to the state for the loss of 
its former privilege of taking grain at less than the market rate; 
the douceur, suJchdi chirda, cess levied by the state and partly paid to 
Vanids, who had formerly the right of collecting it ; ground-rent, 
ghar jhumpi; and the rope cess, rdshio, to meet the state expenses on 
ropes. In Lundvada the chief cesses were the service cess, khijvidi 
verOf levied from some Brahmans as a quit-rent on the lands enjoyed 
by them in return for services rendered to the state oflScials who 
estimated the crops; haltdnu, imposed on some villages instead w 

* food supplied to the clerks sent to assess the crops ; Tchardo samjdvani 
taken in a few villages for the trouble of telling the people how 
much rent they had to pay ; kali kalsi, levied at the rate of one anna 
on each kalsi of grain due under the assessment; havdlo, levied on 
account of messengers, havdlddrs, in villages where no havdlddr was 
kept ; khichdi vero, levied instead of the expenses incurred by some 
villagers in entertaining the chiefs and their retinue when on tour 
through the district ; the sharers' cess, hhdgia vero, levied like tliQ 
mahmudi cess on servants employed to help in field work ; ground- 
rent, ghar jhumpi, pdga and thdnddr Idgai, a fee paid to the revenue 
collector, thdnddr, and for the use of horses on occasions of marriage 
or other processions ; shrdddhia ghi, instead of butter supplied to tlio 
Bajds on occasions of funeral ceremonies; a rope cess, ra^Aio; elephant :« 

• grass cess, hdthini ghds ; a marriage cess, khdjru^ ; Rajput vero, pa'd 

by some Rajputs on account of holding service land ; the heii^'s cess 
kuar chirda, a fixed cess, originally in honour of the birth of an heir 
to the chief; October cess, divdli vero, on homestead yards, t'^'^^*'' 
levied at the time of the early harvest; horse tax, ghoda vffro, to 
meet the cost of the chief's horses; charvdddr vero, to pay fho 
attendants, charvdddrs, on state horses ; and a ghdsni veth, to bnng 

' The nuihmtidi is worth 40 dohddB, In RiLmpur ite present value is Re. 1 oa 2. 

2 Khdjru means a goat. It is probable that on mairiage • occasions tlie p«>l*»** 
formerly presented the chiefs with a goat and that this was sStcrwarda changed iuto a 
money payment. 



grass into Lun&vida. Special cesses were also levied on the occasions 
. f tz£&rriages and other events in the chiefs family. The Kanbis^ as 
'.ae best-off clasa of peasants^ bore the burden of these cesses. In 
Chbota Udepor the chief agricultural cesses are : the kukdi vero, 
xixuesA of fowls presented to the chief when on tour; vdghvero, to 
|aV tSe Raja's tiger-shooting charges ; bhdt vero, to pay his bards ; 
uod ehdndla vera, to pay for the marriages^ births^ and other 
lerx^mawes in his &mily. In R&jpipla and Bdl&sinor the agricultural 
c«^<sie8 are the same or similar^ and in the state of Yajiria in the 
i>ankheda Mehvas^ a douceur^ 6ukhdi, of Is. (8 annas) a kumbha, 
and inlerest at the rate of twelve per cent (2 ofmo^ in the rupee) are 
\evied, • 

In the Rewa K&ntha the land revenue is collected directly by the 
5?fat6 ofiScials^ or by &rmers to whom villages are leased for a fixed 
or an indefinite number of years. The former system of leasing 
villageft to headmen or money-lenders is giving way to direct state 
management. The reason for the change is that, except those with 
few people and scanty tillage, where it is for their interest to 
attract settlers, villages have been found to suffer lasting harm from 
the contractors' exactions.^ 

In directly managed villages the want of method on the part of 

the chief and his officers and the poverty of the peasants maJce the 

senices of a middleman necessary. The middleman's duties vary in 

rlifFerent states. In some states the amount due by each husbandman 

is fixed, &d the work of realizing the rental is left to the Yania 

or nsan of capital. He pays for those who cannot pay, and by 

c-ygTtee, recovers the money advanced. Under this system the state 

|o>iQptIj realisses the whole revenue ; but the poorer husbandmen are 

o>iiipteteIy enslaved to the Y&nia. He credits their grain at what 

pnce he pleases, charges them for exchanging the grain into money, 

and levies interest on any outstandings at the close of the season. 

In other states the middleman, when an instalment of rent falls due^ 

pves each cultivator an order for the amount of his assessment. 

This order is taken by the accountant, taldti, or the collector, thdnddr, 

c^kdhed, and paid into the treasury. Sometimes the order for payment 

«k<s not even pass through the cultivators' hands but is paid by the 

laiJdleinan straight into the state treasury. The amounts of the 

different orders are entered against the cultivators' names, and as 

id$ (ifibtors they are entirely in the middleman's hands. ThlB state 

<i hSam in B&riya in 1865 was thus described by Col. Anderson j 

Chapter^ VIII 


Rent How 

^ In RijupU» when in 1822 the British Gbvemment interfered to clear off the chiefs 
f.^ttt Mr. Willoughby introduced the system of leasing villages. This may have at 
{)^C beea advantageouA, but after some years it was found so to impoverish the 
^jhgBB that no Umaee were renewed, and the villages, as their leases feU in, were 
(uxo^ directly by the chief. This change was in Mr. Pollexfen's opinion (1852-1865), 
I jrat gain. Abuses might remain, but anything was better than the lease system 
Vjidi had brought the people to such wretchedness that thev had fled from their 
nlUg^ Hie leaseholder's one aim was to screw what he could out of his tenants. 
Asd hesoAem what he took himself, the people were crushed and robbed by hia 
iaMingi. Such had been the oppression that in the N^nchhal sub-division of 97 
t^Ili^ only 31 were inhabited; and tne belt of rich land along the left bank of the T^pti 
iTtt ahnott cofeiiely waste and covered with brushwood. Bom. Qov. SeL XXTjy , 313^ 

B 561— 10 

[Bombay Oatfltteer, 



Chapter Tni. 





the Political Agent. The chief arranges with Yani^s for tho 
payment of the whole village rental leaving it to the Vdnia to levy 
the dnes in detail. On all individual payments more than ei^ht 
months in arrears^ the middleman is entitled to a share of tiie 
dni vero or surety's cess. The middleman's payments are ma<lo 
throngh the thd/nddrs either before or daring January^ yearly intcA^j^t 
at the rate of nine per cent being charged on all sums ont-standine^. 
The system snits the middleman. At times he may loee by 
de&nlters. But as a body the people are at his mercy, and ho can 
make his own terms abont cash advances and produce prices. 

No regular dates ar^ fixed for paying the assessment. NQvemlx r 

and December, a month or two after the first harvest is gathered in, 

is the nominal time for paying either the first instalment or tlie 

' whole rental. But cultivators are not generalljr punctual, and during 

the whole year the officials are at work gathermg the revenue. 

Default is very common. The de&ulter is generally kept in custody 
for a day or two at the nearest state post, thana, when he either pays 
or gives security. If he neither pays nor gives security, his movabli; 
property, except field tools and cattle, is attached and sold. House:? 
are seldom sold, as in most cases both the site and the timber 
belong to the chief. Occupancy sales are unknown. The large area 
of arable waste in almost all villages prevents land from having a 
sale value, and knowing that if he did so, he would suffer either in 
person or property, a Kanbi is very unwilling to take a Koli's or 
Bhil's land. 

At first, and for many years, the work of putting down disturbancosi, 
of checking gang robberies and cattle stealing, and of settling' 
disputes between the different states occupied almost the whole 
time and attention of the Political Agents. Within the last ten 
years, aided by the minority of three of the larger states, B4riya, 
Lun&v&da, and Sunth, considerable progress has been made in the 
three important points of surveying, settling alienations, and fixin^t^ 

For more than twenty-five years after they came under British 
supervision, except for military purposes, no attempt was madcs 
to survey the Rewa Kdntha districts. The first regular survey was 
that of RAjpipla, undertaken in 1852 by Lieutenant J. J. Polloxfcn, 
Assistant Quarter Master General. Lasting through three seasons 
(1852-1855), the operations included the survey of the lands 
of 550 villages of which 67 were alienated. A topographical survey 
of the Rewa K^ntha and Panch Mahals was, under the char^ of 
Rfo Bahddur Khushdlrai S4r6bh&i, the present daftarddr of tho 
Bewa K&ntha Agency, begun in 1854 and finished in 1861. Tho 
instruments used were the prismatic compass, and the perambulator. 
During the seven years the work lasted, the whole of theRci^Ti 
K£ntha and the Panch Mah&ls, with the exception of Bh&dan'xv, 
Umeta, R&ika> Dorka, and Anghad were surveyed, and a ma^i 
prepared. During this past ten years, advantage has been tak<>ii 
of its being under direct management to survey tho lands and fix 
the bound^es of the Lun&v4da state. A circuit survey of B^ya, 




LrtiiaWlday and Santli^ and a field survey of B&lasinor wieks^ by 

Mr. Hall of the Gnjarat Bevenae Survey^ begun in 1867 and finished 

is 1871^ at a cost to B4riya of £6915 12^. (Rs. 69,156) and to 

Laiiavada of £4633 Ua. (Bs. 46,338). The total number of 

s^atiooB token in the survey were 10,110 in Lun&v&da and 16,1 77 in 

Biri^^ and the total length chained was 956 miles in the former 

ftod 1510 miles in the latter. In Lun&vada the boundaries of 334 

villzkges, and in B&riya the boundaries of 413 villages were surveyed, 

»ertl^, and marked out. The whole of the Bariya frontier was 

i^f;ttled, and a length of 205 miles was marked by 2459 substantial 

{■tiitiQ pillars. A circuit survey of Sunth was carried out duiing the 

years 1873, 1874, and 1875 at a cost of abou* £1792 28. (Rs. 17,921). 

The nirmber of stations taken was 7571 and the total area chained 

o92 square miles. Inner village boundaries were laid down partly by 

Mr. ILiU's establishment and partly by two officers of the state. The 

Iwenty-one villages of the Vajiria estate in the Sankheda Mehvds 

i^ere in 1870 surveyed and mapped, and their outer boundary line 

Trucked oS« A field measurement has lately been begun, and the 

^(andva estate has also been surveyed. In Lunav^da, besides the 

circuit survey, individual holdings in the 185 state villages were 

mtjoaured and classified on survey principles. The result of the field 

sary^y waste show that, of a total area of 168,841 acres, 18,026 or 

tea per cent were taken up by roads, ponds, and village sites ; 48,391 

Of twenty»nine percent were waste and forest lands; and 102,423 

Of aixtj^me per cent were arable. Of the arable land 74,078 acres or 

fieventy-tnree per cent belonged to the state; and 28,345 or twenty- 

be?en per cent were alienated. In Lundvada and Sunth the rules 

tinally adopted for the settlement of claims to alienated lands were, 

iu the case of lands held under a state grant of temple endowments, 

and of service grants to village servants useful to the state, entire 

••xi'mptiou from payment ; a levy of one quarter (4 cmnas in the 

nipee) of the normal rent from craftsmen and other village servants 

ti'ji useful to the state ; and in all other cases the levy of one-eighth 

part of the normal rent. Under these rules an inquiry into titles is 

""^ili going on. In Baldsinor the field measurements show that of 

a *otd area of 63,653 acres, 17,717 are waste not available for tillage, 

«i>ii5,936 acres are arable. Of the total area 19,955 acres or thirty-one 

P^ crat are alienated and 43,698 or sixty-nine per cent belong to the 

^Ure. These lands were measured and classified according to survey 

ru!«s, but so &r no attempt has been made to alter the old system 

^'i as^^figment. The B&lasinor state is making inquiries into titles 

b alienations and levying quit-rents at various rates. 

In former times boundary disputes gave rise to a large number of 
murderous affrays. As jlate as 1864 the L\xn&v6dsL and Sunth chiefs 
qoarrelled over some boundary, turned out with their troops, and had 
^ tiattle on the disputed frontier. The settlement of boundary 
dt<pQte8 was first actively taken up in 1866. Long frontier lines 
>7ere entrusted to single officers as commissioners, and, within three 
years, most of the disputes were settled,jand for the rest the 
H'rvices of a single officer were found to be enough. Of the disputed 
irontiers, the one between Lun&v&da and B41asinor was the moRf. 





{Bombay Gaietteeri 



Chapter Vin. 



important. The rival clauns chiefly concerned the f oriy-two villages 
of the Yirpnr sub-division. These were placed under attachment by 
the British Government and the result of a detailed village inquiry 
^as to show that the Balasinor claims weie much thrstronger 
Other rights of Lon&T^^ in Bal&sinor villages and of B&lasinoriD 
Lun^T&da villages were estimated, and the Yirpor villages made over 
to the 6al4sinor chief on his agreeing to compound all claims ou 
lion&v^ for a certain sum. 




Cim oourts have only lately been introduced into theBewaE&ntha. Chapter IX. 
CivU disputes were formerly settled by arbitration^ and money-lenders TniHr- 

were aUowed to recover their outstandings fas they best could. ^ - 

Sci anxious were the chiefs to realize for themselves all that could be ^^* 

taken from the cultivators^ that^ however just his claim^ they refused 
to help a money-lender to recover his debts. Occasionally^ when a 
trader feU into difficulties^ his creditors prayed the state to recover 
for them his outstanding debts^ pa>ying as a fee one-fourth part or 
more of the amount realized. 

M present (1879) there are twelve civil courts in the Bewa K&ntha^ 

eight in states under the supervision of the British Government^ and 

fouK otbers, two in B&riyaj and one each in B&jpipla and Baldsinor. 

Of the cigtt courts under British supervision the chief is the appellate 

cnurt of die Political Agent^ which hears appeals from the decisions ' 

of the assistant political agent.^ The second is the original and 

ajypellate court of the assistant political agent with power to hear 

original suits of the value of £300 (Rs. 3000) and upwards in the 

Sankheda Mehvas ; of £100 (Rs. 1000) and upwards in Lundvdda^ 

Suntfa, and the Pandu and Dorka Mehvds ; and of £10 (Rs. 100) and 

upwards in the Sagt41a sub-division of B&riya ; and to hear appeals 

against the decisions of the deputy assistant political agents of 

Lonatada and Sunth, and of the S^gtala and the three Mehvas 

ihdtiddfs. The third and fourth are the courts of the deputy assistant 

poUtical agents of Lun&v&da and Sunth each with power to hear 

*uitg of less than £100 (Rs. 1000). The fifth, sixth, seventh, and 

eightk, are the courts of the thdnddrs of Sankheda, P&ndu, Dorka, 

and Sagt&la, the first with power to hear suits of less than £300 « 

(Rs. 3000), the second and third of less than £100 (Rs. 1000), and 

the fourth of less than £10 (Rs. 100). 

In the towns of Lun&v&da, RILmpur, B&riya, and M^ndva, when 
immovable or house property is transferred, the state, on receipt of a 

* An sppeal lies to the Political Ajgent in all suits relatin|^ to immovable property. 
When tbe subject of a suit is movable property an appeal Les to the Political Agent 
cmly when the property is worth more than £50 (Rs. 500) and the assistant political ^^ 

moot baa moditied or reversed the original decision. ^A farther appeal lies to 
Offvenim/ttDt when the property in dispute is immovable, or if movable of more than 
i30O {VUl 3000) in value, and the Political Agept has modified or reversed the 
ucistast political agent's decree. Gov. Res. 3689, 9th August 1879. 

[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter IX. 



fee varying from 6^ to 15 per cent of the value of tlie property, g^rants 
a deedj hhh, and enters a copy of it in a state register. It ia also 
usual and in some cases compulsory on payment of fees of from three 
to five per cent^ to re^ster mortgage deeds of real property, will2». 
and deeds of gift. 

In the conduct of their work the civil courts follow the spirit oi 
the British civil procedure code. Besides a small charge to moi^r 
the expenses of the court a fee of 6| per cent on the amount in 
dispute is levied when a suit or an appeal is instituted. WhtM; 
a money claim has been established the debtor's movable anj 
imm(?vable property is liable to be sold. An exception is made ia 
favour of his tools alid bullocks^ and in Lunavada when gmiu i'< 
attached a portion of it worth £2 (Rs. 20) is set apart for tht 
debtor's maintenance. Imprisonment for debt is unknown* In tho 
case of Bhils and other wild debtors a decree is seldom taken out. 
There is almost nothing to attach and a troublesome creditor 
runs great risk of being roughly handled. Cases of this kind arr^ 
generally settled out of court, the debtor entering into a fresh agnt»- 
ment with the creditor. Most suits are brought against cultivat<^r^. 
and as the claim is generally the outcome of transactions lasiiuir 
over several years, the rules of the civil procedure code are no! 
strictly followed. An inquiry is made, a rough balance struck, auii 
some arrangement fixed for the payment of what seems due. Ca^os 
of attachment and forced sale of property are rare. In the R4jgip]2i 
and Balasinor courts institution fees are levied and decrees satisHt^/ 
out of the judgment debtors' movable and immovable property. 
From their decisions an appeal lies to the state K4rbh&ris. 

As regards criminal justice the Bewa K&ntha authorities boloo}: 
to five classes ; the officers, thdnddrs^ who have second and third class 
magisterial powers in the estates of the petty Mehv^ chiefs; the third 
class chiefs of Kaddna, Sanjeli, Bhadarva, and Umeta, who have tho 
powers of a second class magistrate in offences committed by any biu 
British subjects ; the second class chiefs^ of Bariya and B&14sinor who 
can try all offenders except British subjects and the subjects of other 
states accused of capital charges ; the first class chief of RajpipU 
who can try all but British subjects for capital offences conunittod 
within his territory ; and the Political Agent and assistant political 
agent. Besides having power to try cases in which British subjects 
are accused, the Political Agent as a magistrate tries cases beyond 
the powers of the thdnddrs in the Mehv&s estates and the third class 
chiefs. In addition to this the Political Agent presides as a 
Sessions Judge in the Rewa K&ntha criminal court which was 
established in 1839. In this, assisted by assessors, he tries all 
subjects accused of heinous crimes, and all such cases as the chiofs 
or the local authorities are not competent to settle. He also hears 
appeals against the decisions of the assistant political agent and of 
the other inferior courts, and exercises a general supervision over 
the administration of criminal justice. The assistant political agi>iit 

> The second class diief of Chhota Udepur has recently been forbidden to try any 
but hia own aubjecta. 




tfi rested with the powers of a first class magistrate. He tries all 
offences committed in the states of Lundv^da^ Santh^ Kadana^ 
Sanjoli^ and Sigt&la that are beyond the jurisdiction of the second 
cla^i) magistrates^ and decides all cases occurring in the above states 
a.^ well as those of B&riya and Bdl^sinor ifi which the criminals 
happen to be British subjects. He has also the power of committing 
.11 cases tiiable by the Court of Sessions and is vested with the 
\vyi^er of hearing^ appeals against the decisions of his deputies at 
Lanavada and Sonth and the thdndd/r of Sagtdla. The deputy 
a^si^tsint political agents of Lun&vdda and Sunth and the thdndar of 
^aglala have the powers of second class magistrates. The thdndar 

oi Sagtala has also been empowered to comnnt cases to the Court of 


The chief crimes are thefts and robberies. This is due not only 

to the character of the bulk of the people, poor, unsettled and lately 

Vronght into order, but to the nature and position of the country, 

mogk with woods and hills, and surrounded by states which almost 

fll«ra\'3 refuse to give up offenders.^ The habit of letting unguarded 

cattle graze about the hills adds greatly to the number of cattle 

t\iehs, and the case with which, by moving a few thorns in the side 

oi oae of their tiuts, a lover or petty pilferer may find his way inside, 

R'welh the list of housebreakings by night. The cases of simple 

and grievous hurt are almost all the result of the Bhils' excessive 

lore for spirits. On the whole, considering the people and the 

country, {he crime list is by no means heavy, and cases of heinous 

yTences, murders, culpable homicides, and gang robberies are 

cnmparatively rare.* 

Ai, except in murder cases, there are no arrangements between 
the Meywar and Rewa Kantha states for the surrender of ofEenders, 
riaims by the people of the different states are inquired into by a court 
tiujwn as the 'International Panchayat' which holds its sittings 
every year in some frontier village. This court consists of the two 
British political officers in charge of the states concerned who have 
r» '^er to refer cases for settlement to a local pancMyat. The chief 
^^es tor the guidance of the court are, that the claim must be made 
withio a year of the commission of the alleged offence; that 
trarellers are bound to take guides, valdvds^ and that if they neglect 

Chapter IX. 


Coarts of 

' In the eastern Sooth villageB parties of Bhils from across the Mejrwdr border 
oxmA with bows and arrows enter a villa^ and drive off what cattle they find, 
or they wiut their chance till a herd is jprazmg near the border, and, rushing across, 
-anr them otf. The police can do nothmg as they cannot follow the offenders across 
f^i U^rdsr. Mr. Fresoott, Superintendent of Pohce. 

^ Mr, P!r»cott (1874) gives the following details of a dacoity in Sunth, One 
vjming in Mav, shortly Mfore sunrise, a bc^y of fifteen mounted and armed men, 
?>u<^&9 with four camels, entered the small village of Sarsan. The villagers offering 
o' roistwiee^ they forced their way into a monastery, robbed it of £S00 (Rs. 8000), 
^"^Z) kfi within an hoar. Word was sent to a police poet close by, and tiie police, 
^iiiing the Bhils as they went idong, pursued the robbers, and with the loss of three 
*^ Ukttr miBiber killed and several wounded| killed two of the robbers, secured six 
7^^ >nd wofonded some of the rest who made good their escape. Inquiry showed 
^ the robbers had oome from Jodhpur. They were probably mduced to make the 
htky by some false tale of the monastery's wealth. 

[Bombay Oaietteer. 



Chapter IX. 

Courts of 


tUs^ no claim can stand ; that if tlie complainant is not present tho 
defendant^ if he pleads not guilty^ may be discharged, and if tho 
defendant fails to appear, the complainant may gain his case by 
taking an oath as to the justice of his claim ; and that the state in 
whose limits the crime Was committed is responsible for the arrrst 
of the offenders and for seeing that the court's sentence is carried 
out. All sentences are fines, payable as compensation to the 
complainant, and varying in amount according to the natnro of 
the offence.^ When the officers agree there is no appeal. When 
they differ the case is referred to the Rajput&na Agent to the Govemfr 
General. Decisions of local panchdyats, in cases referred to them 
by the political officers, are final. The working of the present 
system is not satisfactory. In 1874 the president reported that ' ho 
had never seen such an amount of unblushing falsehood an<J 
undisguised subornation of evidence,' and in 1878 the Rewa KdntL:i 
Political Agent urged that the border court should give place to 
an extradition treaty.^ 

In former times the duty of keeping order was entrusted to the 
mercenary troops, sibandi, both horse and foot, of which the toral 
strength was, in 1854, returned at 1939.' These troops, withoiii 
method or discipline, were unfit to keep order. In several part^ 
of the district, especially in the border villages of Gujarit and 
Meywir, the people were in a state of chronic hostility. Receirini,' 
little help from their chiefs, they refused to pay them revenue or yieM 
them obedience, and were not brought to order till *a speri*' 
post had been established among them. Besides their polia^ 
duties, this sibandi was useful in collecting land and otb*r 
revenue, and served to swell the retinues of the chiefs. In 18^''^ 
when B&riya came under the supervision of the Political Agent. 
efforts were made to improve the sibandi by introducing some uf 
the method and drill of a regular police force. The attempt w:w 
repeated when in 1867 Lunav&da came under direct management' 
Though some improvement was made the result was not satisfactory. 
There was no proper supervision. The native assistants haJ 
neither the training nor the leisure to look closely after the police. 
Accordingly when, in 1872, the neighbouring state of Sunth carno 
under direct management, the Political Agent proposed to 
Government that the police of the three states should be formed int*^ 
one body. This proposal was approved and a federal police, ^^^ 
strong,* and costing about £5926 (Rs. 59,260), was formed anJ 

^ Except in the case of murder, when according to the new roles (29th Sept^^Qi^^'^ 
1877) instead of a fine the surrender of the offender can be demanded, the amoiuit^ 
of compensation are : for wonndin£^ abduction of married women, forcible alxiuction 
of unmarried women, and unlawfully carrying off, arresting, or detaining a ner»4^i^ 
2s, to £90 ; for carrying off a riding camel £8 ; a baggage camel £5 ; a she and he duSaIo 
respectively £3 109. and £1 lOs, ; a cow £1 10«.; a bullock £2 4«.; a riding po°y 
£1 4«. ; a bull £1 ; a calf 10«. ; a sheep 4s. ; and a goat 4s, 

s Pol. Agent, Adm. Report, 1874-75 and 1878-79. 

'The details are : R&jpipla, 1002 ; Bdriya, 83 horse and 158 foot ; Ohhota I7dcpur> 
67 horse and 213 foot ; Lun4vCda, 43 horse and 162 foot ; Santh 20 hone au«l <>< 
foot ; and B^&sinor, 24 horse and 100 foot. 

* The details are : 399 foot and 42 hone. 




placed onder the snperintendence of a British officer^ and^ in 1875^ its 
operatiotis were extended to Kaddna and Sanjeli. The result was 
.satisfactory. There was a niarked advance in order and method^ 
ijid the bands of cattle-lifters and marauders who used to carry their 
raids into the heart of Sunth were afraid to pass beyond the border 
TiHagG^,^ In 1876 when the Bariya chief came of age his police 
r.->uting6nt was withdrawn^ and to reduce its cost the European 
tMcer was replaced by a Native. The B&riya chief engaging to 
i/iaintain in efficiency 153 foot and 17 mounted police^ the federal 
ioT<3e was reduced to 276. Its cost, £3797 (Bs. 37,970), was so 

\vea7y a burden to Lun&v^da and Sunth, that in 1877-78 itr was 

tnTther reduced to £3152 (Rs. 31,520). 

As regards the police of the other Rewa E&ntha states, in 
fUjpipIa there are on police duty 100 sihandi, 70 of them foot and 
•>0 horse. The mounted police are armed with guns and swords, 
imd are paid £2 (Rs. 20) a month, out of which the keep of their 
lion^es is taken. The foot police wear a black uniform, and are 
anncHl with guns, swords, and batons. The Chhota Udepur police 
i.s 199 strong, 30 of them mounted and 169 foot. The mounted 
I^Aloe, armed with guns and swords, are paid 14«. (Bs. 7) a month, 
the §tate feeding their horses and meeting the cost of their keep. 
The Bilaainor police is 110 strong, 25 of them mounted and 85 foot. 
The moantad police, of whom two are officers, are supplied with 
hcrses wiose keep is met by the state and are paid 10^. (Bs. 5) a 
nionxh. In the Mehvfis tracts there is no regular police. The 
« Liefs are too poor to pay for a proper force and too indifferent 
t • exert themselves to keep order and punish offenders. The police 
of their estates is in the hands of the thdnddrs whose only force 
i« the irregular body of horse known as the Gaikwdr's contingent. 
This, 314 strong, was originally a force bound by treaty to 
a^'company British troops on service and was afterwards posted 
to the different tributary districts. Its duties are ill defined. It is 
^?^i more to stimulate the petty chiefs to arrest offenders than as 
an actire agent in police inquiries. 

In the whole of Rewa K6ntha there is no regular village police. 
The duties of revenue and police patels are generally united in one 
fterHon, who holds service, pasdita, land or enjoys some exemption 
from the payment of plough-tax. They help the police in catching 
•iffenders, mustering the bad characters of the village, tracking 
(ootprintd of thieves, telling the police of accidental or suicidal 
doHthfi, and performing other petty police 'duties. The village 
snatch, rakhds, generally Bhils or Kolis, are paid in the same way 
ft."^ paieU, though on a smaller scale. In some cases where there 
i3 no state provision, the villagers pay them in grain, the watch 
agreeing in return to make compensation for all thefts and robberies 
iW may be traced to their dishonesty or want of care. 

Chapter IX. 


B 961—11 

^ Mr. PresGott, Superintendent of Police. 

[Bombay Gasettoer 



Cihapter IZ. 




The following table gives the crime and police details for the fiv< 
years ending 1878-79 : 

Bewa KdrUha Crime and PoUee, 1875'1879. 


Ormrcn jjtd GoHTxcnoin. 











• 2143 











Till lately there were no jails in the Rewa Kfintha. Prisoner: 
were confined in rooms attached to the chiefs' dwellings^ and, till tln; 
paid their fines^ were kept in the stocks^ ill fed and ill cared f ?: 
in the states under direct management^ efforts have been made t 
improve the jail accommodation. New jails have been built ^ 
'B&rijs,, R&mpnr^ B&jpipla^ and Bdl&sinor, and in LunAvada the statti 
granary has been prepared to receive prisoners. There are ninetcf j 
lock-ups^ and a jail is shortly to be built at Chbota Udepur. W 
B&riya^ Sunth^ Lun&v&da^ and B&jpipla^ the health of the conn"^' 
is looked after by medical officers in charge of local dispenssne^ 
Except a few at Lun&v&da who make tape for cotB the convicts &x 
kept at out-door labour. 




Vr former times ilie disturbed state and isolated position t>f the 
countiy, the rivalry among the chiefs to flecure settlers^ and the 
tariiih grants of land to Brahmans^ Bh&ts^ and others^ prevented the 
iaod from yielding any large amount of revenue. Between 1863 and 
h65 the rise in the price of field produce fostered the spread of 
tillagej aud increased the rental of rich lands. Since then, by the 
opeoing of railways and roads^ the tillage area has continued to 
spread, and, except for the loss caused by the failure of crops in 
1878, the land revenue has steadily risen. 

Few details of the finances of the different states are available. 
TlicBljpipla revenues which, from disorders and disputed successions, 
UU Irom f34,&58 (Rs. 3,45,580) in 1776 to £17,636 (Rs. 1,76,360) 
in 1830, tave cince 1830 steadily risen to £27,000 (Rs. 2,70,000) 
iu 1854 and £67,967 (Rs. 6,79,670) in 1876.1 Of the expenditure 
^m little is recorded, and, as in all native states, pilgrimages, 
marriages, deaths, or other chance events in the chief^s family 
(uoae such sudden changes in expenditure, that it is hard to say 
low far the great advance in revenue has been swallowed up by an 
incTea^e in charges. The few available materials seem to show that 
tbe Bijpipla finances are prosperous. Between 1829 and 1833 
tie expenditure far outran the revenue, £24,556 against £17,636; 
U'tve^ 1833 and 1839 and again between 1840 and 1848 the 
Kalance was restored, and of £22,463 to £20,640 only about 
il^.OOO were on an average spent. Since 1850 the great increase 
'{ reTeuue has been accompanied by a marked rise in expenditure, 
^^-^ 118,015 in 1848 to £60,935 in 1876. Still this amount falls 
aUut £7000 short of the estimated revenue, and much more of it 
ilian formerly is spent on works of public use, on roads, police^ 
rt'Orta of justice, and dispensaries. 

The Bariya revenue figures do not go further back than 1825. 
In that year the revenue was returned at £6117 ; in 1860 it had 
njen to £9375 ; and in 1864 when the state came under British 


Bevenue and 



10 122,520, the revenue declined to about £17,000 in 1875 and 1876. 

[Tha detoib are : an average of £34,568 from 1776 to y85 ; of £25,940 from 1794 to 
^ ; of £25,016 from 1804 to 1810 ; of £23,796 from 1810 to 1819 ; of £22,122 from 
m V) 1828 ; of £17»636 from 1829 to 1833 ; of £22,463 from 1833 to 1839 ; of £20,640 
^ 1840 to 1848 ; £27,000 in 1854, and £67,967 in 1876. The 1878 estimate ii £80.000. 

[Bomlay SftieUeer. 



Chapter X. 

Bevenue and 




Since 1876^ owing to extended cultivation and better management, 
it has again risen to more than £18^000.^ When the state waj 
taken over in 1864 it was burdened by a debt of £10,803. Tha 
expenditure was then £7935. Outlay on a revenue survey, roadi^, 
and other public woiis, raised the expenditure to £9421 in 187(^ 
to £16,333 in 1871, to £16,937 in 1872, and to £12,259 in 1875. In 
1874 the double marriage of the chief increased the charpes t^» 
£24,726, but in spite of this, in 1877, when his state was handed ovr 
to the chief, there was, instead of a debt of £10^803, a cash balance 
of £18,111. During the last two years, in 1877 on account .f 
investiture charges, and in 1878 on account of famine char^n-* 
amounting to £4028, *the expenditure has been in excess of ik 
income. Still the Bariya finances are prosperous and satisfactory. 

The Lundvdda revenue rose from £6742 in 1852 to £8259 m 
1859 and £11,113 in 1866. Then under the management of tb* 
Political Agent it increased to £12,903 in 1872 and £14,830 in 18:k 
In 1876 it fell to £12,833, but has since, in spite of the last; year of 
scarcity, slightly risen to £13,558.* In 1867 when it came undtr 
direct management, the expenditure was returned at £12,429. Siin'f 
then, in spite of economy, survey and other public works have 
prevented any reduction of charges, and in 1878 the marriage of the 
chief and the high price of grain raised the expenditure to £16,12j. 
When it came under management, the state was heavily burdened, 
and during the first year the debt was greatly increased by tba 
succession fee of £8256 to the British Government, ani an outla/ 
of £9537 on funeral and other family ceremonies. In spite of tlw?rf 
and other heavy charges, £10,280 for the revenue survey aoi 
£4000 for the marriage of the chiefs sister, by 1877 the debt w»5 
reduced to £6466. In that and the next year expenses connectt'i 
with the scarcity and the chiefs marriage have again raised it t'' 
£12,129. But it is hoped that during the present season tlii^ 
debt will be reduced by about £3000, the proceeds of a special 
marriage cess, chaiidla veto. 

The land revenue of Sunth was in 1854 returned at £131'. 
During the next eighteen years of his rule the late RAja raii?^ 
it to £6000 or an increase of 460 per cent. In 1868 the total stati^ 
revenue was returned at £8297. The state came under Ag^^^^ 
management in 1872. Since then, by the sale of some state st-oro;*, 
rising to £19,331 in 1873, the revenue has fallen to £11,180 ia 
1874, and to about £9000 in 1876 and 1878.3 The expenditure m 
1868, returned at £5680, rose from special causes to £14,814 m 
1874, and has since been reduced to £9160. Well managed by i*^ 
late chief, the state was, in 1872, handed over with about £24,000 

1 The details are : £6117 in 1825; £9375 in 1860; £16,231 in 1864; £l6,01?Sin 
1870 ; £19,823 in 1872 ; £17,976 in 1873 ; £22,620 in 1874 ; £17,001 in 1876 J £i7»2^ 
in 1876 ; £18,644 in 1877 ; and £18,226 in 1878. 

3 The details are: £6742 in 1852; £8289 in 1859 ; £11,113 in 1866 3 £1^.842 1^ 
1868 ; £13,600 in 1870 ; £12^988 in 1871 ; £12,903 in 1872 ; £11,465 in 1878 ; £M.83^ 
in 1874 ; £14,794 in 1875 ; £12,833 in 1876 ; £13,720 in 1877 ; and £13-5^ « l^I^* 

» The details are : £8297 in 1868 ; £19,331 in 1878 ; £11,180 in 1874 ; £12,40'^*^ 
1875 ; £9385 in 1876 ; £10,147 in 1877, and £9252 in 1878. 




(Baroda Bs. 2| lakhs) in cash and jewels. Under Agency 
management, in spite of heavy family charges and considerable 
sums spent on a revenue sorvey and on police^ the finances of the 
stAte have on the whole continued prosperous. 

Th^ few details available for other states seem to show a 
marked increase in wealth. In Chhota Udepur revenue has risen 
tram £8000 in 1841 to £10,000 in 1854, and from that to £25,000 
m 1878; in B&lasinor, since 1854, from £4000 to £8000; in Sanjeli 
from £100 in 1841 to £140 in 1849, and to £510 in 1878; and in 
Kaaana from £120 in 1841 to £250 in 1849, and £1000 in 1878. In 
these fltates no expenditure details are available. * 

Import, export, and transit duties are levied on an uncertain 
snuiber of articles, additions and changes being made at the caprice 
of the chiefs. Besides those levied by the larger states, the smaller 
ohicfs charge tolls, vaadvo, on traders' carts and on pack bullocks. 
Merchauts refusing to pay, seldom escape without being robbed, 
in Sonth a hurtful grain export duty is levied, but it is difficult 
t.> n^move it without causing serious loss to the state revenues. 
< )f other cesses the chief is a license tax, kasah vero, levied from 
siltnost all traders and artisans.^ In M&adva, in the Sankheda 
Mehv&t, a cess is levied on all second marriages. In Ch&nod from 
1^». to £5 (Es. 5 - 50) is claimed on newly made doors or 
windows, and at fairs from £1 to l^d. (Bs. 10-1 amia) is taken 
/romeack booth or stall. In Bariya, wandering comb«makers pay 
for the WiSoi they use in making combs, and from outside timber- 
deaii^rs a wood cess is recovered. In Sunth the holders of service, 
puidvat, land pay a yearly sum in commutation of service, and in 
many states, villagers who have no land pay a cess for the use of 
the village water, pdni vero. Of other cesses one at the rate of 1«. 
fci (M»€t«) is levied on the burning of bodies brought from other 
di&tncts, and another of £1 2«. (Bs. 11) on Br&hmans who, at holy 
\Aj^jea on the Narbada, lay the spirits of the dead and perform 
«it&er ceremonies.^ Other yearly cesses date, according to the 
oomon story, from some chance iniudicious gift. A Lun£v4da 
chief stopping to dine at one of his villages, the Brahmans brought 
him a set of leaf plates and so established the precedent for a yearly 
d^ioaod for plates, afterwards commuted into a money pajrment. So 
too bom the gift by some calenders, of robes for the chief to sit on, 
vra5 founded a yearly daimfor clothes and money; and a yearly 
grafts cess dates from the chance supply of fodder for the chiefs 

Chapter X. 

and Finance. 



' The tftx IB levied on carpenters and blacksmiths ; on tanners ; on hand-loom 
v^vefs ; on soap makers ; on Narbada boatmen ; on goldsmiths ; on oilmen ; on 
febenoea ; on dost-heap searchers ; and on potters. 

' Tbaa^ o^ed the N&r&yan ofiFering, Ndrdyan haU^ ceremony, consists in the 
ptrfonnanco of sKrdddh ceremoniee in nonour of some dead relative, who, it is 
Ulicved, has not attained bliss in the other world. Childless persons also perform 
Uis cwMDcny to propitiate N&r&yan. 

[Bombay GasattMr, 

Chapter XI« 

• 1878-7a 



Private Schools. 



In 1878-79 there .weie sixty-seven schools, or en an average on^ 
school for every jBfty-two villages, with 3448 names on the rolls and 
an average attendance of 3335 or 1*3 per cent of 260,278, the entire 
population of not more than twenty years of age. ExclucuDi^ 
superintendence charges, the total expenditure on account of these 
schools was £1723 (Rs. 17,230). 

Under the Director of public instruction and the EducatiMQ 
Inspector, northern division, the schooling of the Rewa Kantlia 
district was in 1878-79, conducted by a local staff 130 strong. Ot 
these one was an assistant deputy inspector, with general charge oyer 
all the schools of the district drawing a yearly pay of £95 (Rb. 950) 
from the Rewa Kantha education and the BAriya tribute funds ; the 
rest were masters and assistant masters of schools^ supported at a 
yearly charge to the states of £112 (Rs. 1120). • 

Of sixty-seven, the total number of schools, in sixty-six Gujanti 
only was taught, and in one Hindustani. Of the GujarAti schoow 
three were for girls, in the towns of Nandod, LundvAda, and 

There are no aided private schools in the district. Before the 
introduction of state education, almost every Rewa Kantha village? 
had its private school taught by a Brahman. These could not 
compete with schools helped or supported by state funds, and their 
number fell in 1875-76 to nine with an average attendance of -<J^ 
pupils. During the rainy season stray Brahmans sometimes opeu 
temporary classes in villages unprovided with state schools. 1>^^ 
most of these villages are small, unable to supply an attendance or 
more than ten boys. For two or three of the rainy months and ftj 
harvest times the Br&hman teacher is generally paid in grain and 
sometimes in money. His total receipts generally vary from &^ ^^ 
£7 lOs. (Rs. 50-75). Most private schools in towns have been 
established by the forefathers of the present Br&hman tesujhers. 
On entering the school, a boy offers Is. (8 annas) to Sarasvati, the 
goddess of learning. Every day he attends, he brings the teacher 
a handful of grain, muthiy and on holidays, %d. (i anna) in addition. 
When a boy is going to be married, his teacher gets 2«. (Be. 1) ^^^ 
teaching him marriage songs. Boys seldom stay at these schot^ls 
after twelve and most of the pupils are under ten. Girls, as a rnJpf 
do not attend them. Between six and eight, boys are taught native 
numerical tables, dnks. Afterwards they learn to write by tracing 
letters, mulakshars^ on sanded boards, and by writing charact^^^ 




niwa, with wet chalk on black boards. They seldom learn writing 
wA\, bat mental arithmetic^ hisdb, is taught to perfection^ and this 
port of their teaching has been adopted in state schools. The boys 
'^j to their t^eacher's dwelling and as his house is often small^ in the 
Q^>mijigs and evenings the pupils sit in a group at the side of the 
street in front of the school-door, working sums or shouting out 
intlimetical tables.^ The position of the masters, and the religious 
piemen ts in some parts of their instruction, greatly help them in 
rlu*ir competition with the purely secular instruction given in state 

In 1364-65 there were thirteen schools, eleven for boys and two for 
cirU, irith a total number of 1023 pupils. In 1878-79 the number 
*'t whoolfi had risen to 67 or 515 per cent, and the number of pupils 
to 3448 or 837 per cent. The following table shows in detail the 
sdrance made in the last fourteen years : 

Hewa KdfOha Schools^ 1864 - 1879. 
















SttkbedA Hehvte 


OiiurtA Ud«pur ... 


PindoUeh-via ... 

I>orU]fobvte ... 



Totol ... 

fBoys I 
lOirls 1 


(BoyB I 

iQirlfl I 







• •• 

• •• 

i ^^ 

(Boys 12 

iOirIa 1 

( Boys 10 

lairls 1 




Boys 2 

(Oirls I 







] 166 




i 410 

• *• 


• •« 








( 698-0 

I 81-6 

( 7261 

i 82-6 




C 4041$ 

t 86-3 







\ ^ 


• •• 


} « 

• •• 


• •• 













Tte 1872 caensus returns give for the two chief races of the district, 
^^eiollowing proportion of persons able to read and write. Of 
^•U^Ol^the total Hindu male population of not more than twelve years 
^Age2836or 3*02 per cent ; of 42,583 above twelve and not more than 
^enty years, 2599 or 6*10 percent; and of 122,679 above twenty 
yeirs, 7796 or 6*35 per cent were able to read and write or were being 
^^. Of 82,085 the total Hindu female population of not more than 
♦^Ire years of age, seventy-two or 0*08 per cent; of 32,124 above 
i^C'lYe and not more than twenty years of age, thirty-two or 0*09 per 
^^^} and of 112,049 above twenty years, fif^-eight or 0*05 per cent 
*Gfe able to read and write or were being taught. Of 3508 the 
^^tal Musalm&n male population of not more than twelve years of 
*?e, 117 or 3*34 per cent; of 1703 above twelve and not more than 
^enty years of age, 1 75 or 10*28 per cent ; and of 5586 above twenty 

Cihapter XI. 


Private Schools. 


Readers and 


'"five school hoars are from eight to about twelve in the morning, and three to 
^Miix in the afternoon. 

[Bombay Qanttder, 



Chapter XI. 




Caite of PnpilB, 


years, 511 or 9*15 per oent were able to read and write or were being 
taught. Of 2951 the total Musahnfin female population of not more 
than twelve years of age, nine or 0'31 per oent ; of 1334 above twelve 
and not more than twenty years of age, eight or 0*60 per cent ; and of 
5022 above twenty yeafs, 22 or 0*43 per cent were able to re^ and 
write or were being taught. The returns do not give corresponding 
details for P4rsis. ' 

Of 3448 the total number of pupils in the Rewa K&ntha school^, 
there were in 1878-79, 949 or 27*5 per cent Brfihmans; 184 or 5:' 
per cent Kshatris; 3 or '08 per cent K&yasths and Parbhus; 740 ^t 
21*4 ]^r cent traders, Vinife, Bhdtias, and Modhids; 55 or 1*5 pr 
cent Jains (Shrdvaks) j^94 or 20*1 percent cultivators, Kanbis, and 
Kolis ; 230 or 6*6 per cent craftsmen, goldsmiths, carpentersj auJ 
blacksmiths; 152 or 4*4 per cent personal servants, Dhobhi^ 
washermen, Bhistis water-carriers, and Mochis shoemakers; 124 w 
2*6 per cent bards and genealogists, Bhdts and Charans ; 208 or 60 J 
per cent Musalmins ; 5 Pdrsis ; 5 hill tribemen, and 3 Portuguest'. 
There were no Dhed or Bhangia pupils. In B4riya, in the purely 
Bhil and Koli villages, no school fee is charged and every inducement 
is held out to parents to send their children. In the Tfluka schooU 
of Biriya and Lun&v^da pupil teachers are trained to be master 
of primary village schools, and scholarships are awarded to those 
who wish to study in the Ahmedabad high and training schools, or 
in the Nari&d high school. The lixm&v&Aa, state has awarded n 
monthly scholarship of £1 to a native of that state who passed iho 
Bonibay University matriculation examination. 

LThere are three libraries, at Lun&v&da, at Devgad in the Bariya 
state, and at B&mpur in Sunth. The Barton library at Lunava«6> 
called after Colonel Barton the late Political Agent, was established 
in May 1870. It is accommodated in one of the school rooms, and 
h maintained by a yearly grant of £8 16». (100 syhdsdi rupees). I^ 
^ontains 118 books, almost all of them vernacular. The Devgad 
hbrary, known as the Native Library, established in July 1872 and 
containing 123 books, almost all of them vernacular, is maintainea 
by a yearly grant of £8 165j] (100 syhdsdi rupees). \lThe Eampur 
library, opened in 1877, has very few books, almost all of them 
y-emacular.\ It is maintained by a yearly state grant of £5 (Its* ^^^J* 
All of these institutions subscribe to Gujardti newsp^rs^ ,^°^ 
Gujardti and Mardthi Bombay and Gujarit periodicals. There is o'^ 
loc»l press or newspaperT^ 





Thk cUef diseases are fever^ eye and sidii complaints, and 
dianiicBa and dysentery. Cholera not nnfrequently appears in the 
bnt season. There have been three outbreaks during the last four 
>*'ara. In May 1875, several cases of cholera caused such a panic, 
that in some places the people left their houses and spent a day 
(»r two feasting outside of the villages. Except for a short time 
I 'J the estates of Bh&darva and Sihora on the Mfdii and Pal&Bui on 
the Narbada, the disease was nowhere of a virulent type. It lasted 
rill September and proved fatal in about forty-five per cent of the 
cases. To help the people a hospital assistant was sent from 
Qaroda, and medicine distributed free of charge. Among the 
wilder tribes the belief prevails that cholera is caused by old 
wc/men who feed on the corpses of the victims. Formerly when a 
ratso occarred, their first care was to go to the soothsayer, bhagat, 
find out from him who was the guilty witch, and kill her with much 
t^ vrtore. Of late years this practice has to a great extent ceased. 
T\ie people now trace the outbreak to the wrath of the goddess 
Kill Bod to please her, drag her cart through their streets and lifting 
it tfver the village boundary offer up goats and buffaloes. Some- 
nmes to keep off the disease they pour milk round their villages or 
c^ncircle them with cotton thread. 

In July 1876, there was another rather sharp, though brief, 
f'Utbrcak in Lun&v&da, Sunth, and the Dorka Mehvas. Of the 
^^;i^are9 about forty-nine per cent were fatal. Again in 1878, 
iboleta raged from March to November, and of 8934 persons, 1766 
or {artj*five per cent died.^ It spread over almost the whole 
Agentj beginning in B&jpipla, B&l&inor, and the Sankheda 
Mehy&B; and passing to Lun&vada, Sunth, Kad&na and the P&ndu 
and Dorka Mehv&s. Places without dispensaries were provided 
with medicine free of charge. 

In 1379, there were dispensaries^ at five places in N&ndod, B&riya, 
Sunth, Lnn&v&da, and Cliiiota Udepur. All of them are provided 

I The detail* are : 











KiaburattsckMl ^. 
Kf&ter raeotend ... 





















Chapter ZIL 



' The boilding for a sixth diapenaaiy at B^i^sinor is nearly ready. 
B 561—12 

[Bombay Gazetteet 



Chapter XIL 







with special buildings. For the Chhota Udepnr dispensary n 
returns are available. In the other four, during 1877-78, 17,55 
persons were treated^ 835 of them in-door and 17^218 out-door. Th 
total cost was £730 (B«. 7300). 

In the Mary hospital opened in 1871 at N4ndod and called aft« 
Mrs. Barton, the wife of the late Political Agent, during 1877-7: 
2484 persons were treated, of whom 2451 were out-door ando' 
in-door. Of these 2428 were cured, 29 left, and 27 died. Tb. 
prevailing diseases were ague, dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, aoJ 
skin diseases. The total cost was £167 (Bs. 1670). 

The B&-iya dispendbiy was opened in 1870 at a cost of £rOi 
(Rs. 7000). Besides accommodation for in-door patients, it coDtau' 
quarters for the medical officer and his subordinates. In 1877-7^ 
8173 persons were under treatment, 215 of them in-door, of whun 
46 were cured, 30 left and 79 died, and 2968 out-door patients " 
whom 2054 were cured. The chief forms of sickness were venen a 
diseases, skin diseases, fever, cholera, ophthalmia, and diseases o 
the stomach and bowels. The total cost was £250 (Bs. 2500). 

The B&mpur dispensary in a handsome building at the west 
end of Sunth was at a cost of £400 (Bs. 4000) opened in DecembtJ 
1873, soon after the state was attached. Besides accommodati'i 
for several in-door patients it contains quarters for the meditMi 
officer and his subordinates. In 1877-78, 4559 persons were uuJ^J 
treatment, of whom 4492 were out-door and 67 in-door p*tients. |*' 
the out-door patients 4122 were cured, 240 left, 94 died, and oo 
remained. Of the in-door, 50 were cured, 13 left, two died and two 
remained. The daily average attendance was 39. The chief dista-sii 
were fever, constipation, bronchitis, cholera, diarrhoea, ulctrtj 
ring-worm, and ophthalmia. The total cost was £142 (Bs. U20). 

The Lun&v&da dispensary was opened in June 1873 in a la- 
house belonging to the state with quarters for the medical oft< 
and rooms for in-door patients. Of 7337 persons treated dnn 
1877-78, twenty were in-door and 7317 out-door patients. The fom 
were all cured. Of the latter 6100 were cured, 949 left, 125 die 
and 143 remained. The daily average attendance was 63"2. ^ 
prevailing diseases were fever, cholera, rheumatism, neura'f 
conjunctivitis, ulcers, bronchitis, dysentery, diarrhcea^ constipati 
and ring-worm. The total cost was £171 (Bs. 1710). 

The Chhota Udepur dispensary was opened in 1 8 78-79. No do 
of its working are yet available. The building for a dispensary 
Bdlfisinor is nearly finished. It will cost about £500 (Bs. 5000) 

The work of vaccination was, in 1878-79 under the supervision 
the deputy sanitary commissioner eastern Gujarat, carried o» 
twelve vaccinators paid out of the funds of the states to which ta 
are attached. The cost was £278 (Bs. 2780) or an average of 
(3 as. iipies) for each operation. During the year, 18,839 P^^ 
were vaccinated, 13,^47 of them for the first time. The perceo^^ 
of successful operations was 96*54 in primary and 82'00 I 
revaccinated cases. 




jla tho largest of the Rewa Kantlia states, lying between 
21 23Tnct7l° 59' north latitude and 73° 5' and 74° 0' eaat longitude, 
mih an area of about 1500 square miles, had in 1872 a population 
<ii 120,036 souls or 79*26 to the square nule, and in 1878 a revenue 
ofW7,000(E8, 6,70,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the river Narbada and the Bewa 
Kantlia Sankheda Mehv&s estates ; on the east by the Kh&ndesh 
Melivis estates ; on the south by Baroda territory and the Surat 
<lUthct; and on the west by the district of Broach. Its length 
ir\m lunth to Boath is forty -two and its breadth from east to west 
<jiity ndlfia. 

As they enter Guiarit, the Naxbada and T&nti. separated by the 
SitpQdi Imls, flow aoout t wentv^Sve m il es apart . Further west, forced 
«fimder by the two ranges into which the Sdtpudas break, the 
rivers swerve outwards, in the next twenty-five miles doubling the 
>ii9t4uice betweeen them. Again as the hills fall into the Gujar&t 
piaiDj the streaims draw togethe r nearly as close as they were at the 
eastern border of Gujarat. Except the south-west comer the 
< >)T mtry so enclose d belongs to, and forms the greater part of, the 
lUjpipla state. With some r ich well tilled lands in the north and 
tU' rtVwest this tract is, over almost two-thirds of its surface, rough, 
^il d, and unh ealthy , covered with forests and hills. Along the north 
^ north-west, and in the west as far as Yasrdvi and Mkndvi, the 
c«)\mtry ig flat and open. In the north along the Narbada Ja a^rich 
all uTj^belt a bout ten miles broad, with the town of Nandod and 
^^J large villages of settled, well-to-do, and skilled husbandmen. 
^^ *ie west and south-west t he land, except for patches round its 
stnall BI mI village s, is luitilled and covered with grass and brush- 
^^•* E astward, beyond the sources of the Kim, the country 
f vetches a rough upland covered with elephant grass, thom- 
^diea, and timber, dotted with small hills, and crossed from the 
«C8th and south-east by the Karjan and Tarav rivers. Its few 
^^^haUtants are Bhils. wild, poor and unsettled, growing only the 
^^^^^^^r grains. Except to the west this central plain is, on all 
^^Jes, simioimded by hills. To the north, beginning in the west 
^h low isolated mounds, the land rises eastwards into a ten mile 

Chapter Zni. 



, The atofcet are arnuxged according to their size and wealth. 

' Colo&d FttUjames calls it (1852) a thick forest. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 112. 

[Bom1)ay Gantteer. 



Chapter znL 



broad tract of hills, ridge behind ridge^ with steep forest-dad tiHts 
and sharp ragged crests and peaks 2000 feet bigh. To the soath-west 
and southj the hills are low with tame waving outlines and liroaii 
flat tops. To the east the S&gb&ra and otber high ranges rise with 
bold outline far above the west B&jpipla hills almost to the level of 
the main range of the S&tpudas. In all these hilly tracb the 
climate is most unwholesome and the poor unsettled tribes of 
Bhils, with little and coarse tillage, live chiefly by cutting timte 
and selling gum, honey, and wax. Besides the tract between tl. 
T&pti and the Narbada the B&jpipla chief owns land on the nort.: 
bank T)f the Narbada. This about twenty-one miles north at.: 
south by eight east^and west is, except on the river sidi. 
surrounded by Mehv&s estates and like them is rugged, woodtHl, 
and unhealthy. 

The drainsj;^ of the tract between the Tapti and Narbada flon^ 
along t^ee main line s, north-west to the Narbada, south-west t • 
the Kim, and south to the T4pti. Of these lines the most importarit , 
including the drainage of almost the whole central and caeteru 
uplands, lies along the rivers that flow into the Narbada, Of tbe^' 
streams there are, in the extreme east, the Deva, and in the north- 
west and west the Madhumati, Bundva, Kiveri, and Amrarati. 
Midway between them, rising about ten miles from the Tipti in lie 
highest part of the southern range, the Karjan flows north drainu^^' 
the central uplands, cutting through the northern hills, crossing tl^^' 
rich Ndndod plain, and after a course of about fifty miles, fcJling ifl^-' 
the Narbada at Rundh. Among the hills with steep well-woodw 
banks and rocky bed, it passes into the plains alK)ut fifty prvU 
broad, the stream generally knee-deep, flowing throughout tlio 
year clear and sparkling. Of many tributaries the chief are tli ' 
Mohan from the left and the Tarav from the right. The Mohan, 
rising in the southern hills not far from the southern source of tlu* 
Vari, flows north-west and after a course of about fifteen miles, lall.^ 
into the Karjan at Thava. The Tarav, a more important tribut*ry. 
rising in the lofty hills near Chich Amli, flows west for about twenty 
miles, and then, joined from the left by the Dainan, turns norto, 
and after a winding course of about twelve miles, falls into the 
Karjan a few miles west of the fort of Rdjpipla. Of the draina^^«^ 
westwards, the Kim, rising in two streams a few miles west of tbt> 
Karjan valley, flows about twenty miles to the south-west. Froni 
the southern hills three rivers drain south into the TApti, the ^ ^^^ 
in the west, the Ajdn in the centre, and the Dudan in the e^Sil 
The Vari with two streams rising in the south-west comer of ^|j^* 
southern hills, passes about twenty-five miles south-west and M\^ 
into the Tapti about five miles above the town of Bodhfiu. Tm* 
Aj&n, from the high Nanchhal hills, close to the source of tn^ 
Karjan, with a winding rocky and uneven bed and steep banK^* 
forces its way through the hills, and, joined by many streams front 
either side, falls into the T4pti at Magatrav about twelve nii'^'* 
above Mandvi. The ]^udan, rising from the eastern slopes of '|j^' 
same hills, flows south-east through the S£gb4ra lowlands and f*"^ 
into the T^pti at Umerda about thirty miles above the Aj»'*" 
Besides these rivers many small streams cross the country especial') 




m the north-west moat of them dry in the hot months though 
wBter is at all times easily found by digging in their beds. Built 
fTc'Us nowhere numerous are found only in the north and north- 
«T^t. But their want is little felt as most villages are well supplied 
with water drawn from wells sunk in the beds of streams. 

The BAjpipla hills , covering about two-thirds of the whole area 

"f the Rijpipla state^ may be roughly divided into t hree tra cts. In 

bi? north, a ten mile broad very rugged belt of hilly and thickly 

wo'ided country stretching east and west about thirty-six miles on 

*\\>i whole parallel to the Narbada ; in the south, a belt of low 

Wit-topped sloping hills running north and south to the T&pti an& then, 

tilong toe course of the river, turning east for about twenty miles ; 

h the east, ranges of high hills that fill most of the space between 

:^' Xarbada and the Tapti. From the Deva, B^jpipWs eastern 

!i!iiit, the northern hills, crowded in steep narrow and forest-clad 

*"'i2^5 about 2000 feet high, gradually sink westwards, till, 

vTeaVing into low detached hills, they are lost in the Gujardt plain. 

la the east the hill scenery along the south bank of the Narbada 

(n»tQ Sarban about ten miles west to Gk)ra, is very beautiful. And 

Irt^kmgeast and south from one of the hill tops, with bold quaintly- 

(!Tit ooflkes, range stretches behind range, their steep green tree- 

■'''TOTed fides furrowed with torrents. The southern hilly tract 

irclodis two main lines that together form one crescent-shaped 

r«ug^, a western part running north and south fifteen miles from 

fiiH railey^bf the Em to the valley of the Vari, and a southern part 

^rrotching twenty miles east along the Tfipti from the Vari to the 

rhidan. Standing out from the valley of the Eim, in small detached 

tiilU and with slopes gentle enough for carts, the western hills rise 

wut 800 feet in a tame unbroken line, whose broad flat top 

•if'pts slowly to the Mohan valley. The southern range, stretching 

^nh gently waving outline from the Van to the Dudan, is, near the 

' iddle, cut through by the Ajdn river. From the south its slopes, 

f^«*able by carts almost to the top, rise about 1200 feet ending in 

) thickly wooded plateau but little higher than the northern 

^ia^hhal uplands. The lines and blocks of hills that in the east, 

' i^^Tt in the valley of the Dudan in the extreme south-east, stretch 

^^>Tn the Narbada to the Tapti, are highest to the north of S&gb&ra^ 

""bere peaks and rugged ridges rise far above the level of the other 

B«fftpla hills. 

The dimate, though unhealthy, is pleasant, cold and bracing in the 
^uuer months, and with cool nights even in the hot season. Of the 
fij^ate in 1821 Mr. Willoughby wrote : It is very unhealthy and 
"^^^iaDy fatal to strangers. The unhealthiness is due chiefly to 
'be wi^r, tainted and in some cases poisoned, by the malarious 
(^ts through which the streams pass. Every thing boiled in the 
^^^ianpur water becomes a nasty, dirty yellow, uneatable, except to 
'k« very hungry. The unhealthiness of the climate is shewn in 
^^^ meagre sallowness of the people and the dropsical look of 
'^'aogiirs,' Of his experience while surveying, in the four 




Bom. Gov. Sel. XXUI. 268. 

[Bombay Qantteert 



Caiapter XIII. 






seasons ending 1855^ Mr. Pollexfen has left the followiog details. In 
the first year aboat a month in December aoid January was passed 
without bad results either to myself or my establishment. Next 
year beginning work in the same place on the 1st December, by 
the 13th^ myself^ twenty- two of my establishment^ and three-fqurtbs 
of my servants, in spite of free use of quinine were so fever- 
stricken, that, we had to return to Broach. Two men died, and few 
shook off the fever for a year. Next season in forest parts work 
was not begun till February. And from then up to the middle a! 
May, there was not a single case of fever. In the next year, thougii 
care was again taken not to begin till February, and though ih 
people of the district feemed tree from the disease, of seventy^five 
souls in my camp not ten escaped fever. In Mr. PoUexfeu's 
opinion the district varied much in unhealthiness, Sagb&ra and tlio 
banks of the Tdpti being much more feverish than the north. The 
chief source of disease seemed to be the water charged with 
vegetable matter gathered in passing through the thick close 
forests and brushwood. Though clear while 'flowing, if allowed to 
stand, a thick oily scum rose to the top. Even the natives disliked 
drinking it, unless it had filtered through a bed of sand. During 
the years of survey small-pox and cholera were committing fearful 
ravages among the people. 

Except in the rich western lands the whole of Rfijpipla is covered 
with trees. The northern forests though full of teak, Uackwood, 
and kfier, are so damaged by yearly fires and are in so difiBcuIt a 
countiy, that, except near the Narbada, their timber is in litllo 
demand. In the central uplands good trees are rare. But in tbe 
south, especially in Sdgb&ra, there are valuable teaJc forests, who?e 
timber is in great demand among the traders of Surat, Anklesvar, 
and Broach. 

A census taken between 1858 and 1855 showed a total population of 
108,812 souls. For census purposes the^state was divided into three 
parts, the rich villages in the north, the poorer op^ lands in the 
west, and the wild central hill tracts. The seven rich sub-dirifiioDS 
bordering on the Narbada, with an area of 284*3 square miles, ha4, 
including the town of Ndndod with 9500 inhabitants, an estimat^a 
population of 78,771 souls or 277-3 to the square mile. The open 
western districts of Ratanpur and Luna, with an area of 172 squ^^ 
miles, had a population of 10,920 souls or 63'4 to the square mil^- 
The hilly tracts with an area of about 1360 miles had, as nearly ^ 
could be ascertained, a population of 19,121 souls or on an averago 
14 to the square mile.^ The 1872 census showed a total population 
of 120,036 souls or 79-26 to the square mile, an increase m 
seventeen years of 11,224 souls or 10*31 per cent. Of ^'^^ 
whole number 114,625 or 95*49 percent were Hindus; 5257 ^^ 
4*38 per cent Musalmfins; and 147 or 0'12 per cent Pirsis- 
Therd were five Christians. Of the Hindus, 4360 were classod ^ 

^ Bom. Gov. Sel. XXUI. 319. 


Brahmans ; 5803 as Kslmtris^ Rajputs; 2732 as Yaishas^ traders Chapter ZIII. 

and mercbants ; 30^145 as Shudras^ ctdtivators^ craftsmen^ labourers. States. 

&ad depressed classes ; and 71,585 as unsettled classes including 

62,163 Bhilfl, 9261 Dhankis, 41 Ndikdas, 1 Valvi, and 119 Ra'jpipla. 

Cbodbris. Of 114,625 Hindus, 15,974 were Yaishnavs, 2261 of 

ibem YirraishnaTSj 11^08 Bam&nujas, 855 Sy&niin4r&yans, and 

)t)oO Kabirpanthis ; 8594 were Sbaivs ; 107 Sbravaks ; 373 Ascetics ; 

and 89«&77 goddess worshippers belonging to no special sect. 

Of the ^57 Musalmans, 5081 were Sunnis, 163 of them Syeds, 

o48 Sbaikfasy 464 Pathos, 8 Mogbals, 2 Memans, 151 Bohor^, 44 

Aigbifis, 151 Arabs, 129 Baluchis, 63 Makr&nis, and 3358 'others. 

There were 176 Shias all of them Bohords. * Of the P&sis 104 were 

Slaliansha is and 43 Kadmis. The five Christians were Roman 

iUlholics. Therewere 591 villages or one village to about every two 

square miles. Of these 435 had less than 200 inhabitants ; 104 from 

2W to 600; 37 from 500 to 1000 ; 12 from 1000 to 2000 ; 2 from 2000 

CO 8000 ; and one, the town of Nandod, had about 9500 inhabitants.^ 

In the rich alluvial soil in the north and north-west and in Sojlaaid 

favoured patches in the west, tuver, castor-oil, millet both hdjri and Crops. 

juvaTf cotton, gram, sugarcane, rice, and to a smaller extent 
bemp, wheats and tobacco are grown. Among the hills and forests 
where Bhils are the only husbandmen, the chief crops are tuver^ 
coarse rice, kodra, hanii, and bdvta. The four last, in grain almost 
aar small as mustard seed, are the BhiPs chief diet, though unless 
three or tour times washed the kodra is slightly poisonous, causing 
}fiddiness and faintness. Few condiments or vegetables are ' 
l^rown and most of the tobacco and molasses is imported. Except 
tiat there is almost no irrigation the style of tillage in the rich 
western districts is much the same as in central Gujardt. Almost 
all the hill crops are grown in chance forest clearings. On these the 

' IndiufiBg tbe town of Nindod, there were, in 1855, 550 Rdjpipla villages. Of these 
J*)Br^ Avidha with 735 houses, P4netha with 600, Bh^od with 500, and Jhaghadia with 
3)0^ vere places of some size, and in the rich Narbada districts there were from fifteen to 
tv^tity large villages. The rest were Bhil hamlets of rarely more than twenty huts, 
dtunatd together in the plains but in the hills spread over an area of three or four 
<*4am mileft. There were 23,956 houses and 22,2^5 enclosures, giving an average of 
19 '41$ houses and 18*70 enclosures, to the square mile, and an average population of 
5i>/ pervons to each house, and 5*39 to each enclosure. Of the houses 1711 inhabited 
hf 8194 peraoM were of the better, and 22,245 with 111,842 inhabitants of the poorer 
aort. In 1855, ia the richer sub-divisions along the Narbada, the people were chiefly 
Kaabiiv Kolis, Hajputs, and V^ds with only a few Bhils. In the open western 
tlUUicta of Batanjmr and Luna about half the villages had a mixed population of 
Ksoibta, Kolis, Rajputs and BohorAs; the other half were Bhil villages. Tne population 
ni tbe hittv tracts was entirely Bhil. The people of the richer Narbaaa villages 
differed little from those of other parts of central Gujardt. The Bhils of the hill tracts 
VcTB of middle nxe, clean limbed, and muscular, wonderfully active and very clever 
woodcattera. They were quiet and harmless, patient and easily managed. ' I had 
'always thought of a Bhil,* says Mr. Pollexfen, ' as a lawless marauder, but I have 
' fooBd thfom very different. Nothing was ever stolen from my camp, and, in some 

* caaesy things left behind were found anc^ returned. Their only vice is their fondness 

* Cor UquoT. Their rdli|^on is a religion of fear. Nearly every hamlet has some hill 

* dedicated to its special god, who is duly propitiatei with offerings. An epidemio 
' is thoiu^t to show that the ^od is angn^ and to please him, we village site is 
' ^enecal^ changed. Their marriages cost them large sums plunging them m debt to 

* raottey»leDdeTB and liquor-sellers. The Dhdnkis found chiefly in Sie Gora sub-division 
' rm tiie Karhada in the north-east seem to be closely allied to the N&ikd^' 

[Bombay Oaietiaer. 



Chapter ZIII. 



timber is cut and burntj and the soil^ enriched with the ashes and 
loosened with a pick-axe, yields crops for two years and is then Icit 
for some fresh clearing. 

From Nfaidod, the Ca pital of the state^ a road crossing tbo 
Narbada at Uhanod^ passes north to Broa ch ; a second very 
difficolti scarcely passable to carts, but much used by Yanjdras and 
probably leading to Mandlesar, passes east to Snlp&n ; a tmrd m^ 
about 1850| the only cart-road through the northern hills, runs soutb 
to join the Kh&ndesh ro ute, and a fourth goes west to Broa ch. In tk-J 
south are several lines of traffic, unmade cross country cart tracU 
from Broach, Anklesvar, Surat, Bodhfin, and Mfodvi centering at 
Chitald&r about thirty mUes north-east of M4ndvi, and then passing 
east to Eukarmunda eighty-nine miles from Broach and beyond 
that into Eh&ndesh. Besides these through routes, near the Tdpti, 
timber tracks run into the heart of the hills, used by carts thongb 
very steep, narrow and difficult. 

Along the main rou te by Kukarmund a passes a heavy through 
traffic between Uu]ar4t~ahcl Khtodesh. The carriers and traders 
are YanjariLs and Ch&rans. The Yanj&ras bring Kh&idesh grain 
chiefly wheat, and take tobacco and salt, and as they "pass do a little 
business with the Bhils. Along the same route Chfirans pass from 
Kdthi&wdrto Khindesh with Cutch alum and K&thi6war red earth used 
in dyeing. They take bullocks with them for sale and o^pasionaD/ 
do some trading with the B&jpipla Bhils.^ Of local traffic there 
are two chief branches, a field produce trade from the rich Narbeflft 
districts, and a timber trade from the hilly tracts in the south an^i 
east. In the north rice and pulse, tuver, are sent in considerable 
quantities to Broach and wheat is brought back. Scmhar hidw 
raw and cured, hemp raw woven and made into tape for cots, poi^ 
and turmeric, are exported ; and in their stead longcloth, chintz, 
iron, blankets, sugar, spices and salt are brought back. The tmo 
of these rich northern districts is chiefly in the hands of Nfedod 
Y&ni&s. These men, once revenue contractors, ijdrddrs, and owning 
considerable capital, have the cultivators, especially the Bhils, very 
much in their power. Their money and grain advances are, at 
harvest time, paid back either in coin or kind with very heavy 
interest leaving the Bhil nearly destitute. To them also the Kanbifl 
dispose of their grain getting money to pay their rents. Another 
set of traders are travelling pedlars who early in the fair season 
come in numbers to the hill districts, bartering with the Bhil^; 
taking rice and pulse and giving cloth, tobacco, molasses, salt, and 
salt fish. A thii^i set are the liquor-sellers almost all Anklesvar 
PArsis, who giving liquor and advancing money for rents gefc li^P^ 
quantities of grain and butter. But the chief trade of the districfc 
is in timber especially in teak from the S&gbara and other soatbern 
forests. About November, traders come in great numbers. Bringii^S 
carts from Broach, Surat, and Anklesvar, and staying in the forests 
till June, they hire Bhik to fell and strip trees and load them io^^ 

1 Bom. Cby. Sel. XXm. 318. 




cart3. On the spot tbe price of a ready filled cart-load of two to six 
l.'gs varies from 3«. to 4^. (Rs. 1^-2), the traders having to pay 
uj tolls a further stun of 6s. to Ss, (Rs. 8 - 4) a cart-load.^ Besides 
UMTj timber^ teak rafters and bamboos at 100 for 2«. (Re. 1) are 
eiiMirted in immense quantities. The profits on the timber trade 
..-' yefjT great. In Sorat and other centres, bamboos sell at ten 
whi^ the price paid for them in the Rajpipla forests. 

Imn of good quality used to be made at Pardvdnia near Ratanpur. 
lo 1855, though the manufacture had for many years been given up, 
Kaadod had still a good name for its knives and swords. In the 
T'.t-hOT districts the Dheds wove coarse cloth both cotton and Enen, 
vM tape tor oot«, pdti. At Dumkhal in the east some of the Bhils 
tuke catechu, kdtka, the thickened hher tree juice that is eaten 
^nti bet^l-Ieares, and others in the richer parts earn a little by 
ri^iting baskets and bamboo matting. On the whole the R&jpipla 
'aiiu&ctures are of the rudest and cheapest. ^ — " 

Fur administrative purposes the lands of the state are distributed 
"H^r seven sub-divisio ns, pargands, Rajpipla, Nfindod, Panetha, 
Hbal«}d, Jbaghadia, Rupnagar, and Thava, each under a commandant, 
^w/fwiir,with considerable revenue, police, and magisterial powers. 

The aereo sub-divisions of the Rdjpipla state may be brought 
«Qder l oor grogp s. Four along the Narbada , on the whole rich 
^°^J ^efl«to^o ; one inTthe west open and rather ba rren ; one in the 
^ 'fli ira roogh wooded upla nd ; and one in cluding the hilly trac ts and 
'^*i half independent sub-divisions of Sagb&ra on the south-east 
•*'-J of Y6di on the south-west. The four ""Narbada sub-divisions 
'^''^, beginning with the east, Nfadod, Pa netha^ Bhdlod, and 
''p'igha^ Except a small rugged tract on the rigTit bank of the river, 
•|tnd..Kl, lying between the hills and the Narbada and watered by 
'^-'Karjanand other small streams, is the largest and best sub-division 
' ^he state. Besides the town of N&ndod it has 125 villages, some 

ibem as Mongrel, Poicha, Shera, Jior, V6vri, Sisodra, Oli, Varkhad, 

''^h4y Rondh, Narkhari, and Navdgdm, are large and flourishing ; 

■ ^rs, especially the old petty division of Gardeshvar in the east, are 

' *^»e more than Bhil hamlets. Hilly and covered with forests in the 

t-uai, tlie centre is rich and well tilled, and the west, formerly known 

m Kanth&l sub-division, is covered with palmyra trees and much 

Chapter ZIIL 




Jr.wa by the beds of torrents. West of Nandod, Panetha with 
* 7?*^^ villages is, like N&ndod, large and flourishing. The soil ia 
•" *^i yielding crops of tobacco, cotton, maize, and millet. Among its 
1'^ well-to-do villages the chief are Panetha, Indor, Velugam, 
'^^, and IJmarva. The other two sub-divisions, Bh&lod with 
*''^2!L.and Jhaghadia with eighty-one villages, stretct from the 
• ''^Narbada bank to broken and forest-covered land. RufiSagar, 
'^^^li twenty villages, formerly the Luna sub-division, stretching 




Jbeiia wete (1856) chiefly on the main Silgb&ra roa^ twelve tolls, eleven chief 

M»!* "(J*^'. ^■'IP'Jg from U. 6rf. to 2b, (12 as, - Re. 1) a cart, and the twelfth a bar, 
..,'\v^^^'^nglia. (omta 1). Payment at one toll carried the cart through the 
'«'»Uvi9,<u^ But each snb^livision had ts own toll. Bom. Gov. SeL XXHI. 316. 

fl 56U13 

CBomtey Gasettaer . 



Cihapter XIII. 

Ba'jfifla. ', 



west into tHe open and flat Broach plain, passes in the ca^"^ 
into broken and forest-covered tracts half way between the ricl« 
Narbada districts and the wild country to the east and soutb . 
East of Jhaghadia and Rupnagar come the Thava Panch MahnlK. 
Netrang, Bundha, TEava, Bargama, and Kukarda, most of thetii 
covered with low detached hills. Netrang with forly-eip-l. * 
villages, stretching from Kanthdl on the norfcn to the Kim on th^ 
south, is in the north hilly and in other parts flat and covered vn^b 
thick forests. The villages are nothing but small hamlets of BLi' 
huts with patches of tillage near them. Rnndha with twenty-ei^b' 
villages is almost all taken up by a chain of hills sloping gentl} : . 
the west and ending *in abroad table land. Except afewfieM- 
fringing each small Bhil hamlet, most of the country is cowrc • i 
with forest and brushwood. Thava with thirty villages has nuiny 
small hills. Near the EArjan it is fairly well tilled but doeR ni' 
yield half what it would if properly peopled. Thava, in the tiino 
of Akbar, the chief town of the sub-division, and from its ruin* 
evidently once a place of some consequence, is now entirely deserts* 1 
Barg^m a to the south-east, with twenty-one villages, is almo:;: 
entirely covered with low hills that slope north to the Karjan. 
Except near villages the whole is thick forest. K ukyd a to the osi.-it 
with sixteen villages is, except in the east, flat and covered wi^h 
trees. Tillage is only in patches round the little hamlets. The 
fiYg..' JEill Districts ' Gajargota with thirty-one villages, R&jbfi ra 
with eighteen, Dumkha l with twelve, and in the south Naragam with 
seven, and Mor jari with twenty are all in the north group of bills. 
The country is throughout wild and inaccessible, a mass of hiU'«> 
and forest with a few scattered Bhil huts. The thdnddr of the«c 
districts is stationed at Rdjpipla.^ There remain two half -independent 
Bhil estates Sagbd ra in t he south-east, and VadHn the 8oath-we'=;t. 
Sdgbara with about twenty villages, about seventeen miles long anO 
eight broad, the only part of the Bewa Kdntha that passes as far 
south as the Tapti, is under the sway of a Bhil chief Damji Vasavn. 
Like Sagbara several other small Bml estates such as Kathr. 
Bhodival, GovAli, and Chikhli were originally under Rajpijila. 
But during the time of the Gaikwdr's oppression (1786) they woul«l 
seem to have freed themselves, and in 1817, when British authorif v 
was established in Eliandesh, they claimed and received protection 
from the Khdndesh political oflScers.^ In settling R&jpipla in 182*j 
Mr. Willoughby established an outpost at Sdgb&ra. But fr»«i»- 
the chiefs influence over the Bhil population, R^jpipla auihurit v 
has never been more than nominal. The people, almost all Bhils, 
live el^efly by wood-cutting. Sagbira, the chiefs head-quarter^e, is 
only a small village of a few grass huts lying under a hill 600 fci i 
high. Y&di. in the south-west comer of Rdjpipla, is a small estate 
of seven Bhil hamlets, the people almost entirely supported by 
gathering and selling forest produce. It is at present under diroitt 
management and in 1878-79 yielded a revenue of about £4oi) 
(Rs. 4530). 

> How much farther east R^jpipla limits formerly stretched amwacB from 
Mr. Willoughby 's statement (1821) that the eastern limit was 60 miles (33 i»t) Ijeyocui 

N&adod. llie limit is now only 20 miles (13 kos) • 




Of ancient Rajpipla history no details liave been obtained/ and 
ftiTcpt that Batanpor may be Ptolemy's mountain of agates^ none 
:•! iC9 settlements show traces of any great age.^ Of its two 
civigions the plain and tbe bill tracts^ it seems probable that the 
rrJi lands along the Narbada and the open Vestem districts were 
laolndeid in the domains of th e Anhilvada kings, and at the close 
a the thirteenth century were overrun^ by Ala-ad»din Khilji's 
hO^flerals (1295 •IS 15) • At that time, as. appears trom an inscription 
on the image of Rikhaydev in the village of Limodra, the chiefs 
ivoro Bajpats.^ Early in the fourteenth century the ruling chief is 
Biidtohave given his daughter in m arriage to Mokhd&ii Qohil/ 
th-j lord of Piram in the Cambay Gulf!^ i» 1347, on the fall of 
Piram and death of Mokhdaji, lus son Samarsi retired to Bhagva 
111 the Olpad sub-division of Surat, and, according to the common 
^<ory, on the death of his maternal grandfather succeeded to the 
•'liiefship of Bajpipla.^ During the rest of the fourteenth century 
t'ut) Bajpipla chief was left unmolested. 

The establialunent (1390) of a strong MusaJm&n dynasty in Gujarat 
pit an end to this independence. Defeated and humbled by Sultdn 
MakixmnadLin 1 403, and in 141 6 foiled in a scheme of revolt,^ he was> 
iu\431,attackedby Sult£ nAhmad ,andhi8townof Nandod^ destroyed . 
Dnvea from his lands the chief Harising is said to have remained 
tw^lvB jitttB an outlaw, and then to have been restored to his 
rirfits,* Daring^ the next 150 years the Bajpipla chief is seldom 
mentioned V and would seem to have held a very independent 
l^f^ticm, serving the state with 3000 horse and 1000 foot,*® but 
riymg DO tribute. At the same time this independent territory 

Chapter XIIL 



Early Hindu. 


' Tlie aceotont given in Arrian's Periplua (about a.d. 247) of the trade routes fronr 
B(«iich to Paithan, PtUhdna^ and Junnar, Tagara^ in the Deccan, mentions that 
'U ^ passes through a great space of wild and desert country, and large mountains 
1^ which ars leopards, tigers, elephants, vast serpents, hyaenas, and baboons. 
^'a<«iit'B OmaauBTC/Q of the Ancients, 11. 411. It seems possible as so manjr of 
i'-'iczay i names are places of pilgrimage that the Sarban (Map X.) on the Mahi just 
vi It leaves the hills, is Sarban on the Narbada. 

* Mr. WiUoughby (1821) states that in 1296 an army was several times sent 
*^^^=at iUjpipla, but the iUja being powerful in troops and money it did not prevail. 
*^aat Sum. They however obtained a footing at N^ndod, built a mosque, caused the 
^ '" b> be read and coined money. Bom. Oov. Sel. XXm. 264. This does not 
^T^ «ttK the account given bv Musalmi&n historians, according to whom the RAja' 
;* >^ip({>U remained independent tiU the time of Sult&n Mmiammad I. (1403), 
'\u*c* History, 30. 

* AocnnUnff to Tod the Qohila first settled at Ju na K hedgad o nthe Lu na ri ver,, 
* " ot ttft fsjS» from BhAlotra inMiinviir. They too£*it Irom iyiervo,"rEs"'Bliil chief, 
^* vUr holding it for about twenty generations were expelled ~By CEelUitiods, at 
\^ eid of the 12fch centunr. B^jasthto, I. 104. 

^^ IkiQk Gov. SeL XXIU. 264. According to the R&jpipla chiefs' genealogical tree, 
^(« chi«& ffiaiyed at Bhagva during two generations and extended their sway ovet- 
'*44a) and Anklesvar. But this tree was only lately (about 1850) drawn, up, and is 
^.'^ Dot to be a trustworthy guide. Bom. Gov. SeL XXIIL 322. _^ 
- Watson'a History, 31. ' Briggs' Ferishta, it. 36. 

;aA»MiU, 264.267. 

/riie only lelerencea that have been traced are homaige paid to Sult4n Bkthddur 
(J^^-1536) whenhuniiDg nearNdndod, and in the disorders that (1546^ followed 
i>iHia Muhanunad n.*8 attempt to comcJete its oonqueet.. 

^ Bud's liixAt-i.Aiu»adi,l& ' 


[Bombay Gttetteer, 
100 STATES. 

Chapter ZIIL seems to have been confined to the wilder and more hilly parts of 
Statea R6jpipla and western E^h&ndesh^ Ndndod^ probably including districti^ 

along both sides of the Narbada and soath to near the Tapti, boin^^ 

Ra'jfifla. qjjq Qf f]^Q twenty-five districts among which the dominions of ihi- 

^"^^^'y- Ahmed abad kings were divided.^ This arrangement continntul 

1S90-1720. aftertEe transfer o^ Gujarat to the Moghal Emperors. In 159(i, 

according to the Ain-i-Akbari *Nddaut^ with twelve sub^i visioos,' 
some to the south and others to the north of the Narbada^ was a 
regular part of the Imperial domain^ showing under Todar Mal'^ 
survey an area of 270,908 acres (5,41,817 bighds), and yielding a 
yearly revenue of £21,994 (87,97,596 dams). Separate from Nadar 
was the B&jpipla state,^ hilly country, seventy-five miles by fifty-five, 
(50 ko8 by 40) and therefore stretching far into western KhindesL, 
entirely under the management of a Br4hman. The chief whose 
• power was only nominal, was a Gohil who lived sometimes in 

K^jpipla and sometimes in Ghulva,^ a place of bad water but rich 
in honey and rice.* The chief had 3000 cavalry and 7000 infantrv. 
It does not seem clear what terms Akbar made with the Rijpipl^ 
chief.* Neither at the first (1572) nor at the second (1573) settle- 
ment is he mentioned. But in 1576 troops had to be stationed at 
N&idod to keep him in order® and in the following years (1583-159-) 
by three times giving a hiding place to the rebel prince, MuzsSxr, 
the B&jpipla chief must have incurred the Emperor's severe* 
displeasure.^ According to one account Akbar changed the 
condition of service into a tribute of £3555 12«. (Es. 36,666).® B"; 
this seems doubtful both from what is stated in the Ain-i-Aihari 
and from the fact that in 1609 when a post was established at 
R&mnagar, the B&jpipla chief furnished a contingent of 1000 Tti^'^* 

> Bird's Mir&t-i-Ahmadi, 111. One reason why lUjpipla and its chief are so seMom 
mentioned in Ahmedabad histories may be that they are spoken of under the name ^>i 
R Ajapf Pdl (Watson, 54, note 1). Pii probably derived from pdlo, leaves, and ?» 
meaninK forest lands, seems to be used pretty senerally for the wild hill and fore>^ 
tracts of eastern Gujarit, and in this Rdjpipla may sometimes be included. But 
the territory of the chief, oftenest mentioned as the lUja of Pii, seems to have b<^o 
much further north (Watson, 47-49; Bird, 285 and note) and was probably either Binjh 
which is stiU known as B^riya Pdl, (Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 161), or some tnc^ 
near it. According to the Ain-i-Akbari (Gladwin, n. 72), Pdl was a territoiy betwteo 
BunjBArpur and Bansv&da near Meran and Mangrich through which the Mi^i f*^ 

' The sub^viaiona were, according to Gladwin (II. 239), Amroli, Avdha, BeiToy, 
Badal, TlIkovareir,"Tehva, JemugAm, Kyar, Murehedereh, Manden, NAdaut W'» 
Nutrung. Of these Amroli is probably the place of the same name in the Saokfct'lU 
MehvAs ; Avdha seems to be Avidha or Arudah, also called Yarita (Bom. Gov. i:*:^ 
XXnL 265), another name for Bh&lod in the north-west near the Narbada, meotiooe*! 
(1866) as having a mosque iS^^outpost. (Bom. Gov. SeL XXIIL 296); J^l 
has not been traced ; Biedal is perhaps Bnddval (Bom. Gov. SeL XXIII. «9u : 
Tilkoy&reh is Talakydda on the NarbadaTTevha is ^hava, one of the tontbj-TC 

and Nutmng is Netni ny in the south of Ratanpur. * 

> Ghulva IS . probaUly Gov&li near Sdgb&ra on the hidi road to KhAndeeh, WA U>o 
Govili in the west on the Narbada. Bom. Gov. SeL XXIXL 325. 

* Gbidwin's Ain-i-Akbari, H. 73. , ^ 
^ At the time of Akbar's sfttlement Jayaaing was the chief of lUjpipIa. lUs MAU ^' 

• Bird's Mir4t-i-Ahmadi, 343. 

7 Bird's Mir^t-i-Ahmadi, 363-375 ; Blochmaon, 336 ; Wateon, 64. 65. 

8 Bom. Gov. SeL XXIIL 265« » Watson's Histoxyr 68. 




Dnring the rest of the seventeenth century, either by service or 
by the occasional payment of tribute, the chief continued to 
acknowledge his dependence. 

As late as 1715 mention is made of the* grant of the district of 

NancTod to Haidar Kuli Khan.^ Between this date and 1754 the 

Bajpipla chief seems to have recovered from the Moghals almost 

the wlxole of the Nandod district. In this attempt to increase his 

power he found a dangerous rival in Pilaji Gaikwdr, who, in 1723, 

from bis castle at Songad, overran south Gujar&t and built several 

forts within Rajpipla limits.* Later on, in 1763, the Peshwa 

allowed Dami&ji Gaikwdr, whose share of Gujarat yielded less than 

Lad been expected, to add to his revenues by annexing small Bajput 

estates and by levying tribute on the larger chiefs. With this 

object he advanced against Rajpipla whose chief Raising was only 

a boy of seven, and forced him to give up one-half of the four rich 

sub-divisions, of Nandod, Bhalod, Variti, and Govdii. Shortly 

after, Damdji, on receiving the chiefs niece in marriage, agreed, 

instead of a share in the four sub-divisions, to take a yearly money 

payment of £4000 (Rs. 40,000), keeping at the same time three or 

four villages near the Narbada and building a mud fort in each 

oi the four sub-divisions.^ Matters remained on this footing till, 

in 1781, Raising's minister intriguing with the Baroda Court, 

Fatehsing Gaikw4r with an armed force advanced to Nindod and 

raised th^ tribute to £4900 (Rs. 49,000). In spite of these 

exacdoDS Rdjpipla was at this time prosperous. With moderate 

land rates and cesses the average yearly revenue was £34,558 

(Rs. 3,45,580).* A strong chain of posts with an average strength 

of about 50 horse and 230 foot kept order over the whole country. 

Of the posts one of the chief was at Sagb&a to protect the 

Khandesh trade route, along which passed so considerable a traffic 

that the dues yielded a yearly revenue of from £4000 to £5000 

(Rs. 40,000- 50,000). 5 

In 1786 Rdising was succeeded by his brother Ajabsing an 
imbecile prince, whose feeble rule of over seventeen years (1 786-1 803) 
wds most disastrous to Rajpipla. Taking advantage of Ajabsing's 
weakness the Giikwar, on Raising's death (1786), raised the tribute 
to £1500 (Rs, 15,000) to be paid every second year, and again in 1793 
iDoreased the amount to £7800 (Rs. 78,000) . At the same time Umed 
\asAvB,, the Bhil chief of Sagbara revolted, and with the aid of a 
large body of Arab and Sindian mercenaries^ held five of the hill 
districts, and stopping all traffic along the Ehdndesh route reduced 
Rajpipla revenues from about £34,558 to £25,940. Quarrelling with 
his father, Ramsing the son of Ajabsing retired to the petty state 
of Mandva to the north of the Narbada. Helped by the chief ^he 
raised some troops and attacked Rajpipla, but was defeated and 
forced to fly to M&ndva. Here he married the chiefs daughter. 

Chapter XUI. 



1720 '18$0, 

^ Wst8on*A History, 91. 
5 Waleon's History, 97. 
> Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 265. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXm. 280, 
» Bom. Gov. SeL XXIH. 723. 
< Bom. Gov. SeL XXIIL 281, 273< 

[Bombay Oasetteer, 





Brituh SuperMon, 

and afterwards returning to Bajpipla on a promise of pardon^ waa 
seized and imprisoned, and Narsing his younger brother was 
named as the heir. On Ajabsing's death in 1 803, the troops, refusing 
to accept the younger brother, raised Ramsing to the chiefship. On 
succeeding to power E^msing gave himself up to debauchery, and, 
seldom free from the effects of intoxicating drugs, left to his 
minister the whole maxiagement of the state. Taking advantage of 
lus weakness the Gaikwar in 1805 sent a force to Rajpipla, extorted 
a succession fee, nazardna, of £15,000 (Bs. 1,50,000), and raised tlio 
tribute to £9600 (Rs. 96,000), adding shortly afterwards a further 
yearly demand of £400 (Rs. 4000). In 1810 the Gaikwar, with the 
consent of the British Government, deposed Ramsing, choosing aa 
his successor Prat&psing, R&msing's supposed child by the M^dra 
chiefs daughter.^ Tluis succession Narsing, Ramsing's brother, 
refused to accept, declaring that Pratapsing was not RImising'a 
son, but was the child of a poor Mandva Rajput, passed off as ht^r 
son by Ramsing's wife. In the same year (1810) Ramsing died, 
and Narsing began to plunder the country. Disorder continued 
till, in 1813, a six months' truce was followed by the despatch to 
R&jpipla of a large Gaikwdr force and the conclusion of an 
agreement, under which, leaving the management of the state in the 
Gaikwdr's hands, Pratdpsing and Narsing promised to keep the 
peace for two years and then submit their claims to arbitration. 

The Gdikw&r, once in possession, made no haste to settle the rival 
claims, and four years passed before even a preliminary inquiry wiw 
made. For this reason and as the Gaikw^'s officers had entirolj 
failed to establish order, the British Government determined to 
take upon itself the settlement of the disputed succession. It m^s 
at first proposed that the arbitrators should be the Raja of Cbhota 
Udepur ana other Rewa Kantha chiefs. But as all the men of this 
class were under the influence of the Gaikwdr, and as the Gaikwar 
was pledged to uphold Pratapsing's claim, the settlement of the 
question was placed (9th June 1820) in the hands of Mr. Willoughby 
the assistant resident. After very full inquiry Mr. Willoughby 
decided (20th February 1821) that Pratapsing was a spurionB 
child and that Narsing was the rightful claimant, and this, wich 
some hesitation the Gaikwar admitted. The British Goveminent 
then assumed the management of Rajpipla, the Gaikwar handing 
over all control on the same terms as he had in 1 820 given up the 
supervision of the tributary states in Kathidwar and the Walii 
K&ntha.' As Narsing was blind his son Verisdlji, a youth of thirtoon 
was appointed ruler, e^nd on November 15th was installed by Mr. 
Willoughby in the Rajpipla fort.' In October 1821 he ent^rod 
into an engagement bin^ng himself and his successors to act iQ 
conformity with the advice of the British Government.^ 

» Aitchiaon's Treaties (1876), IV. 265, 266, XCVIH. The Bombay Govonunemt 
agreed to guarantee this arrangement, but on aoooont of the death of B^mitinjg w.Q 
guarantee waa not actualb^ affixed to the sanad* 

' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 501-503. 

s Aitchiaon'8 Treaties (1876), IV. 267, G. 

4 Aitchiaon'a Treaties (1876), IV. 267, XCIX. 




The seven yeara of the Gfiikw&'s management had been very 
ciaastroojs* The most glaring crimes went unpunished ; the hilly 
tracts continued waste ; no effort had been marde to open the 
Beebara line of traffic ; and the revenue, realized entirely from the 
noh northern districts had, though with rates raised from 68, to £2 
tnd Irom £1 4». to £5 an acre (Rs. 3 - 20, and Rs. 12-50 a 
kv^mbha), fallen from £25,016 to £23,796 (Rs. 2,50,160 - 2,37,960).^ 
The r8soQrco8 of the country were almost exhausted. The towns 
and villages were mostly in ruins, the lands untilled, and the people 
flt^d. Those who remained were sunk in debt, their lands mortgaged 
to money-lenders. 'Prom every side rose the voice of misery.'* 
The look-out for the next season was most gloomy. Though the 
1820 collections had fallen short of £24,000 (Rs. 2,40,000) » the 
(i^Btractor had for 1821 engaged to pay a sum of £29,000 
(H^. 2,90,000). Scared by the contractor's efforts to make good 
tills amount, many of the chief men <M each N^ndod village had 
ma away, placing large babul branches in front of their doors, in 
token that till better times came they would not return.^ 

The British Government interfered in Rajpipla affairs to ensure 
that the Gaikwar's dues were properly paid and that order was 
eatabliahed. To gain these objects the British Government had to 
«S5ume entire control over the state finances, and to undertake the 
ta«V of reclaiming the wild hill tribes. The first step taken was to 
ohtaiii from the chief a written agreement (26th November 1823) to 
hmit his Expenses ; to adopt any plan proposed by the Baroda 
ReHi'dent for meeting the Gaikwar's debt and tribute demands ; to pay 
^tiy British troops that might be wanted to keep the peace inRdjpipla; 
to prevent or make good losses caused by Rajpipla robbers ; to harbour 
Di> breakers of the public peace ; to refer disputes for settlement to 
^he British Government ; to protect travellers ; to make his people 
accept the British settlement of their girds claims in the Broach 
and Sarat districts ; and to comply with any arrangements the 
British Grovemment might propose for the regulation of the opium 
teide.^ To fix the next year's revenue demand a return for ten 
y«ir3 1796 to 1800, and 1816 to 1820, was drawn up and the 
^^ewige £22,928 (Rs. 2,29,280) taken.« Of this not more than 
^^y,5u0 (Rs. 1,95,000) were realized. The failure was due to a 
Qic«t disastrous flood that in September 1821 swept away entire 
tillages from the banks of the Narbada, destroyed all the early 

Chapter XIIL 



State of the 



* Bom. Gov. SeL XXIH. 2S0. 

' Bom. QoT. Sel. XXIII. 269. In Ratanpur of 64 villaffes in only 23 did any 
OTguiisitioQ remain^ and in them only about ^th of the land was tilled (p. 540) ; in 
r_.^-*^^ . .„ ' ^ " '- '"^ andinthehilldistricteaix 

R^ing (1776-1785) with rents of from 6«. to £1 4«. an acre (Rs. 3- 12 

^ tumhha) the revenue was as much as £35,000 to £40,000 (Rs. 3,50,000 - 4,00,000) ; 
^\m the revenue was less than £24,000 (Rs. 2,40,000) though the rates had been 
^sea from£2 to £5 an acre (R& 20-50 a hmbha). Bom. Gov. SeL XXTTT. 276. 

* Bom. Gov. SeL XXm. 276. 

* Mr. Waioughby, 29th March 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel/ XXTTT. 009-617. Aitohiwrn's 
Tw«ti« (1876), IV. 268-270, CI. 

' Bonu Gov. SeL XXm. 532-587. 

[Bombay Gaxetteer, 



C3iapter xm 





crops over an area from four to eight miles broad, carried ofiE acres 
of the best land^ and ruined large J^racts by covering the soil 
several feet deep with sand and gravel.^ So great was the dania^ 
that under the former systems the probable revenue for the next 
year would not have been more than £10,000 (Rs. 1,00,000). Under 
these circumstances it was arranged that the seven rich sub-diilsioDs 
should for seven years be leased to men of capital, who, in the hope 
of large future gains, would be willing to pay for the first year 
more than they actually recovered. Care was taken to choosr 
men of good position, to offer them every indacement to favour 
immigration and bring waste lands under tillage, and, by keeping 
the pohce in the chief s^hands and making the contractor engage 
not to levy more than customary rates, to save the cultivators from 
ill usage.^ 

A sufficient revenue secured, it was decided (20th February 1823) 
to fix the Gdikwar's tribmie at a yearly sum of £5672 (Baroda 
Rs. 65,000).^ To settle the Gaikwdr^s debt was a much harder task. 
The amount originally claimed, no less than £217,624 12.?. 
(Rs. 21,76,246), proved on examination to include upwards of twenty- 
four per cent interest and an unjust item of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000). 
With very little demur the Gaikwar lowered his claim to £92,002 
(Rs. 9,20,020), Even then there were many unjust and overchai^eJ 
items, and, as it ytba hopeless to expect the Rajpipla state to pay such 
a sum, the Gdikwar agreed, on condition that as much as possible 
should be paid in ready money and the rest in yearly insttf ments, to * 
reduce the whole claim to £80,000 (Rs. 8,00,000). Of the £80,000 a 
sum of £14,033 (Rs. 1,40,330) was disputed by the chief who asserted 
that the Giikw^r's managers had recovered it when Rajpipla wsu' 
in their hands. The whole admitted debt was thus reduced to 
about £65,967 (Rs. 6,59,670). Of this in the first year by borrowing 
£24,402 (Rs. 2,44,020) * the sum of £40,569 (Rs. 4,05,690) was ptw*l, 
leaving £25,398 (Rs. 2,53,980) outstanding. It was estimated that 
in the next six years the new loan would be discharged and a surplns 
remain to clear off the rest of the Giikwdr debt.^ Of the £14,033 
in dispute between the Rajpipla chief and the G&kw^r it was after- 
wards settled that one-half should be admitted. In 1825 all claims 
were finally adjusted audit was arranged that the balance due to the 
G&ikw4r should be paid in the eight years ending 1833-34. 

1 AMistant in charge to Qovenunent, 3rd July 1823. Bom. Gov, Sel. XXUL 587,588. 
Details are siyen in a letter to Crovemment dated 30th November 1822, 

' Mr. Wiflonghby to Government, 20th Feb. 1823, and other correspondence ending 
with Government letter, 15th March 1823. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIIL 587-005. 

s Of the installation Mr. Willoughbv gives these details. After a few x«li^oui 
ceremonies *T^ J?i?tf4b T^^''K supposed to be the descendants of former nuo^ 
repeating a blessing and performing the rite of cMndla, or brow m arking, took the 
young cmef in their arms and, stepping on a platform about three feetmgfa, seated 
him on the state cushion amidst acclamations and distributions of sufiar Letter <d 
19th Nov. 1821, Bom. Gov. SeL XXIII. 607. 

* Of £24,402, £22,500 were, under British guarantee, raised from Baroda hanker*, 
and £1902 were borrowed from the BAjpipla state banker, potddr. Bom. Gov. Sel 
XXm. 623. 

« Mr. Willonghby to GovemmeDt, 21st June 1823. Bom, Gov. Sel. XSIU* 




The seconil great object of British interference was by some 
conciliatory settlement to change the disorderly Bhils into peaceable 
and industrions subjects.^ Mr« Willoughby's inquiries showed that 
m Raising's time (1763 - 1785) before disorder had spread^ the Bhils 
were kept qaiet by the establishment all over their districts of strong 
military posts. Misbehaviour on the part of the Bhils was always 
severely punished. If a whole village was in &ult it was generally 
2Xtsckod and burnt to the ground^ and its people of both sexes and 
« very age put to the sword. For Bhils guilty of treason or other 
iieinous crimes the punishment was death by impaling , by burning 
^^►ver a slow fir e, by blowing from a g un, and by beheadin g. Lighter 
'fences were punished by maiming^ floggings imprisonment^ or 
Hba. Suspected persons generally confessed choosing punishment 
mtber than face a trial by ordeal. Some of the more powerful Bhil 
chiefs, on condition of service, held their villages free from any 
(ttyment, except a small house tax. Again the head^ vasdva, of a 
Bhil villagei on condition of feeding Grovemment officers when on 
<htj, held under the name of valtar, as much rent-free land as his 
household could till. The village head had also the right to levy 
a ^mall eqsSj kunti, on every merchant halting for a night in his 

Iq 1821 Mr. Willoughby's inquiries into the state of the Bhils 
led him to divide them into two classes, the quiet Bhil of the plain 
ucd the unruly hill Bhil. Quiet Bhils were found in Gora, 
(iiirdeshvar/ and Kanth&l in the north-east ; in Ratanpur and 
*Ikibugam in the west, and in parts of the southern sub-divisions. 
Tijey were orderly and obedient husbandmen, paying rents either 
"'V a bullock or field tool cess.* In districts held by Bhils of this 
'^laijs it would, in Mr. Willoughby^s opinion, be enough to see that 
*afir rights were respected and that they were in no way oppressed; 
that posts were established strong enough promptly to put down 
<iisturbance ; that over the whole district, each settlement should^ 
for its good behaviour, furnish the security of its two neighbouring 
villages ; and that the chief Bhil of the sub-division should stand 
Hurety foe all the villages under him.* The hill Bhils could be 
niauaged only by strong military posjis at Sag^b£ra, Bhocha, and 
R^jpipla. The districts were too thinly peopled and the Bhils too 
iiarnly to be able to give any useful security.* 

Besides general measures for quieting the Bhils, special steps 
^ to be taken to bring to order certain chiefs who were either in 
open revolt or who claimed ' a half independence. Of these the 
most important were Kuvar Yasiva of Sagbdra in the south-east, 

Chapter ZIII. 



Unruly BhiU, 


' Resident ol BannU, 28th October 1821. Bom. Gov. SeL XXm. 701. 

• Bom. Gov. SeL XXm. 726,727. 

' The rates for every pair of buUocks Varied from I6s, to £1 12«.(Rs. 8- 16), taken 
U m money, half in rice ; the rates on tools were for a hatchet, kuhvddi, 5«. 
<^ 2J): for a pickaxe, koddU, 5«. (Rs. 2^), and 2^. 4^. (Bjl 1.2-8) on a sickle, ddtardu 
Bins. Gov. Sel. X?Cra. 743.744. 

• Bom. Gov. SeL XXUI. 728. » Bom. Gov. SeL XXIU. 730. 

ft 561 -14 

LBombay Oaxetteer 

Chapter ZIIL 






Rdising of Rhoclia in the south-west, and Baji Ddima of Talakvada 
to the north of the Narbada. On the 26th January 1822 Kuvar 
Vasdva came and presented himself at Mr. Willoughb/s camp. 
This man, about twenty-six years of age, above the common order 
of his tribe, and able* to write a tolerable hand,^ was the sou of 
the Umed Vasava mentioned above, who, during the rule of Ajabsiui^' 
(1786 - 1803), going into rebellion, raised a large force of Sindian 
and other mercenaries, and, till he was assassinated^ kept his ImM 
over five of the hill districts. Before giving himself up in 1822, 
Kuvar Vasdva had for some time been quiet, but he was beliered 
to be»planning fresh raids, and had still about eighty men under 
* him, half of them BUils and the rest Sindians and Arabs.- Od 
a promise of pardon and of a settlement of his claims, Kiirar 
agreed to live quietly in Sagbara as a Rajpipla subject; to py 
customary dues ; to obey the orders of the Government cominaud- 
ants; to give up lands to which he had no right; to reftr 
disputes and claims to the settlement of Government; to l^e 
responsible for robberies in which he was proved to have had a 
share; to seize or give information of any bad characters that 
might hide in his territories; and to entertain no foreign troop-^. 
On Kuvar 's completing this agreement, it was arranged that tlin 
head of his Sindi troops and twenty-five of the men should be 
employed by the Rdjpipla chief; that a monthly grant of f 12 ll*s. 
(Rs. 125) should be given to Kuvar's brother, if with twelve Bhils 
he came and settled in Nandod ; and that a post of fortj horse and 
eighty foot should be established at Sagbara.* Of greater power, 
though much less given to open disorder than the Sagbara Kuvar, 
was his father-in-law liaising of Rhocha, a chief about fifty ye ar^ 
old, very difiicult to deal with, fawning and crafty, with 'sweet miwr 
in his mouth and black blood in his heart \ Raising who was said 
to be very rich* had in his service upwards of fifty men ; and though 
not in outlawry, refused for long to come to the Political Agent's cauip. 
At last he came in, gave up all his troops except eight, and offered 
security for his good behaviour. The third chief was a Molesalam 
freebooter Baji Ddima who, with two other outlaws, Nasir Khau 
and Umed Khdn and troops of Dhdnkas ' a cruel and bloodthirsty 
tribe ' of Bhils,^ living at Talakvdda on the Narbada, had, as tbf^ 
price of abstaining from plunder, extorted sums of money ftoui 
many villages in the eastern Nai'bada districts.® 

» Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. -714. « Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIH. 712. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 712. 

* Bom. Gov. S«I. XXIII. 736. The origin of RAising'a wealth ig said t<i have be«n 
in 1809 when, on condition of giving them an asylum in one of his villageSi he «*^ 
paid a large share of the plunder by BohorAs who were in hiding after the di«turbftn« 
at Mdndvi. He afterwards, on a promise that no in<)uiry should be made six"^ 
tiie plunder, gave up the Bohor^, enriching himself , it was said, by about jC)0|(KX 
(R& 1,00,000). 

" Dhdnka would seem to be another name for Ndikda. 

« Bom. Gov. SeL XXUI, 267. Gora (January 1822) was very distressed. nisny of j** 
villages being in the entir% possession of, and the whole greatlv hara.<(»6d hy, ^^ 
Talakvida Mehvilsis (p. 541). Inquiry afterwards showed that lUji had n clftim t^" 
some of the villages to which he bad advanced muuey (p. 745). 




Iq Norember 1823 Mr. WiUoughby was sent to make a settlement 
With B^ji Daima and the two other Talakydda outlaws. Helped 
by the ruggedneaa of their country, and encouraged by former 
fiiLV5e8s»e8 against Baroda troops, these chiefs refused to surrender. 
W'Tj active steps were taken to bring them to order, the supplies 
««recrftofif; a Bhil chief was hired to track them; and a reward was 
iiifttred to any one who would seize them ; at the same time they were 
t'>ld through a Bh£t that if they surrendered, their lives would be 
-\wi^ and their claims settled. Of the three chiefs, Nasir Khan was 
ibe first to come in (December 1823). He was followed after about 
bi;;ht months (7th July 1824) by Umed Kh^n, and he about a ponth 
later by B4ji Ddima.^ On surrendering, the gjiiefs agreed to behave « 
M peaceable subjects, to pay revenue, to accept the Government 
'^julement of their claims, to harbour no outlaws, to remain in 
Baroda for five years, and to give security for their good behaviour.* 
Two other Bhil chiefs Kuvar Jiva and Kalia Chamdr from the 
Khandesh frontier are mentioned as coming in (January 1824), and 
ciiming agreements for good behaviour.* Between 1821 and 1827, 
though the Political Agent exercised only a general supervision, 
lUipipla had much improved.* Order was kept and from Broach 
and Baroda complaints of R6jpipla raids had ceased.* The country 
vrts on the whole well and mildly managed, and the revenues, in 
*pite of one year of flood and two of drought, had, during the five 
years ending 1827, risen from £15,661 to £25,948.« 

i\>T' four^years after 1827, British supervision was relaxed and 
tke management of the finances left to the chief and his minister. 
Tte result was a drop in the revenue from £25,948 to £17,636 2s. 
»R«. 2,59,480 - 1,76,361). An inquiry into the cause of this decrease 
i^howed that large amounts had been embezzled. On this Government 
^^ again to interfere, and letting out the districts in farm for seven 
V'eara realized an average revenue of £22,463 6s. (Rs. 2,24,633). 
At the close of this farm, th" entire management of the finances was 
^win handed over to the chief, and again the revenue returns fell, 
tlie average of the nine years ending 1848-49 being only £20,659 
«1U. 2,06,590). An inquiry showed that the actual revenue was 
^^jtiMderably greater than that entered in the state accounts, 
'^p&ssure was put on the chief to settle the claims for which the 
British Government had given its guarantee. And in 1850, when this 
^^ done. Government finally withdrew its supervision. In 1852 an 
eDga^rement was mediated, by the British Government between the 
G&ilcwar and the Raja of Bajpipla, by which some old disputes were 

Chapter ZIII. 



Order Restored^ 


' Bom. Gov, SeL XXHI. 771, ■ Bom. Gov. Sd. XXIH 776. 

* Bom. Gov. Sel XXHI. 747. 
^^Hfflei though still committed were much less cenenl and much surer of detection, 
s&d (Uily oTer Uie whole district large numlxnrs of people were flocking back. Bom. 
fi<>v. Sel. XXm 730,731. 

Ia 1^25 Mr. Bomer the Agent to the Governor in Snrat complained that the 
Milndvi chief had snared much from Rdjprpla robbers. But the people who were 
^) bUme would seem to have been the Vasr&vi Bhils. Bom. Uov. Sel. XXIII. 
.SO. 4 

*TbQ details were: 1823. £15,661; 1824, £19,915; 1825, 19,986; 1826, £24,336; 
^ 1627, £25;M8. Bom. Gov. SeL XXUI. 843. 

[Bombay Oaiettoer, 



Chapter XIII. 






settled by the transfer of certain Tillages in which both goveminents 
had shares to the Odikwilr and the R&ja respectively^ and the 
admission of the right of the B^ja of B&jpipla to collect certain 
customs on payment of £1165 (Baroda Rs. 13^351) yearly.^ 

A few years later at the time of surrey (1852 - 1856), the district, 
though backward, thinly peopled, and suffering from an ill-managed 
system of revenue leases, was much richer and more prosperous than 
fifty years before.* Order was well established ana cases of crime 
were few. Most of the Bhils were quiet and well behaved.' N^ndod 
had become a prosperous town of 20,000 inhabitants, with well bnilt 
high houses, a manufacture and export of great numbers of quaintly 
shaped well tempered* knives, and a considerable trade chiefly in 
forest produce, honey, bees' wax, admbar hides, and bamboos.^ The 
hill tracts in the centre and east were still covered with thick 
forest and had very few people and very little cultivation,* and the 
southern and south-western districts had still large forest tracts 
broken by patches of tillage. But near the Kim the land was well 
tilled, and all along the Narbada it was rich and prosperous. 

About the middle of August 1857, the chief prayed the Grovemment 
to help him, stating that he had found a certain Syed MorM Ali 
tampering with his troops and trying to organis&e a disturbance in 
Nandod. On receipt of this message (August 1 7) Mr. Bogers, the 
Collector of Broach, taking with him 200 men of the 1st Grenadiers 
and a detachment of 50 Europeans from the 83rd Queen's, then 
detained at Broach by stress of weather, started fo'^ Nandod. 
Hearing of their approach Mordd Ali fled, and the risk of an 
outbreak was at an end. A detachment of 200 men was left at Nandod, 
and till the mutinies were over Rajpipla gave no further cause for 
uneasiness. On the 20th January 1859, Government decided that 
R&jpipla should pay a yearly sum of £2000 (Rs. 20,000) towards the 
maintenance of this force called the Gujarat Bhil Corps. This was 
subsequently converted into a police corps, and as no part of it was 
employed in Rdjpipla, the Rdja on the 1st May 1865 was freed from 
any demand on its account. If however the troops are employed 
in Rdjpipla, the chief is liable to such contribution as Gk)vernmeufc 
may think fit and reasonable.® 

In 1859 Kuvar Vasdva of Sagbara, who had been blind for some 
years, died, leaving two sons Lashkario who had managed the estate 
and a younger son Dungario. Shoptly after, Damji the son of 
Dungario, imprisoned his uncle Lashkario and in spite of the orders 
of the chief and of the Political Agent,* declared hmiself head of the 
clan. He held his position till in 1860 troops were sent against him 

» Aitchison'H Treaties (1876) IV. 270-273, CII. 

» The leaseholders had in some cases been guilty of so gwAt an extortion that the 
people had deserted their villages. In consequence of this the chief refuwd K> 
renew the leases, and, when they fell in, managed the viUaces throuah his own 
officers. Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 300-313. »««« wirougn n» 

» Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 320,321. 

I B?""- .Gov. Sel. XXIII. 313. •Bom. Gov. Scl. XXIll. 302. 

* Aitchisons Treaties (1876), IV. 258, 




and he gave himself up to the Kh^ndesh Bhil Agent. After this 
Lashkario formally resigned the chiefship^ and the heads ot the 
neighbooring clans agreed in choosing Damji . The relations between 
Damji and the Rajpipla chief then came under discussion. In the 
end it was settled that, while admitting that; the Rajpipla chief was 
hm superior and had the right to levy customs, D4mji should have 
the revenne and police management of his estate. The neighbouring 
Bhil chiefs became answerable for Damji's good behaviour, and 
matters have since gone smoothly. In 1860, with the permission of 
Government, Verisdlji abdicated and his only son Gambhirsingji, the 
present ruling chief, was on the 17th November duly inst^ed by 
the Political Agent. Though he had nomiiwlly retired, Yeristiji as 
hii» son's minister, kept in his own hands all the power of the state. 
Gambhirsingji, as he grew up, chafed against this arrangement, and 
ill feeling rose to such a pitch, that in 1867 Government had to 
interfere- VerisAlji was forced to forego all interference in state 
affairs and in the following year died. 

On the 16th June 1871 a slight disturbance broke out in the Bhil 
district of V4di in the south-west of Rajpipla. Dmed, the chief of 
Vadi, some time before his death entrusted the estate to Narsai, one 
of his younger sons. On XJmed's death, his eldest son E&gu claimed 
the chie&hip ; and as the dispute threatened to become serious and 
the U&jpipla chief was unable to settle it, the Political Agent 
interfered, taking the estate under his direct supervision. Shortly 
After, Nareai the younger claimant, at the head of an armed force, 
made a sudden night attack on his brother's house and the 
OoYomment officer in charge. He was ultimately seized and 
Bentenced to a long term of imprisonment, and the estate is still 
under the control of the British Government. 

The following table shows the chief members of the Bijpipla 
family for the last century : 

(died 1754). 


(died 1764). 

(died 1786). 


(died 1803). 


Rdmsitig J 
(dqxMied 1810), 

— r 

(abdicated 1821). 

(abdicated I860). 






[Bombay OuattiMr, 



Chapter^ ZIIL 









The R6ja of R^jpipla is one of the chiefs who in 1862 received a 
patent, sanad, allowing adoption. He is the only Rewa Kantha chief 
with first class jurisdiction, that is with power to try for capital 
offences all persons but British subjects. He is entitled to a salute 
of eleven gxins and to ar native guard of honour of inferior strength. 
The present chief , Gambhirsingji, bom in 1846, is jiow (1879)' in his 
34th year. Though opposed to change he has of late years considerably 
improved his police ; he has built schools, a dispensary, and a jail, 
and is now spending £20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000) on a road from Nandod 
34 J miles to Anklesvar station. - -_ 

Chfiota tJdQ8Jir,^in point of size the second of the Rewa 
KantKa states, lies between north latitude 22° 2' and 22'' 32', and 
east longitude 73° 47' and 74° 20,' and has a total area of 820 
square miles, a population of 62,913 souls or 76*72 to the square 
mile, and, for the five years ending 1878, an average yearly reveDue 
of £25,000 (Rs. 2,50,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the Bariya state, on the east by 
Ali R^jpur in Central India, on the south by the Sankheda Mehva^ 
estates of the Rew:a Kantha, and on the west by Baroda. 

The district is irregular in shape and for the most part covered 
with hills and fo rests. 

The principal rivers are the Or or Orsang, which, flowing through 
the lands of Sursi, Jetpur, Jhabugdm, and Raj Vasna, bji the towns 
of Udepur and Jhabugam, joins the Narbada between Chdnod and 
Kamdli ; the Heran, flowing through the P4nvad sub- division, and 

Sining the Or in the Graikwdr's territory to the west of the Sankheda 
ehv&s ; and the Narbada, which forms for about fiifteen miles the 
south-eastern boundary of the state. Besides these there are the 
Bh&laj, flowing through Tejgad, and Jetpur, and joining the Or; 
the Ani flowing through Tejgad; the Bamni through Pinvad; the 
Kara through Kav&nt, and the Boch through lUj Vasna. 

Most of Chhota Udepur is covered with hills. In Tejgad near 
the centre along the Or valley, though rugged in outline, they are 
of no great height. In the south-east a range of hills runs north* 
east and south-west through Panvad, and further south towards the 
Narbada, the whole of Kav&nt is covered with high rugged hills. 
At the back of Kar^i, noticeable for miles round, a flat-topped trap 
ridge stretching east and west for four miles, rises at its western 
end into two sharply marked peaks. Jts top, a broad table-land, 
yields crops of millet and pulse. In Targol, in the north-west 
about ten miles south-east of Pav&gad, rises the Jhund hill, once a 
favourite place of refuge for outlaws, and still, from the thickness 
of its woods, most difficult of approach. 

During the greater part of the year the climate is danip, 
unhealthy, and feverish. 

Grain, pulse, and timber, are the chief produce of the state. The 
principal articles of traffic are timber and the flowers of the wwAurfa 
tree, Bassia latifolia. 



II 1872 cenaUB showed a popaUtion of fi2,9I3 souls, or 76'72 

I !K{u»r« mile, Of the whole tmmber, 61,381 or 97-.5() per 

wwu UiDilus, lol5 »r 241 per i;eiit Muaalmana, and 17 

Of tbo Hiudus 276 were classed as BrahmanB ; 2407 aa 

«, Hnjriiits ; 1U8S as Vaishas, tratlera Aud rnerfhaiits ; 2974 aa 
-'- . itrirs, craftsmen, laUmrers, and depressed classes; 
■ (lied classes including 37,682 Koli'a, 1978 Bhils, 
. :7" N&ikdds, and 7 Duradas. Of 01,381 the total 
in, six were Vir Vaishnavs, 2675 Raminnjs, 733 
ilTUi'iclu'iri.-i, and 34'0 Kabirpanthis ; 500 wei'e Shaiva, 33 ascetics, 
i 57,088 UDaectarian Hindus, Of the Musalmans21 were^yeds, 
S Blnilchs, 79 Pathjins, 05 Bohoras,50 Aiwhs, 191 Makrenis, and 
8wMT! entered as 'Others'. Of the whole number 1460 were 
Ssiinia and 55 Shife. Of the Parsis 13 were Shahanshais and 
4KHjiiiis. Tlio nnmber of villap^s was 530 or 0-04 to the square 
mile; the iivorape village (xipnlation 118'70 souls. Of the whole 
wimlxT, 405 villages bad less than 200 inhabitants; 57 had from 
■ 2("J ij 50U; 4 from 500 to 1000; 3 from 1000 to 2000; aud om<, 
, lie {una of Udt'pur, between 2000 and 3000. There weru 14,506 
, or, an average of 17'69 huuses to the square mile, and 4'33 
a to each house. Of the total number of hoiiseB, 18i inhabited 
17 persons were of the bettor,and 14,322 with 02,046 inhabitants, 
la poorer, -sort. 

L dihota Udepur ooiitains tga sub-iliyjg i^ o ns. p-irganag, Sursi or 
^, Tejgad, liadvil, Jetpur, Jbabagam, Panvad, Kavint, Kariili, 
y Tfraa, and Targol. SurbiotDoe in the extreme north-east with I 
jr*threu villages, formerly belonged to AH RAJpur, bnt was * 
^A, in 1807, to the Raja of Clihola Udepur for £10,584. Bn. 
bfi-Vi), and has ever since remained in his possession. The 
piip L'liiuf has more than once attempted to recover the 
rty through the mediation of Goverument. Bnt the Government 
'\ have settled that those villages must remain with the state 
pnr, till the whole sum for which they wore mortgaged 
r witL interest is paid. As interest lias been running since 
rjnning of the century, there ia little chance that such a 
t will evt'r bo made. The Ali Rajpur boundary has been 
1 off, and Sursi is now practically part of Chhota Udepur, 
Mple are almost all Bbils and &olis, aud exeept near the 
' ;, the conntry is waste and covered with forests. The chief 
ro, in the raiuy seaso^ maine the staple, a little rice^ and the 
iTgmius/i«w/i, /«ir(a,iuira, aud j/iii/'i ; and in the cold weather, 
lUd wheat. The tillage la rude and careless. West of Sursi, 
1, with seventy-seven villages including Udepur the capital V 
! Ktate, has the Bdriya hills on the north, Sursi on the east, 
* river Orsaug on the south, and Jetpur and KadvAl on the 
Like Sursi, the country is hilly aud wooded, with sc^tt^red 
tH atid pat^ihes of tillage, Tlie population, crops, and stylo * 
tge are mnch tbo same as those of Sursi. Palm trees both 
nil Rnd wild date, found all over Chhota Udepur, are commonest 
jead. They do much to lower the ^tate of tbo Bhils, who 
rti i-\<A<\ 111 the juice, when the sap be^a to rise, camp under 

Chapter 2 


Cbbot* tJw 



tBombsij Oaietteer, 
112 STATES. 

Chapter ZIII. one of the trees and by the help of a small store of maize flonr, men, 

States women, and children, live on the fermented juicie. In the north-west 

3 comer of the state^ Kadv^'l, with sixteen villages^ wild and beautiful 

CHH0T4 awuir; ^^j^ j^ -jj^ ^^^ forests, is very backward. Sonth of Kadv41 apd west 

Sub-divwioDs. ^ ^f Tejgad, Jetpub. with seventy-six villages^ has some of the best 

land in the state. Open, but thickly dotted with wild date trees^ the 
soil is light and with thriftier less unskilled peasants would yield rich 
crops. At present the people and chief products differ little from 
If those of Sursi. PaVvaDj to the south-east of Tejgrad, with eighty- 
five villages, is a rich well-watered tract crossed from north-east to 
south-yest by a range of hills. Water is near the surface, and tlw 
soil is rich. In the i^^ins, millet the staple, and rice grow well ; 
and in the cold weather there are luxuriant crops of wheat and gmm. 
Cotton, if its cultivation was fostered, would flourish. South of 
P^nvad are the fifty-four villages of Kava^nt. The country, croBBod 
from north to south by a well planned road, is hilly throughout, and 
in the south is wild and rugged. The people and tillage are very 
backward. In patches near hamlets, Indian com and millet are 
grown in the rains, and wheat and barley in the cold weather. This 
sub-division contains two places of some interest, H&mph a place of 
pilgfrimage on the Narbada (see p. 161), and three or four miles sontb 
of Kav&nt, Mohan, an old capital of the Ghhota Udepur chiefi^. 
'7 West of Pinvad, the thirty-eight villages of Kara^ li, in the north, 
open and with good black soil, stretch south Tnto a hilly broken 
country. Though the crops are much the same as in other parts of 
Chhota Udepur, and though most of the people are*BhilB, an 
• intermixture of Kanbis has done something to better the style c«f 
tillage. To the north of Kardli and between it and Jetpur, lie the 
eight villages of J habuoa^m , watered by the river Prsang, in soil and 
products like Karali. These villages, formerly shared between the 
Giikw^r and the Udepur chief, were, in 1873, as part of a general 
settlement of claims, made over to Udepur. To the south of 
. Jhabugdm, are the twenty-three villages of Ra^j Ya^s na. originally 
thirty-four, and reduced to their present number, in 1873, when the 
claims of the Gdikwdr and the Udepur chief were settled. This 
sub-division, level and well supplied with water, and with a loamy soil 
partly deep black, partly light, is the richest and best tilled portion 
of the Chhota Udepur state, yielding millet, pulse, gram, rice, 
cotton, and sugarcane. Targol, the last sub- division, a small tract 
of nine villages, lies to the west of Rij Vdsna, isolated from the 
rest of Udepur by the small state oX Jdmbughoda in the Pauch 
Mah&ls. The country is covered with hflls and forest, the people are 
almost entirely Bhils, and the products little beyond inferior crops 
of maize, millet, pulse, and such coarser grains as kodra, banth and 

Hiatory. The Chhota Udepur chiefs claim to belong to the clan of Khichi 

Choh&ns, whose head Anhal is said to have been created bv Vasishtb 
Muni out of the Agni Kund on mount Abu. Aiavap& l, one of Anhal a 
successors, founded the city of Ajmir, and another named Mamkr a^i 
settling at S&mbhar, has handed down the title of Sdmbhn Kao or 


Lords of Sambliar. Descended from M&nikr&L the EHiiclii Clioh&zis Chapler ZIXX. 

firat settled in the remote Sin^Stour, a tract extending over fitTtes. 

about 100 miles (68 kos) betweenTB^^hafc and the Sind, whose 

capital was Khichpnr Patan. One of the successors of Manikrai Chhota XJdzbvm, 

ms Bir Bilandey or £tt|i|33UKJi who^ in t£ie beginning of the Hiitory. 

eleventh century, defended Ajmir against M ahmnd of Ghazni. His 

laccessor Bisaldev or VisaHjgj, Sounshed from 10 1 to 1074, and 

VA9 the founder of the town of VisalnaQ f in nortSTSawat . The 
BQCcessors of Visaldev were Saranraev, Ano. Jepdl.. Ananddev« 
Someahvar, and Prithirij- Chohan, the celebrated hero of Chandra 
great epio the Prithiraj Baso^f Aiter the defeat of Prithirdj,*who 
fell in 1193 fighting against/ Shahab-ud'-diif Ghori, the Khichia 
settled in a part of M^wa called after them the Khj^jJV^&da.^ In 
]oOO Khicni Hamir. descendant of PrithirajToisSnguished 
himself by his gallant defe nce of ^^^ gjBiS|^^ak hQr against Ala-ud»din 
Khilji.* Aiter the fall of Rantbambno^ oody ot Khichis moved to 
Girarat, and there conquered the kingdom of Chdmp&ner at the foot 
rf Pavagad hill. Here they continued to rule till, in liB^:. their 

"mud Begada a459Tl5in.» 

city and hill fort were captured by Mahmud Begada (1459-1511) 
Jaj^gngj^ the las t Chokan Raja^of Champaner, the Patdi RavaJ. 
oi thelnrdsj was killed by Mahmud Begada in 1484. Of his three 
sons. R avaging died during his father's lifetime, Limb^ the 
second escaped at the &11 of Champdner, and the third Tejsing was 
taken prisoner and became a Musalm^n. 

According to bardic accounts a Bon^ai R&yasi ng escaping from 
Chimptoer, settled at ! ^aa:^ph a small out-of-the-way hamlet on the 
rigkt bank of the Narbsida. Left unmolested in this wild country^ 
he aud his descendants established claims of tribute over a large 
tract of east Gujarat, and, later on, in the decay of the authority 
of the Ahmedabad kings (1540-1572), were able to spread their 
power, and move their head-quarters to Mohan in a richer and 
less remote part of the country.* Commandinjg the pass into the 
difficult tracts on the banks of the Narbada, the site was well 
chosen, and its ruins show that Mohan waff once a place of 
eonttderable importance. 

Along with Rajpipla and Godhraj Muhammadan historians seem 
to mcIiSe Mohan^ or Ali Mohan, under the name Pal. But at the 
close of CEe^'sixteenth century it was recognized as a separate 
districts Abul Fazl in the Mn-i-'Akbari states that ' to the east 
of Kandarb&r, to the north/of Mendo, to the south of Nadowt 

' Tod'* RiJMlliiB, XL 411, 416. 

'The f oct WM not taken withoat nmch difflonlly. Hamir and all the new 
MnnlflOM or converted Modiala, who were with hun, were elam. TArikh-i-Firos 
ShUki : Elliot, m 179. . 

' The names of the Chohin rolen of Chtop^ner were RAja Shri R4mdev, Shrl 
ChAofdev, Shri Chiehingdev, Shri Sonamdey, Shri PAUumaing, Shri Jitkaran. 
SbiKampa Rival, Shri Vir Dhaval, Shri SavrAj, Shri B^havdev.^hri Trimhakbhup, 
Skii Gang EAjeahvar, and Shri Jayasingdev. , , .. a 

* Aficording to one account it waa PatAi R4val*a grandson Pnthir&j, aoooroing to 
another aeoonnt it waa Biyaji, three generations later* who founded Mohan. 

[Bombay Qaietteer> 

Chapter XTII. (N&ndod) and the west of Ch&mp&ner^ was a district ninety m3es by 

States sixty (60 by 40 koa) , with many wild elephants. It was under a Chohan 

' Th&kor^ whose capital wm ^\ j ^p^^fi y^ (Almydhan), and who ha<i a 

CHHOTA Udkftjr. f^j.^ ^f qqq horsomenand 15,000 foot'.^ In course of time, probablj 

^^■*®^« during the decay of Moghal power in the early part of the eigjiteenth 

century,* the capital was moved twenty miles north to Chhota 
T Jdepur o n the banks of the Or. The site was well suited for'Irade, 
but It was a place of no strength and the chiefs were, before loDg, 
^f . forced to pay tribute to the Gaikwar. B aji Rav aL who is said to 
KJ have founded Chhota Udepur, died childless, and was succeeds 
by his cousin Durjansing,' and he by his grand-nephew Amarsin?. 
jAfter Amarsing came ^bhayasinjg;, andhe, shortly after, being killed 
by a fall from his horse," was succeeded by B^Jfifi^^fc* ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 
built the Udepur fort. Dying in 1819, Bdyasing was succeeded by 
his son Pjcithir^ the ruling chief in 1822 when, on its guaranteeing 
a yearly tribute of £877 (Baroda Rs. 10,500),^ the control of tlie 
state was transferred to the British Government by the Graikwar. 
After his death, in 1832, his cousin Gumansing succeeded, who, dying 
in 1851, left as heir the present Raja Jitsinj;;^ born in 1834. On 
the 29th November 1858^ Tatia Topi , then in rebellion against the 
British GovemmentJ'appeared with a strong army before Udepur. 
Though the defences of the town were weak, the Kdja shut his gates 
and stoutly refused to let Tatia Topi enter, threatening that if be 
forced his way in, he would kill his B&nis and children, and himself 
commit suicide. Tatia refrained and pitched his camp 0n the plain 
on the east side of the town. On the following day the rebels 
entered and plundered the town. T&tia had intended to halt at Chhota 
Udepur to recruit his men and to develop his intrigues with the 
Baroda Sarddrs, but Brigadier Parke, who was on his track, gave 
him no respite. On the 1st December 1 858 he fell upon Tatia's rebel 
force and defeated it with great slaugEter, his loss being trifling- | 
This defeat caused great confusion in the ranks of the insurgents. 
Tdtia abandoned his army and fled to the forest lands of Parona. 

The B&ja is a chief of the second class and is entitled to a salnte 
of nine guns. He pays the GdikwAr a yearly tribute of £877 (Baroda 
Rs. 10,500), receiving in return a dress of honour. He also receives 
small sums aggregating £62 (Rs. 620) a year from villages in 
G4ikwfo territory, in the Rewa Kdntha, and in the Pancb Mah^8> 
and £60 (Rs. 500) a year from the Tb'ikor of Gad. 

The following is, as far as can be aef^jertained, the Chhota Udepur 
family tree. It is defective in several respects. 

» Gladwin's Aini-Akbari, H. 72, A few years later (lS09),the Ali Mohan contin- 
gent to the Gujarat frontier force was 350 men. Major Watsitm, GO. . ox j 

' Of the date of the change no record remains, and the name of the chief Biji Bi^v 
who is said to have moved tiie capital, does not appear in the Chhota Udepur B^i** 
iunily tree. 

* According to the RAjas' list, six lUjis reigned between the fcnnder and Dul^' 
sing. These were : Karanirifig, Vaieaing, Gumtosiag, R4yasiQg, Tejsing (who fowM 
the town of Tejgad), and Jasrantsmg. 

! ^® ?**»«• ^ Amarslnff and Abhayasing are not mtntioned in the R^f ^' ^^ 

» Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 275-277. 

X kantha. 


J3ing PAUi 'BAvwL 


' Ohhota 




Durjaoiixig. | 


• X 



Chapter JJH. 


Ghhota Udxpve. 

^ AbhayMing, 

(lj . Rdvaaing 
\J (died 1819). 

■ Prithirtlj 
V^ (died 1822). 



(died 1851). 

. Jitaing 
(the present Chief). 

Aoafket aoDOvat pato 
UMaooooat makm Bifi, 

Prithir^ and 



Ba'ciy ft> called after th e BariviaKQli s wlio held it before theBajpnt 
coaq^Sp between 22^ 21' and 22° 58' north latitude, and 73° 4V 
and 74^ 18' east longitude, has an area of 813 square miles, a 
p<:>piilation, in 1872, of 52,421 souls or 64*48 to the square mile^ 
and, during the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of 
£17,500 (Rs, 1,75,000)". 

It is bounded on the north by the Bewa Kdntha estate of Sanjeli ; 
on the east by the Jhdlod and Dohad sub-divisions of the Panch 
Maliala ; on the south by the Bewa Kdntha state of Chhqta XTdepur 
and of Kathivada under the Bhopavar Agency, and the Bhil estate 
of Jambughoda in the Panch Mahals ; and on the west by K&lol 
and Godhra in the Panch Mahals. Its extreme length from north 
to south is thirty-nine miles, i 

Triangular in shape, about/hirty-nine miles from north to south, 
and gradually narrowing from forty-five milds in the south to eight 
miles in the north, the country is, except some open plains, covered 
^th hills and woods . 

The chief rivers are the PSnam and the Haraph. The P&na m 
flows north-west from the Batanmal hills dividing the state into 
two unequal parts. T he Haraph runs parallel to the Pinam about 
twelve xniles north of it. Two other streams, the Groma and Karad 
flowing west to the Mahi from the south of the state, are of little 
conaecjuenoe. The supply of water is from wells, village ponds^ 
*ad river beds. 



IBvultikj QuMm, 







In the west, the country, generally flat, is here and tliere broketi 
by isolated bills. To the soath and east, the hills are higher and 
more connected, nntil, along the south frontier, they form an 
unbroken line stretching from east to west, and forming the water- 
shed between the Mahi and Narbada. A similar line of hills 
stretches north from the Ratan m&l rang e, and forms the water-ahed 
between th e Main and the Bands. From this range, many side 
spurs run west, filing in height ani importance, as they stretcii 
further from the table-land. North of the P&nam, long lines of 
hog-backed hills run north*west nearly parallel with the bonndarj of 
the state till it reaches Sanjeli. None of the hills rise to more tka 
1200 feet above the sea. 

The climate is damp and unhealthy, with mnoh fever. 

The chief products are timber, maize, pulse, gram, wheat, bantij 
hdvto, kodra, oil seeds, and, in a few places, sugaroane. There are 
no mines and no manufactures. 

In 1869, a rough census gave a population of 49,220 souls, of 
whom 48,127 were Hindus, 1081 Musalmaui, and 12 Parsis. Tbe 
1872 census showed a population of 52,421 souls or 64'48totie 
square mile. Of the whole number, 51,309 or 97'87 per cent wers 
Hindus, 1095 or 209 per cent Musalmans, and 1 7 Pdrsis. Of the 
Hindus 441 were classed as Brahmans -, 542 as Kshatris, Rajputs j 
18 74 as Vaishas, traders and merchants ; 58 1 5 as Shudras, cultivators, | 
craftsmen, labourers and depressed classes ; and 48,637^ unsettled 
tribes, including 26,524 Kolis, 13,713 Bhils, 8397 Ndikdfa, and 
8 Jats. Of the 51,309 Hindus, 1565 were Vaishnavs, 427 of them 
Ram&iujs, 78 SvAminirdyans and 1060 Vallabh^chdris, 412 were 
Bhaivs, 19 Shravaks, 47 ascetics, and 49,266 of no special sect. 
Of the Musalmans 25 were Syeds, 377 Shaikhs, 157 Pathans,84 
Bohords, 2 Khojds, 45 Arabs, 179 Makranis, and 226 were entered 
as 'Others'. Of the whole number 989 were Sunnis, and 106 were 
Bhi&s. Of the Parsis 7 were Shahanshais and 10 Kadmis. Tlie 
number of villages was 478 or 0*58 to the square mile ; the avera2« 
village population 109*66 persons to the village. Of the whole 
number, 424 villages had less than 200 iuJiabitants ; 48 from 200 to 
600 ; 5 from 500 to 1000 ; and one, the town of B4riya, from 2000 
to 8000. There were 12,404 houses or an average of 15*25 houseB 
to the square mile and 4*22 persons to each house. Of the total 
number of houses, 544 inhabited by Lf 39 persons were of the better, 
and 11,860 occupied by 50,682 persoV^ of the poorer, sort. 

The lands of the state are distributed over seven 8ub-»divisioD5; 
Randbikpur; Dudhia; Umaria; Haveli; Kikadkhila; Sagtila;aDd 
Bajgad. Randhikpub in the north has fifty-nine villages most 
of them small, poor, and almost entirely peopled by Bhils. Dv^^^ 
has sixty-seven villages, where tillage, though rude and imperfect, 
is better than in Randhikpur, Some of the husbandmen are Ksnoi^i 
induced to settle in Dudhia by the late chief, who gave tq^J 
privileges, freeing theci from import and export duties. UJU^^*^ 
IS a wild hill and forest tract of f orty-four villages, its people almf^^ 
all Kolis and Bhils. Havbli is the largest and next to Bajgad w^* 
most flourishing of the Bariya sub-divisions. It has seventy-thre^ 


Tillage9 inehidmg the capital^ Devgad B&rijft. KA^KAPmL A. has Chapter ZZIL 

fifty-seven villages^ the people in nearly equal proportion Bhils and g^~r 

KoliSy with a small sprinkling of Naikdas. The country is wild, 

waring hills and forests, and in the low ground patches of cleared Ba'eita. 

land with here and there detached Bhil or*Koli huts. Sa gta'la t o ^ Sub-divwiaM. 

the south of Bariya, has forty-five Tillages peopled almost entirely by 

Kolia and Naikdas. Ra^joad is the best tilled, and for its size the *! 

moat productiye of the Bariya sub-divisions. This is in part owing / 

to a hdr sprinkling of Br&hman and Kanbi husbandmen, partly to 

the greater richness of the soil, and partly to its neighbourhood to 

the ancient capital of Ch4mp&ner and to the more modern and 

thriving district of E&lol. In 1865 of 159 wells, the total return 

for the whole state, 110 were in Bijgad. Of late years sugarcane 

tillage has greatly spread. Many ]Naikd&s live in the lonelier parts, 

but the bulk of the people are Kolis. ^ 

The Raj&s of Bariya ai:e said to belong to the same class of Hiitory. 

hich^Chohaa Rajputs as the Rajas of Chhota Udepu r. It has 
heel^Bow^nthe historical sketch of Chhota Udepur, that after the 
fall of Pat&i R^val of Chamndn er. his grandson PnthirAj took refuge 
in the village of H&mph on the Narbada. where he established himself, 
and plundered the neighbouring districts. To keep him quiet the 
Gujarat Viceroys allowed him a fourth share, chauth, of the revenues 
of H alol and Kalol . His son Duugarsing conquered B4riya from 
the BhdL According to another bardic account Pratdpsing, the son 
of Patai R&val, establishes himself aF ffamph, and his sonTBAyasing 
founded the principality of Chhota Udepur. Trimbaksing, the son 
Kid successor of lUyasing, conquered Bariya ?rom the Bhils,^ and, 
^bout 1670, before starting on a pilgrimage to Gaya, divided his 
py^ssmoSs amo ns^ his two sons , giving Chhota Udepur to Rayaj i the 

elder, and Bariya to Dang^n ithe younger. Dungarsmg^uccessors 
were Udesin^ Rayasii\g;,_Yiia^sing> and Mansing about whom 
nothing certam is known, except that Mansing's reign ended about 
1 720. At his death, a Belucb soldi er seized the government, and the 
Rani, taking her young son Fnthirai, fled to her father the Raval of 
D ongarpur . Here Prithiraj stayed for twelve years, and then (1732) 
returaingy drove out the usurper, built the present town of Bdriya, and 
called it Devgad or God's fort.' At this time the one-fourth share of 
the Dohad revenue was, in return for a money advance, ceded to 
Bariya b y the c hief of ^untfe. About the middle of the eighteenth 
oeotorv. the A JaratTSa armiesiunder Udaji Puar, Malhdrriiv Holkar, 
and Jankoji Sindia entered/Bariya. They did not call on the chief 
to pay tribute, but, acknowledging him lord of his own lands, 
encouraged him to protect the country from freebooters and 
allowed him to levy tribute from Halol^ Kalol. and Dohar 

> Of the fonner Koli or BhU rulers of BAriya, traces remain in the family of Bhils 
It B4riya, who take the leading_part in the three-year festival to the Devgad gods. 
Hid in the BAriyAs of Paroli in RAjgad who have the-' right of presenting each new 
ehisf with a da^er» and claim to have once held the country between PAvAgad and 
the river PAoam. 

' Hia pmleoeMoni lived in another BAriya village, now known as oldBAriya. 




Prithir^j waa auoceeded by RdjadJiaqi.' To the other Cbna 
eon s Samatsing, Hafising, and Ramsing, and to the two daaghteta, 

nta ot v iilag63 were made, which tJieir descendants fiull ke«p 
3 in the town of Bsriya. 

grants a 

on condition that the holders continae to liv 

Kayadharji waa sncceeded by Ga Dgda ^Hj and he by Gauibhinin^ 
who was followed by ^huTitP^"gi ft"*^ ^p by 8^b6bOT ig*--^i^^M 
abont the end oE the 1 Sth centory, Ma h&daji SJndia P*Mwji||^B 
Bariya in pursuit of Raghoba, the RHja waa treated wiwHB^^| 
and presented with gifts. Sahebsing was ancceeded by YiaiHiflH 
Bing and Yashvantsing by his son Ga ngd aa. Dnring the reiETTi fTSat 
chief, Bariya Buffered from Maratha rai3!s. In 1802 Najroji VsLj., 
an officer of Sindia'a, levied a sum of £10,000 (Ra. l.OO.W.".-;, sad, 
two yeara later, Sadashivrav exacted £8400 {Ra. 84,000). inlj""' 
Sambbaji Xngria, on the part of Sindia, extorted £l400(Rs.l' 
and in the following year Bhujangrav, an officer of tin 
government, levied £S00 {Ra. 8000), and Mahipatrfiv,* 
Holkar's commanders, collected £3300 (Ra. 33,000). In 180 
Siodia not only exacted £2800 (Ra. 23,000), but plundered' | 
capital.* From ISlOto 1815 Ramdin, Roshan Beg,* Bapa T 
of Dhar.andGovindravBolia levied contributiona. RftiaGa_o- 
so i mbecile , that the government continued to be under the ( 
of hi B mothe r till, in 1817 , ahe vras treacherously murd erad 
B rahman named Kdranji Dave. This man, a dismissed manaj 
the Raj gad sub-diviBion, had entered the service of Krishni 
manager of Godhra, who gave him the command of 100.1 
400 foot. Shortly after, he made ose of the chance ( 
Krishnaji's moving out to collect the revenues to plan 
on Bariya. At Dohad, by a promise of £500 (Ra. 6000), b 
Krishnaji to agree to his taking a party of 1 00 horse aiid S 
carry hia designs into execution. With these he proM 
and, on drawing near, left the main body and with o' 
followers entered the town. At night he privately \ 

Ealace and, putting the Rani in fear of the Godhra tpoo^. 
er to leave the palace and put her to death. He then ; 
her estate, killed Ratan ^abhan her confidential ser 
intending to destroy him, put the chief in confinement. 
to Chhota Udepur.the chief waa brought back (1817-18). 
after, in a fight with Vithoji the brother of the Godhra a 
the usurper Naranji waa mortally wounded. 

The connection between the Britifo Government and 
state dates from 1803, when Daulatrav SA'dia'a Gujarat diatriotal 
taken by a British force commanded by Colonel Murray. W 
snccesa of that campaign waa greatly due to the friendshipT 

' In Bom. Gov. Sel. XXTII. (NewSerieal p. US, Riyadharji ji 
noceeded MlnsiiiE ; the bardic Accounts mentJoD BAfftdkuji h 

' MaJcolin'i Central India, I. 264, 265. 

> Malcolm'* Central India, II. 216. Th« nama of Bipu Sindia ii rtill, od « 
year's day, onned by tbe Bktiy* towoipeople. 

. T...1. .1. — ■>.,,___._ .«-.._ Malcolm'a Central India, I. tJi^TH- 

* Both ih«M were Holkar*! officen. 




I eboWQ b; lUija G&ngdis,' for which service he was 
lentitled to Britisli protection under the tenth article of the 
I Ssrji Anjangaon.' Though enclosed by Sindia's Gujarat 
US, the Bariya atate nev er becam^ ^ tribntaiy to that chief, 
|ti]r|6ct to attacks from Sindia's troopa, and sometimes had. 
BYU; before they withdrew, hut it escaped a yearly tribute 
uained its right to share in the revenues of Halol, KdloU 
W. which, in 1819, was commuted into a yearly payment of 
.-.J,!;', (--,A\ Raia Gang das died in 1819 . Thominiater 
1 the government, and raised to the chiefship 
■':, the son of a Bhil. who had been adopted 
i ■ "ivives to the excluaiffn of Pritbiraj, his lawful 

pa aftfr, Uii]"ai was supplanted by his brother Jijibhai, who 
jtlie epurioua Bhimsing and raised Prithiraj to the chiefship. 
inisinanaged the state so acandalously, that, in 1824, he was 
I by Captain MacDonald, then in political charge, and his 
pea to Nathubhai a relation of the chief. Prithirai was then 
^ars old. In 1824 the state agreed to pay for British 
^ « yearly sum of £933 12s. 6d. (Sdlamshdi Hs. 12,000). 
tcb at first was to rise with the prosperity of the state, was 
to49.' This amount is still paid, but, under orders issued in 
k spent for the good of the country or in matters connected 
BDanagement of the Rewa Kantba Agency. In 1838 Keval 
I hia brothers of the village of Bara in the Sagtala 
Hod of Bariya, with other Udepur and the Panch Mah&la 
I barassed the country. Government interfered, restored 
id took Sagtala under their direct management. Pritbiraj 
""H, and as hia son Ma nsing ii was only eight years old, the 
(theestatewasentrusted to the Political Agent. It remained 
t management till, in November 1876, on his coming of 
■ handed over to the young chief. Since 1864, except for 
A rising in 1868, in which the Bdriya post of B^jgad was 
' r has been unbroken,* 

r iha eleven years of direct management, Bariya made veiy 
l^resa. The whole district was surveyed, and of its 439 

B limits were fixed, and the lands measured and mapped. 
mg tbe rates, introducing better supei-vision, and abolishing 
tea and ferma, the tuistoms revenue was raised from £5132 
E8) in 1864-65 to £iI989 (Rs. 69,891) in 1875-76 ; the land 
■om £7869 (Es. 78,&«8) to £8008 (Rs. 80,077) ; and the total 
rom £15,232 (Rs. 1,52,318) to £17,210 (Rs. 1,72,097), and 
J than £71,684 (Ba. 7,16,845) were spent on works of 

» irtr with Siodia bmke out, the BtLriya chief freel; u)d zciloualj 
..Mih cotnniBiider b; keeping apeii tiia commiinicstiaDa aod tumiihing 
I ioiy of BSrija Bhils was subsidized, and attached to the force dniiug 
- -&a. Qotr. Rev. UI, (1866), 357. 
__'■ Tte»ti8H (1876), III. 277. 
m** TrwiiM (I87fil. IV. 273. 274. 

t of tlia Nftikds riticg ue siven in tbe r«ocli MahlU Statisticil Accaont, 
r, m. 266-2iS. 

[Bombay Ganttoer, 
120 STATES. 

OuapterTnL pablic nsefoliiess,' a debt of £10,803 (Ha. 1,08,080) was conyerted 
gli^^^ into a cash balance of £18,111 (Ra. 1,81,111). An efficient federal 

police waa organized, and traders, where they formerly risked almost 

TUw.u^ certain robbery, can now pass without escort or fear. A dispenaaiy 

l^^^f^*^^ has been opened, and large numbers of children have been vaccioated. 

Schools have risen from one to fourteen and pupils from 100 to 632. 
The young Raja has been educated at the Ahmedabad Talukdari 
•chool, and the Kajkot Kajkumar College. He ia a chief of the secosd 
class, and is entitled to a salute of nine guns. Probably &om the 
late date at which the present family was established at Bariya, 
the stat^ is very free from sharers and cadets, and the amount of 
alienationB is small, chiefly confined to villages close to the capital 
In this state there is a remarkable absence of nobles, $arddrt, 
Tasaala, paidvats, or cadets, bhdydda. 

The following ia, aa far as can be ascertained, the B&riya familj 
trea. It is defective in several respects. 


r. ' — I 

(Ch^U Udipnr). J 


liianag (died abont 1720).* 

Friihirij (oame to the thxona 1732). 




DhiFatetag/ SAhebsii^. 


Oangdis (died 1819^ 
FrithirAj (died 1864). 
MAnsing (the present Chief)« 

t ^ iM«e 1 Chhete tTd^r tvaAr treei . ,^ 

* Oii*M«oum mukm H4niliif( the gnmdion of imngmnlng br his son FrkhMI, thas onlttraf 
]linMU|> ihnt prsdMmort. Of thesv four aucouanrt of Danginins: Uule is known eiospi wmm 
iUn%\}^» r«(|ni stidsd aboiil ITiOL Bom. Oct. BeL XXIII. 118 

* On^ M^nint ptus in Miming betwoen Rifidharji and PritMrij. Bom, Gov. Sal. XXTII' 11». ^, 

* »*mit Ittta omit DhlratsiiiKi while othen omit his ffrsudfsthar esnsdJuL Bom. Got. Ss^^XUi. 
nil 141. DombiO' Chiefs, Raws KiBths, 13. 

> Theee include twenty milee within B^ya territoiy of the Oodhn and Dohed loid 
at a totel ooet of £27,683 (Bi* 2,76,828) ; a enbttaotial jail, dispenaary, eohool, uid 
•a ornamental elock>tower in the to^m of BAriya ; and in the dirtriot, f <mr lest-hMUC^ 
*^ I^^,^^ ^'^^ ^'^O' ^'^^^ ^v^* or npaind, heddea thirteen iohool hottMr 

oftoe^ lou honaee. and pdlioe poeti. 




LonaVa/da, lying between north latitude 22° 50' and 28° 16' 
and east Fongitude 73^ 21' and 73° 47', with an area of 388 square 
mileSj had in 1872 a population of 74,813 souls or 192*81 to the square 
mile, and, during the five years ending 1878, an estimated average 
yearly revenue of £13,940 (Rs. 1,39,400) .^ • 

It is "bounded on the north by the Rajputana state of Dungarpur, 
{)]! the east by Sunth and Kadana in Rewa Kdntha, on the south 
by the Grodlura sub-division of the Panch Mahals, and on the west 
by Bal&inor in Rewa Kantha, and Idar in Mahi Kantha. 
Irregular in shape with many outlying villages, its lands are much 
mixed with those of Bal&sinor and the British Panch Mahals* Its 
iwtreme length from north to south is thirty Jour, and its extreme 
breadth from east to west twenty-five, miles. 

The soil is generally stony and the country open and rocky with, 
m places, low scantily wooded hills. 

Resides the Mahi, flowing through the district from the north- 
eswt to the south-west, and the Panam in the south flowing west 
mto the Mahi, there are of local streams the Bhadar, which joins 
the Mahi, the Vehri which falls into the Pdnam, and the Sheri 
which, taking its rise from the hills of Dhdmod in the Vardhdri 
sub-division, joins the Vdtrak at the town of Kaira, and finally falls 
mto 'the Sabarmati. Besides ponds there are near very many 
villages a large number of wells, 642 of them built and 297 unbuilt. 

The north of the state is very rugged, and in the south-oast a 
cliain of hilfs stretches from the town of Lunavada into Sunth. 'In 
the Vardhari sub-division, there is a central and a western ridge 
of moderately high hills, and in Nandarva are two nearly parallel 
ranges (rf crescent-shaped hills, steep but not very high. 

The climate is perhaps somewhat cooler than in the neighbouring 
parts of Gujarat. The prevailing disease is fever.' The average 
fall of rain during the five years ending 1878 was thirty -nine inches. 
Tlie highest and lowest ranges of the thermometer in the town of 
Lunav&da during 1873 were 114° in May and 50° in February. 

Cereals and timber are the chief products. 

> Lundvdda Balance S/uet, 1878. 




Uiid aefODae 



• •• 

• • t 


Tnjint buticv, «dfar ... 


Police and MiUtary 

• •« 

• •• 




V otU ara «•* ^^g «g« 

• •• 

• •• 





• ss 

• •« 


Uw and Joiticse 



• •• 

■ • » 





■ t« 





Public works 

• •« 

• « B 


State chargen 


• •• 


Tributes and fixed payments 

• •• 

• •• 


Surrey charges 

Interest on Loans 




• « • 

• • ■ 


lUja's marrlagre charges 



• ■• 


ToUl ... 



• •• 


Chapter ZIII, 







B 561—16 

[Bombay Gaiatteer 



Chapter ZIII. 




The 1872 census showed a total population of 74,818 souls or 
192-81 to the square mile. Of the whole number 71,725 or 9.rST 
per cent were Hindus, and 3088 or 4*13 per cent Masai mans. <>* 
the Hindus, 7976 were Br4hnians, priests ; 2577 Rajputs, cultivaU.r^ , 
2201 Vdni&s, traders ) 11,760 Kanbis, cultivators; 162 Kdchhia^. 
cultivators; 856 Suthdrs, carpenters; 910 Luhars, blacksmiths; li^-^ 
Kadi^, bricklayers ; 944 Kumbhars, potters ; 507 Darjis, tailors ; 1 :!T 
Golds, rice-beaters; 1014 Hajams, barbers; 701 Bhois and 12'> 
Machhis, fishers ; 124 Bharvads, shepherds ; 198 Vanjaras, carrier- ; 
308 Gosdis, religious beggars; of unsettled tribes, 38,117 Koh^ 
and Bhils; and of depressed classes, 209 Turis, 207 Garodda, \l'l 
Dab^rs, 4484 Dhe^^, 730 Chimadi&s, 135 Bhambhis, and 47i' 

Of the 71,725 Hindus, 15,564 were Vaishnavs, 4791 of them Vir- 
vaishnavs, 8852 Ramdnujs, 543 Sv6mindrdyans, 1329 Vallabba- 
ch&ris, and 49 Kabirpanthis ; 10,846 were Shaivs; 468 Shraraks . 
5 Ascetics ; and 44,842 of no special sect. Of the 3088 Musalman^ 
2450 were Sunnis, 74 of them Syeds, 490 Shaikhs, 420 Pathdns, U 
Moghals, 167 Arabs, 30 Makranis, and 1255 ' Others'; and 6'^>\ 
all of them Bohords, were Shias. The number of villages was 437 
or 1*12 to the square mile, and the average village population 
171-11. Of the whole number 334 villages had less than 20n 
inhabitants ; 84 had from 200 to 500 ; 14 from 500 to 1000 ; 4 from 
1000 to 2000; and one, the town of Lundvada, had 9662 souLs of 
whom 7206 were Hindus, and 2456 Musalmdns. ^There wen* 
17,357 houses or on an average 44*56 houses to the square mile, and 
4*48 persons to each house. Of the houses 7614 with 38,17:' 
inmates were of the better, and 9743 with 41,641 inmates of tho 
lower, sort. 

The lands of the state are distributed oves^ve sub-divisious, 
Pdndarvdda, Khanpur,^ Haveli, Vardhari, and Nandarva. 
PA|yDARVA'nA in the north, from being constantly exposed to the raid> 
of its wild neighbours, is the least advanced part of the state. On tb^ 
west lie the states of Magodi and Idar, on the east the wild villag»^» 
of Kadana, and on its north the Pdl or Bhil country of Dungaquir. 
The most northerly villages are peopled by different tribes of Kolis 
or Bhils, whose main object in former times was to hold their ovra 
against their neighbours, and to refuse to pay tribute to on.^ 
superior. This was especially the case with the large village «>f 
Chhdni, and its hamlets in the fextreme north of the state.^ 
Stretching over seven square miles itff possession was hotly contested 
by the chiefs of Dungarpur and Limdvdda. The villagers, kno^iDiJ 
that the settlement of the quarrel would involve the loss of their 
freedom and the payment of tribute to one side or the other, fostered 
the dispute by alternately giving evidence in favour of each of 
the claimants. After much delay the dispute was, in 1 872, decided m 
favour of Lundvdda. Of the thirty-nine villages three are held on 
service, one on charitable, one on grant tenure, and thirty-four 

^ Since this was written the sub-division of PAndarvida has been included uu^i^' 
a new Khdnpur sub-division. 




\^y rent to tho state. The people are nearly all Kolis and Bhils. 
Kha'kpqr, south of Pandarv^da^ has forty-one villages, seven of 
mem held on service tenure, three assigned to temples, three given 
an maintenance^ jivdi, and two in gift, mam. The remaining twenty- 
*ix pay rent to the state. Some villages of Ihis sub-division have 
li fair n^unber of settled Kanbi inhabitants. Others as Khanpur and 
Kiranta in a difficult country are peopled entirely by Kolis, who in 
f'.rmer times refused to pay any allegiance. Karanta now a small 
rula.i^e, in the angle formed by the meeting of the Bhadar and 
t ^i»^ Mahi, was formerly a place of considerable note, and plays a 
leading part in the legends of the state. It is said that it was 
f -•rcaerly ruled by a man of very low ca^e, who fell in love 
with a Brahman 8 daughter, and demanded her in marriage. 
The* Brahman sought the help of Kutub Muhammad,^ a saint who 
Lvi-^i at Shirdj, and who was a lineal descendant of Abbas, the uncle 
'if Muhammad. Kutub Muhammad came and completely destroyed 
tLe power of the low caste ruler of Karanta. He then took up his 
r '^idence in the town of Karanta and worked many miracles. Crowds 
docked to see him, and he healed the sick, stayed a pestilence, 
and caused water to flow in dry places. The neighbouring 
I'Wn of Virpur was at that time ruled by a Koli named Vir, who 
Jealous of the saint's influence, harassed him in various ways. 
Kutub Muhammad sought the help of some Solanki Rajputs of the 
family of Sidhraj Jayasing, the king of Anhilvada Patan, and with 
their aid dfove out Vir from Virpur. The Rajputs established 
themselves there, and were the ancestors, of the present Lun4vada 
dynasty. The saint died, it is said, at Karanta full of years and 
bon(mr, and his shrine was visited yearly by thousands of pilgrims. 
Afterwards, his remains were taken to the tomb of his grandson, 
Dariayi Saheb at Virpur, and together they have been venerated.* 
!: la said that th^aughter of the Brahman, for whose sake Kutub 
Muhammad came all the way from Shiraj, threw herself, weary of 
life and of the strife of which she was the innocent cause, into a 
yoj] in the Bhadar river, and that her ghost still haunts it. The 
CoA'TKikBELi or Havbli sub-divisiou to the" south of Khanpur, in the 

Thb account of Kutub Muhammad and his successors is taken from a Persian 
ir.Tk Tnkfat>ul-kib--i-malfus, written in 1705 (1119 H.), by Mansur bin Chind 
M'lli&mmad of Ahmedabad. 
^'/Uiother local legend tells how* a blacksmith of the name of Ldlia lived in 

dfoio. un questioning 
luil trierl to sharpen the axe on a stone he had brought with him, and Ldlia immediately 
p.Toeived that the man was in possession of the philosopher's stone. He bought 
it. hut before he could use it, the news came to the ears of the Muhammadan king 
M tho city« who immediately tried to get it. L^lia managed to escape, and arriving 
in the Liuiav<&da district built a fort near the village of Dh^mod, where for some time 
ti'* opposed the army which was sent after him successfully. He eventually had to 
be%t a retreat, and after various adventures took refuge near Karanta, where, it is said, 
he Unit a fort. But he could not stand against the king's troops, and finding that 
he would have to retreat again, and believing the stone to be the source of all his 
troubles, he threw it into a deep pool in the Bhddar river dose to Karanta. The king's 
troops vainly tried to find it. They threw in some iron cnains, and had undisputable 
evidence of the existence of the stone, by finding some of the links turned to gold. 
But the stone they never discovered, and there it » said still to lie. 

Chapter XIIL 



[Bomliaj 8aa6tte«T, 



Chapter ZIII. 



comer between the Mahi and P£nam rivers, is the richest and largpi^i 
sub-division of the district. Besides Lun&vdda it contains 130 villap^i'h, 
fifty of them state, khdlsa, the rest either wholly or partly alienaieil. 
The Vardhabt sub-division to the west of the Mahi is much mixed 
with Baldsinor village^. Of 50 villages 36 belong to the state^lO arc 
held under quasi-proprietary tenure, and' 4 are private, indm. The 
lands in the valley of the river Sheri form the most fertile portion 
of the sub-division. The chief crops are rice, millet, and hanti. There 
are also grown bdvta, kodra, mag, tal, guvdr, adad, math, tuver, hemp, 
juvdr, maize, castor- oil, wheat, tobacco, and gram. Except in some 
villages with a fair sprinkling of Kanbis, the people are Kolix. 
There is no marked town ; the only village of any trading 
consequence is Vardhari Dhamod on the extreme western frontier 
of the state. This is connected with the fortunes of L^ia an 
Ahmedabad blacksmith, who is said to have become the holder of 
the philosopher's stone. Pursued by the Ahmedabad king^ he 
took refuge at Dhdmod and gathering the Bhils, opposed th».' 
advance of the king's army. A fort consisting of several semi-circnlar 
bastions with a connecting parapet wall, is pointed out as Lalia's fort, 
and facing it, another building of much the same character is showii 
as the stronghold of the pursuing force. A fine mosque still in good 
repair shows that under the Musalmdns Dhamod was a place of 
some importance. The Na^ndabv a sub-division, to the south of the 
Mahi and Pdnam, is bounded on the north by those rivers with 
the exception of a small space where a portion of thq^Sunth state 
crosses the Panam, and intrudes wedge-shaped into Nandarva. On 
its southern side it borders on Grodhra with whose villages it ij' 
somewhat intermixed. Of eighty-six villages, fifty-six are state, 
khdha, and the rest are held on some quasi-proprietary tenure. Od 
the top of a hill overlooking the river Pdnam, stands the ven 
lonely temple of Dehjaria Mahidev. Its age is unknown. In oUl 
times the god is said, in answer to prayer, to have left near tie 
temple anything his worshippers prayed for, on condition that they 
should return its value within a reasonable time. Many years 
ago some fcdthless votary forgetting to pay his debt, the god's 
favour was withdrawn. The staple gndns are millet and rice, aiid 
the population is chiefly Koli, with here and there a small community 
of Kanbis. 

The R&jds of Lunavada claim descent from the Solanki or 
Chalukya kings of Anhilvada (942 - >243). They are known by tht^ 
name of VigPUj|;g^Sc||gjgMgj^ one of the sixteen branch es, shukhos, 
into whic^tn^trib^sdivided. Acdbrding to the bardic accouDt, 
Rd] and Bij, two brothers of the Solanki clan, came to Patan on 
their way from Tunk Toda, the country between the Ganges w^ 
Jamna, to Somnath. Rdj married Lilddevi the sister of S^mat^inir. 
the last Chdpotkat or Ch6vda king of Anhilvada, and Mulraj tlio 
son of Raj, killing his uncle Sdmatsing, usurped the Anhilvfl^^^ 
throne. Some lately-discovered metal-plate land grants of ^^^ 

^ Tod^B Rjijasthdn, I. 91. 




Anhilrada Glial ukyas, show that Mulraj the founder of the Solanki 
dynasty in Gujarat^ was the son of Kdji the son of Bhuvanaditya 
sitid king of Kalyan, the capital of the kingdom of Kanya 
Kubja or Kanouj, and ho conquered Gujarat from Samatsing.^ 

Acc€>rding to the bards, one Dhumaldev, a Solanki, went to Dholka 
in 1104 and to Karli* in 1134, when Sidhr&j Jayasing was king of 
Anhilvada. This Dhumaldev is probably Dhaval' the founder of 
tho Vyaghrapalli or Vdghela branch of the Solankis, whose first 
h{*iit of government was at Dholka. Virbhadra, the great grandson 
of Dhaval,* left Karliand in 1225, killing Viro Bdriya its chief, 
c.'^tAblished himself at Virpur, a town about eight or nine miles 
west of Lunavada. His successors were Kik$>ji, Mahansing, Mdhv- 
sing, Gomsing, Prathampdiaksing, Vikramsing, and Vithalsing. 
V'ithaking moved his capital from Virpur to Diya, a village on the 
Mahi three or four miles from Lun&vdda, and his successor Bhimsing 
frjunded the town of Lundvada in 1434. Of Virbhadra^s settlement at 
V'irpur,a bardic legend states that at that time one Viro Bdriyo, aKoli, 
ruled over Virpur,* and that he wanted to marry the daughter of a 
Bmhman of that place. The Brdhman asked Virbhadra's help against 
tbe Koli, and it was arranged that the Br^man should give a seeming 
consent to the match, and should fix a day for the marriage, and 
that on that day Virbhadra should lie in wait with his followers 
and 6J1 upon the Kolis. This plan was carried out. Virbhadra 
attacked the Kolis, routed them with great slaughter, and established 
himself at the Avichal Mdta at Virpur. Nothing is known of the 
Virpar chiefe, except that they spread their sway east to the site of 
the town of Lunavdda. The bard^s story of the founding of Lun&vdda 
Ftuu as follows. Bhimsing one day went hunting across the Mahi, 
iiid getting separated from his companions, found himself near an 
c-s^etic's hut. Respectfully saluting the recluse, Bhimsing gained 
tis goodwill and was told that there was a great future before 
Hm, and that passing east through the forest, at a spot where a hare 
shf)uld cross his path, he was to found a city. The Bana did as he was 

Chapter ZIII. 

Luna Va 'da. 

* Ind. Ant. VI, 181, The bardic account is unworthy of credit except that it 
yxi[t^yTia Dr. BUhler^s contention, that the Solankis of Gujar&t came from the north 
^&<1 not from the south. The idea of their having emigrated from Tunk Toda was 
UTj likely suggested to the bards by the fact that the ancestors of the present 
(htefs of KupiiAgar in Meywar, who^plaimed descent from Sidhnii Jayasing, possessed 
th;m>clr« i»f Tunk Toda (Tonk in lUjputdna) after the overthrow of the Solanki 
'\yfhMgty in Gujarit in 1297, whence they were driven out by the Afghans. Tod's 
(Uj»thin, I. 578» 592. 

'* Rarli is a village in Chuv^ on the road to Pdtan from Viramgto. The 
Mitkvil bards trace some connection between the Chuvdl Solankis and the Ch^ukya 
Ui]» of Anhilvida. Detroj was the chief town of the Chuvil Solankis, who 
vjtcnrards intermarried with the Kolis. It is very probable that Dhaval and his 
iWs(€ndant6 conquered Chuv&l after they had settled at Dholka. 

' Dbolkais a corruption of Dhavalgriha or tbe abode of Dhaval. Dhaval was 
zurried to the sister of the mother of Kum&rpdl, and by her had a son named Amoiikj, 
«>o served nnder Kumirp^. Amo's son was LavanprasAd, whose son Virdhaval was 
:Ae famous Rina of Dholka (1220- 1239). • 

* The father of Virbhadra was Mdldev, the son of Jetmal, the son of Dhumaldev. 
!>^ ' \\jA Virbhadra was a distant cousin of Virdhaval, in* whose time he moved from 
K»rli to Virpur. 

* It seems at least m likely that Virpur was called after the Bajput founder 


[Bombay Gazetteer. 



Chapter XIII. 



told, met the bare, and on the spot, now marked by the temple of 
Bhavaneshyari Mata, built a town. The Sadhu was a devotee of 
the god Luneshvdr, and the R4na out of compliment called tbe 
town Lundv&da. A shrine of the god Luneshvar still stands 
outside the Darkoli gate.^ 

It seems probable that Bhimsing was driven across the Mahi 
by the increasing power of the Ahmedabad kings, and that he chose 
the site of his new capital on account of its strong position. 
The town is sheltered by a fortified hill, strong enough to defy all 
the artillery that could at that time be brought against it, while the 
rugged hill and tangled forest at the back of the fortifications afforded 
a safe retreat, should tRe position be overpowered by superior force. 
According to the bards, Bhimsing's successors were Dhundhalraja, 
Dhavaldevsing, Viramdevji, Jesingdevji, Bhimdevji, Virprabalsingji, 
Pratapsingji, Vadoravan Virsingji, Viramdevji or Rana Vir, Raghav- 
devsingji, and Gangdasji. But, as the last prince appears from an 
inscription on a brass image of the goddess Bhavaneshvari to have 
flourished in 1469, it seems probable that he was Bhimsing's 
immediate successor, and that the chiefs, given above, were the 
governors of Virpur subordinate to Lun^vada. Gangdas was followed 
by Uda Rana, who was succeeded by Raghavranasing or Vdghsing, 
who according to the bards, was a contemporary of Mahmnd Beerada 
(1459-1511). Soon after 1505, when Mahmud's general Bodi 
Moghal took Bdlasinor, the Muhammadans seem to have pressed into 
Lunavada, for in 1545 the Raja of Lunavada is said to ha^e disturbed 
the country in consequence of the Muhammadan encroachmentB.' 
Vaghsing was succeeded by Malsing or Malorano, who, as shown bj 
an inscription in a Jain temple in the town of Lundvada, continued 
to reign till 1575. His successor Vanvirji, as shewn in deeds of his 
granting, ruled at least till 1594. He was followed by Akherdj* at 
whose death the direct line of Rdjas from Bhimsing came to an end, 
and Kumbho Rdno of a collateral branch of the family was brought 
from the village of Gandhdri, and invested with thi chiefship. From 
an inscription on a stone, . alleged to have been destroyed a few 
years ago in a boundary dispute between Lunavada and Snnth, this 
Raja reigned in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He ^as 

* This tale of the ascetic and the hare is comc^only told of the founding of «tie«. 
It seems probable that Bhimsing called his n«w town Lundvida or LivanvA«i»» 
in honour of his relative LavanprasAd, chief of Dholka. Before the establishment <^' 
the Solankis at Lun&v&da, Godhra was a state of considerable importance, Bfti<l ^^ 
have been subject to Virdhaval, KAna of Dholkk. Inscriptions in the temple* ci 
Dehjar and Kakachia, now in tbe Lundvada state, dated 1129 and 1331 A.Pir pror^s 
Rajput kingdom near LunAvdrla before the time of Bhimsing. The revolt of Dhuiidb*! 
the RAja of Godhra in the beginning of the thirteenth century, his defeat ajqii 
capture by Vastnpdl, the famous YAnia minister of Virdha? al of Dholka, ^^ "^ 
suicide, have already been noticed. 

" Major Watson's GujarAt, 52. 

^ From a paper dated J 686, it appears that the LnnAvAda chief held the town ol 
Virpur and its dependent villages, now included in the state of Bill&sinor, ftB/^ 1^^^ 
wrested some villages to the north from the Virpura Solanki Th4kor of Mcgbraj. n^ 
of Mori, a cadet of the lUjA of Idar. At the same time the country south ^^, ^ 
Pdnam, at present part of Lun4v&da, does not appear to have at that time oe^ 
subject to the LunAvida chiefs. The supremacy over this part was contested by t^^ 
chiefs of Godhra, and a cadet of the Solauki family, who ruled at Jhinor in Tbi>f** 




SQCceeded by Jitsing^ who appears from his written grants to have 
ruled as late as 1 6 1 8 . Jitsing was followed by Triloksing, of whom the 
only known date i* 1619. His successor was Dayaldas, who appears 
from entries on written grants to have reigned at Lundvada in 
1629 and 1637. He was succeeded by Chandrasing, whose reign 
8eems«to have lasted at least as late as 1674. This chief was a 
contemporary of Rao Punja of Idar, the son of Rao Jagannath whose 
memory is cursed by the local bards. When Arjundas, the brother of 
pQDJa, was meditating an attack on the Ahmedabad districts^ he was 
joined by the princes, kuvars, of Lunavada, Dungarpur, Bansvada, 
and Devalia, who were returning from Ahmedabad. They attempted 
to attack the town of Randsan, but the Rehvar Rajputs of the place 
fell upon them, and in the fight, the princes of Lunavada, Dungarpur, 
and Devalia, as well as Arjundas were slain. Their bodies were 
taken away and burnt by the surviving kuvar of Bansvdda.^ The 
next Rija was Virsing, whose land-grants bear date as late as 
1711. He was succeeded by Narsing, who ruled from 1712 
to 1735, and, in 1718 (Samvat 1774 or Sh£ke 1640, Vaishdkh 
sud 10th), laid the foundation of the Lunavada town wall. During 
his reign in 1722, Haidar Kuli Khan the Ahmedabad Viceroy 
levied a tribute of £8000 (Rs. 80,000) from the state of Lundvdda.^ 
Narsing's successor was Vakhatsing, whose rule lasted from 
1736 to 1757. At this time some Muhammadan generals from 
Ahmedabad went to Virpur under Lundvdda, and in 1740, received 
two horses and £300 (Rs. 3000) as tribute from Sultansing, 
the agent Ijf the Lunavada chief.' In 1 746, Malharrao Holkar, 
on his way back from his yearly raid into Malwa, was asked by the 
Lunavikda chief to join him in attacking Virpur. Holkar agreed 
and Virpur was plundered.* Vakhatsing was succeeded by 
Dipsing, who ruled from 1758 to 1782. In the first year of his rule 
SadasluT Rdmchandra, one of the Peshwa's officers, marched 
against Lunavada, demanded from Dipsing a tribute of £5000 
(Rs. 50,000),® and kept him a prisoner till the whole was paid.* 
Dipsing was succeeded by Durjansdlji, who ruled from 1782 to 1786 
when he was murdered by his manager Desai Shankardas of Nadiad. 
The Desdi raised Durjansdlji's brother Jagatsing to the chiefship, 
and he continued in power for some months, though he was not 
recognized by the people who looked on him as a usurper. 
Meanwhile Khushalkuarba, the mother of Durjansdlji, a resolute 
woman, and with her the « widowed Rani, made their escape,^ 

Chapter XIII. 

Luna' VA DA, 

^ Bin MAIa, 344. 

« • Miijor Watson's Gujarit, 96, 123, 132, 149, and 151. 

' At this time the power of the Lundy&da chief was on the decline. They had 
more power^l neighbours in the B&bis of B^^sinor, who not only encroached upon 
their estate of Virpnr, but held several villages in the north of Lundvida. In 17 17 
a village in north LundvMa, granted by the Emperor Firokshir of Delhi to a religions 
claimant, and in 1722 another village in the neighbourhood were given away by Sard&r 
Mahmud, the B&bi of B&ldsinor. The names of Malekpur, Kh&npur, and Rehman, 
Villages in the north of Lundvdda, still show how the power of the BAbi of BdUsinor 
had spread. On the other hand the power of the Goofara chiefs and the Luiiiv^a 
cadets, to the south of the river P4nam, began to wane, and the result was that 
what the Lun^T&da chiefs lost in the north and west they gained in the south and 


[Bombay Gazetteer. 



Chapter ZIIL 




and returning shortly after murdered Shankardds, and iwpchI 
Pratdpsing^ the infant son of Duij^salji to the chief ship in 1786.^ 

In 1803 the Bombay Government entered into a conventir/jj 
with theRdja, by which, on consideration of his furnishing a military 
contingent, he was insured protection and relief from the triljute 
hitherto paid to Sindia.* This treaty was not ratified by the Gknrernur 

In 1812, through the medium of the Political Agent in the Mahi 
Kantha, the state entered into an engagement to pay the Gaikwar 
a yearly tribute of £525 (Baroda Rs. 6001) without the interven- 
tion of an army.' In 1816 Lunavdda was plundered by the tn^op 
of the Babi of BaldsiAor under Patel Bhagv^ndds, and in 1817, 
an officer of the Pavdrs of Dhar named Bapu Raghunath/ to<»k 
possession of the town, held it for twenty-seven days, and left 
it only on the payment of a ransom of £4000 (Rs. 4O,0O(0 
Mohansing^ one of Holkar's officers, the Patankar of Sindia's Pauch 
Mahdls and other freebooters, as well as Arjunsing of Gadh, a 
vassal of Bdnsv^da, also levied contributions.® A cadet of the Bala 
family established himself in Virpur, and Sindia wrested from the 
state a yearly tribute of £1065 (Baroda Rs. 12,000). 

In 1819 an engagement was mediated between Sindia and tlip 
Lunavdda chief, by which the British Government guaranteed tliu 
payment of the tribute on condition that Sindia would not interfere 
directly or indirectly in the affairs of the state.' 

In 1822, the engagements of 1812 were renewed and made 
lasting, and the state became formally entitled to British pn'* 
tection in accordance with the terms of the convention of the Srd 
of April 1820. Previous to this, in the year 1 819, an engagement liati 
been entered into between Sir J. Malcolm on behalf of the British 
Government, and Mdnsing Patankar on behalf of Sindia, in which tlie 
British guaranteed the perpetual payment by LundvJda of the tribiift* 
of £1050 {Bdbdshdi Rs. 12,001)® on condition o| Sindia's abstaiuiui,' 
from all interference in the state. By these two agreemeut^^ 
Lundvdda came doubly under the protection of Government. Tl't* 
political control was, in 1825, transferred from the Mahi to the Kewa 
Kdntha Agency. After the convention with Sindia, in 181 9, Sbivsiuir, 
who was out in rebellion against Fatehsiug, appealed to Sir J. Maloolni. 
A few months older than Fatehsing, he claimed on the score <'f 
primogeniture. He was told that the British Government Lad 

^ About 1789, dnriDg the reign of this chief, ' the Diwi^n* be8)eee<l LuniviUU, t'ut 
failed in his attempts to take the place. The Diw^ was probably DiwAn Rangnk^ 
Aurckar of Dh&r. Malcolm's Central India, I. 104^ 

» Aitchison*8 Treaties (1876), IV. 277, 278. 

> Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 278, 279. 

* B^pu Raffhunith with a rabble of an army amounting to eight or nine tltou>iinil 
men plundered the country and levied contributions from Dungarpur to Nemaur 
Malcolm's Central India, L 110. 

Halcohn's Central India. II. 422. • Rig Mdhi, 484. 

» Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV, 279, 280. 

' The lUjib of LunivAda and Sunth agreed to pay DaulatrAv Sindia Rs. I2,i»^ 
and Rs. 7000 Sdlamahdhi, 10th August 1820. MaIco]in*s Central India, II. 41 



decided, as a general nile^ to support the parties in possession, as Chapter ZIII. 

the only mode of reducing t^ order the numerous disturbed States. 

prineipaJities in central India. After this no further notice was taken 

of Shivaing's claims- Tatehaing died childless on the 27th June 1849. I-toaVa'da. 

On th^ day of his death he adopted a collateral named Dalpatsing. History. 

The boy was recognized as heir by all the relatives, and hia 

adoption waa sanctioned by Grovemment on the 29th August (1849), 

Fatehsing's mother Nanibai being appointed regent. Dalpatsing 

died while still young, on i^he 4th October 1851, and pending 

the appointment of a successor, the regent N&nib&i remained in 

power. She died on the 28rd February 1852, before any decision 

was come to on the question of succession.* About three weeks 

before her death, she had expressed a wish to adopt Dalelsing, 

a collateral fourth in descent from Raja Narsingji, at the same time 

she stated that Ajitsing was nearest of kin, but that being of weak 

intellect aha had passed him oyer. Ajitsing was fifth in descent 

from N&rsingji, but had been adopted by another Ndrsing, the 

^^ndson of Raja Yakhatsing, and by a reference to the family tree 

it will be seen that by this adoption he became the nearest living 

representative of the reigning mmily. He however acquiesced in 

the nomination of Dalelsing. The matter was referred for decision to 

the Coort of Directors, and final orders were not passed till the 8th 

September 1 852 • The Court, in their despatch of the 1st July 1852, 

niled that the regent Ndnib^ had no right to confer political power 

on her nomijiee. At the same time they had no objection to Dalelsing 

being appointed Rdja of Lundv&da by the direct authority of the «»« 

British (iovemment. Four collaterals objected to this arrangement, • 

GremalbhAi, Mehmbh&i, Surajmal, and Makansing. It will be seen 

from the family tree, that the common ancestor of these claimants was 

Raja Jitsing. They were therefore one generation nearer the reigning 

line than Dalelsing, and one generation more removed than Ajitsing. 

The two first of these claimants were never seriously opposed to 

the nomination of Dalelsing, and did not agitate their claims after 

hd was pat in power, but Surajmal and Makansing were bitterly 

hostile to him, and never recognized him as the rightful heir. 

During the 1857 mutinies, Surajmal took advantage of the 

disturbed state of the country, and went out in rebellion against 

the Rija. He was secretly helped by Makansing, who supplied 

him with funds and information. Finding that his designs against 

Lun^v&da were thwarted, Suf ajmal eventually made his submission 

to the Political Age^it, who secured for him from the R&ja a 

perpetual yearly grant of £110 (Rs. 1100). Surajmal died in the 

following year. The Mdliv^ds a clan of Kolis, belonging to the 

Khinpur sub-division, defied the authority of the Rdja, and would 

not allow a post to be established in the village of EMnpur. 

Daring the sepoy revolt these Mdliv&ds grew so troublesome, that 

Major Buckle, the Political Agent, marched against them, burnt 

their village^ and apprehending their ringleaders, blew one of them 

from a gun. In 1 870 they again became restless, and Captain Salmon, 

the Acting Political Agent, repaired to Khinpur, and arrested the 

principal offenders, who were sentenced to various terms of imprison- 

■ 561—17 


[Bombay QasettMr, 





1867 - 1879. 

ment. The Sunth Rdj&s laid claim to a large tract of Lnn^vada 
territory lying near their boundary, and even asserted that the 
true boundary of Sunth was an old well in the market of Lun&vdda 
town. On the other hand Lundv&da claimed part of Sunth, and 
at one time built some forts in a few of its Tillages. T^ fiach 
a height was the strife carried^ that the Political Agent took the 
management of the Lun^v&da- Sunth frontier into his own hands. 
On both sides a strong desire to settle the dispute by force of 
arms brought matters to a crisis. Some Arab and Pathin mercenaries 
had been posted at both ends of the frontier^ and a scufBe 
took pkce^ in which a few of the Lundvada troops were killed. 
Both states now made*large preparations, and a petty skirmish was 
kept up for a day by the militia and horse^ aided by the counsels of 
the managers, kdrhhoms, and other officials of the two states. There 
was more of shouting than of real fighting, and an amount of 
ammunition was spent which, if properly used, would have produced 
very serious effects. The fighting ended with the rout of the Sunth 
force, and the burning of the post of Thdmba in that state. The 
Mehv^i Kolis on both sides would have prolonged hostilities, had 
not the Political Agent interfered. An inquiry was instituted as to 
the cause of this disturbance, and both the Rdjas and their manager^ 
were heavily fined for presuming to resort to arms. B&ja Dalelsintj 
died on the 19th June 1867. The day before his death he ezpre»Bvd 
a wish to adopt Yakhatsing the son of Ajitsing, who, as stated above, 
was the nearest collateral, but had been passed over by « the regent 
N^nib^i in favour of Dalelsing. Yakhatsing was then in his seventh 
year. Subsequently Motiba, the widow of Dalelsing, was allowed to 
adopt Yakhatsing, paying the British Government a fine, nazardnay of 
one year's revenue. The adoption ceremony was performed on the 7th 
October 1867, and the Raja has since been receiving instruction, 
first at the Idliikddri school at Ahmedabad, and sub§equently at the 
R&jkumar College, Rajkot. He is married to Sarupkaar, the daughter 
of the Mah&rdj of Kh&ndu, a Bh&yad of the Raja of B^sv&da iu 
Meyw^r. He is entitled to a salute of nine guns, and has power to try 
his own subjects for capital offences. 

Between June 1867 and May 1879, the state was managed by an 
Assistant Political Agent, who since May 1879, has shared its 
administration with the chief, now nineteen years of age. During 
these twelve years, a detailed fiel;l survey of the state was 
completed, its boundaries demarcated, and its village^measured and 
mapped. The state land has been classififft, and Its assessment 
based on the survey principles current dn British territory. Titles 
to alienated lands are being inquired into, and a quit-rent of 3^^. 
on every 28. (2 annas in the rupee) of assessment is imposed on all 
rent-free fends unsupported by written grants. The crop-share, 
bhdgbatdif or kaltar, system, which afforded the Th^ndirs means 
of illicit gain, has been superseded, and the land revenue has 
consequently increased about twenty-five per cent. The customs 
revenue has been nearly doubled by better supervision and the 
greater facilities afforded to trade. Still the state is crippled hj 
excessive alienations and is barely able to pay its way. During the 






last two years, from special marriage and famine charges^ the debt^ 
which had been reduced to £6400, again rose to £10,400. Civil and 
criminal conrts have been established, and the regular state police 
has been incorporated into the Kewa Kantha federal force. Among 
works of public usefulness, ten miles of a good road connecting the 
town with the Godhra highway have been made, school houses and 
police posts built, nine schools and a dispensary opened, yaccination 
largely introduced, and the town much imp^roved by new buildings. 

Chapter XIII. 


The following is the Lunfiv&da family tree : 



'(di«d 1735X 

an.) DiiNiiMr 

(died 1783). 





(Nintb in deaoent from Bhirasing tlfe founder (1434) of LnsiTida) 

(1839-1637). ' 

(XU.) djandradng 
(died 1674)l 

(Xm.) Virsing 
(ditNl 1711V 

(XIV.) Nanlng 
(died 1736)l 


i I I 

Budhsiog. BAhebsing. Adsing. 

I I i 

EesborbhAi. Keaaibbil. Bhlmaing. 

II. 1 


Daalatsing. 0«malbh4L PritblbbAi. i 




^ I Chief adoDfced 

A by Dalelaing). 



(XX.) l>alpatoing 
(died without heirs, 18S1X 

(XXI.) Daleldng 
(eboaen bjr Court of Directors, 18S2; 









(adopted Iby j 

NaiiiDg). Dalpat4dng ' 
(adapted by 




(the Buo- 
cessor of 

pan,) vakhatoing 
(the preaent Chief). 

The order of suooession is indicated by Boman numeral^ 

^ I Of Dtjildia' ten p redcoeseon, the names only remain. They are Bhimainff. (Sancdis. UdirAna. 
lUfhaniniaing or Yighsing, Malalog, Taaviril, AkhacAj, Kombho Btoa, Jftatng, and TrilokalBg. 

Slintll, in the north-east of Bewa K&ntha, lies between 22^ 55' 
andlS^S' north latitude, and 73° 45' an* 74'' 10' east longitude. 
It has an area of 394 square miles, and in 1872, had a population of 





49,^75 Awls or ISS'OS to the scpure mOe. During tke 6m 
*udiB>f It^?^ it had an Mtimated »v«nge ;eu-l]- reveoufl oC | 

It iM bi-uaded on tbe north by Ead&na in the B«wa I 
th«< BtutM .if Daatt»rpur Mid Bansvfida ucder Meyw&r; cm I 
by tktf JtwloJ sub-tliTtsiDD^of tbe Paach MahlilB ; on the soml ^ 
Hcmk Kanthk ^taiv of Suijcli and tbe Gudlint Gub-disisioafl 
IVu-Ii M»b*l*, Mid uo the west by the Rewa K&ntba i" 

'l\> Lhti nxrth chv cvnolrj' is liut\j Bat and open, croewd fa; 
ftWAll .vtrvNUUs im thtftr wav aorth to the Mahi; to tbe I 
r«){|i9d ovV^red with Wag crsggy lines uf hills. 

Tho Mtthi H>>«9 (hn'D^ th« tuvth-west and the P^am th 
tho «v'4ith-wv«t niravr of tbe Mate. Ki-ar tbe centre the i 
ftt»«in t4 Chibxta pas»o« by the village of Suuth, aod towards dl 
MWl tlM ^uki flow» {lait tbe U)*nt of Katupur. 

1 the nortb, divides the aUM 

A l>(» of Kill*, ikf oo givnt hrijibt. 


vKain, many other hills nmil 

; aud feverish. Between 1 
aiiti i.^>i> w>f Liik-'-K''' I iivrm-'sivicrr reading was 103 aud the k 
Mv 'l'b« *vt<ni^ iall of iwB dartiig the five foars ending iSfl 

'n..i ,-a!v -t-iM.-Und is IB tlw valteya, where the soil, well « 
w "' :- without tuaiiar« two crops a rear of ordi&al 

^< ■ :^ tha ttaipie, and besides it milfet, pulse, gnf 

<n I.. ' ■ •- * (»i» w^U-farocred spots ssgarcane, are grow 

'Vhf \ii':d * larj** uipplr d ttotber. * 

Ttw M^TH vvuitua »b^>wed a total pupulation of 49,675 aonls 
ld$V>it (t;i itw wtuarv mile. Ot the whole nmnber 48,637 or df'! 

W-TC in ins. 




per cent were Hindas and 1038 or 2*09 per cent Musahnans.' ^Qf 
the Hindoa 701 were classed as Br^Uimans; 626 as Kshatris^ 
Rajputs; 745 as Yaishas^ traders and merchants; 9309 fts Shndras, 
cultivators^ craftsmen^ labourers^ and depressed classes ; and 37^256 
as unsettled tribes including 36,923 Bhils g^nd 333 Naikdas. Of 
tbe 48,637 Hindus, 833 were VaishnavSj 64 of them Bamanujs, 
170 ST^miD&rdyans, and 599 Vallabh&6haris ; 691 were Shaivs; 
ISo Shr&vaks, 66 Ascetics, and 46,862 of no special sect. Of 
the 1038 Musalm^s 9 were Syeds, 67 Shaikhs, 140 Pathins, 
126 Bohor^> 3 K&bulis, 47 Arabs, 2 Bahichis, 61 Makrdnis, and 
588 ' Others'. Of the whole number 126 were Sunnis and 912 Shi^. 
There were 578 villages or 1*62 to the square mile, with,* on an 
average, 85*94 persons to each village. Of flie whole number, 534 
bad leas than 200 inhabitants, 39 had from 200 to 500, 4 from 500 
to 1000, and one, the town of Bampur between 2000 and 3000 
inhabitants. There were 1 1,564 houses, or an average of 32*54 to the 
ttqoare mile, and of 4'29 persons to each house. Of the houses, 1194 
inhabited by 5311 persons, were of the better, and 10,370, with 
44,364 inhabitants, of the poorer, sort. 

Sunth was formerly divided into five districts, Fategad, Y&nk&ner, 
Malvan, Tl^^ba, and Bampur. These have lately been reduced to 
two, the eastern and western divisions, nearly equal in size and 
divided by a range of hills. Sunth in the west and B&mpur in the 
east division are the only places of any size. 

The Sunth chiefs, Puv&r or Parm&r Bajputs by caste, claim to 
belong to the Mahip&yat branc h of the famous Malwa dynasty which 
boasts of Vikram of Ujain in the first century before Christ, and of 
Bho] of Dhir in the eleventh century of the Christian era.^ 
According to the Sunth bards, whose accounts are full of confusion 
and error, J^lamsing, a Pav4r from mormt Abu established his 
power at, and gave his name to, the town of Jhdlod in the Panch 
Mahdls. J^lamsing's successors were Jhdjsing, Bikamsing, Udesing, 
Prat^psing, and J41amsing. The last of these chiefs was in 
1247 defeated and slain by the Musalm&ns. His son Sant and his 
brother Limdev, forced to leave Jhdlod, retired to the hills, and 
atter a few years (1255), Sant settled at the Bhil village of Brahmpuri, 
changing its name to Sunth, and Limdev established himself at 
Kadaaa. This may have been the date of the final settlement of 
the Bajputs at Sunth. But some tombstones, pcUids, in the villages of 
Sunth an4 Sukhsar, between Sunth and Jh&lod, show that as early 
as 1218 and 1221 there were fights in which Bajputs of the Padhidr 
or Parih^r clan with their chief Vijayadev were slain. According to 
the bards, B^a Sant was succeeded by Navghan, Ndp&ji, Prithising, 
Star^ji, Jesing, Akher&j, Gajsing, and Kumbho Bdno, t)^e last of 
whom is said to have lived at the time of Ahmad Shdh I. (1411-1443) 





' MAloohn*a Central India, I. 99. The Mahip&vat branch of the pannArs is in 
MeywAr represented by tiie IUvb of Bijoli, one of the sixteen higher nobles of the 
Udcpor EAna*a eoort. Tod's BAjasthto, L 86. ^ 

[Bombay Guetteer. 





of Ahmedabad^ and to have been defeated by him in 1443.^ After 
this the state was tributary to the Ahmedabad kings^ and, in their 
decline, received some additions of territory.* On the transfer ai 
power to the Emperor Akbar (1572) the tribute seems to have been 
changed into service with a contingent of troops.^ According to local 
accounts Kumbho Rano was succeeded by R&msingand Riyma^, who^e 
successor Mandlik, as shown both in deeds and in temple inscriptioDb, 
ruled at Sunth between 1536 and 1565. Mandlik was followed by 
Surajmal, Ratansing, Prithising, and Sabalsing, who, from a copper 
plate gfrant and the writing in a Mah&dev's temple in the village of 
Batakvada, appears to have flourished between 1607 and 168o. 
Sabalfiing was succeeded by Gajsing, Mahvsing (1688 - 1704), 
Prithising (1728 - 135 7], and Ratansing who died in 1753. Ratansing 
left some young sons and a daughter married to the Bansvdda chief. 
A party, coming from Bdnsv&da to Ratansing's funeral feast, takmg 
advantage of the minority of the sons, killed three of them and 
established their chiefs power over Sunth. The youngest son 
Badansing, a mere boy, was carried to the village of Malvan^ and after 
some time the Khant Kolis of Malvan taking up his cause attacked 
Sunth, drove out the B^nsv^da party, and established Badansing in 
the chief ship. Badansing, a warlike prince^ increased his estates at 
the expense of his neighbour the Thdkor of Grad, a cadat of the 
Bansvdda house, and continued to rule till after 1774. In 1803 his 
successor Shivsing entered into a defensive treaty with Colonel 
Murray, commanding the British forces in Gujardt, a treaty that was 
subsequently disallowed by Lord Comwallis, the Govembr General.* 
Shivsing was succeeded by Kesarising who died in 1819, leaving 
an infant son Gajsing who survived his father's death by only a few 
months. The next Raja was Kaliinsing who continued to rule till 
1835. In 1819 when Kalidnsing succeeded, Sunth was overran 
by Sindia's troops and would have either been annexed or laid 
waste, had not the British Government stepped in, and, through 
the medium of Sir John Malcolm, arranged that on condition of 
Sindia withdrawing his troops it should pay a yearly tribute «'f 
about £610 (Baroda Rs. 7000).*^ The control of the state vested 
in the British Government under this arrangement (1819) wa^ 
afterwards made over (1825) to the Rewa K^ntha Political Agent. 
Kalidnsing died in 1 835, leaving a son Bhavdnsing only three 
years old. During his minority the state was managed by his 
mother R4ni R&thodji Gulabkunvarba, % woman of strt)ng will, but no 
great ability. 

' It seema probable from his Bncceaaes in east Gujarit and Milwa that AhmaH 
ShAh I. did force the Sunth chief to pay tribute. But in the MusalmAn hiatorianfi no 
reference to the Sunth chief has been traced, and the site pointed out as the battie<field 
between Kumbho Rdno and Sultto Ahmad is the same as that where are tombttones 
bearing dates as far back as 1218 and 1221. That tiie MusalmAns were at some time 
established in Sunth is shown by the remains of a mosque at Prathampnr, five milds 
south of Sunth (see p. 116). 

» Bird's MirAt-i-Ahmadi. 1241. » Watson's Gujarilti 17. 

* The terms of the treaty were the some as those for Lon&vAda. Vide pace 128 : 
also Aitchison's Treaties (1879), IV. 28(^281. 

• Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 279,28a 





Bha vanning came of age in 1854. Early in his reign he had much 
tTHiaWe with the Khants who, presuming on the good services they 
hiui done his forefathers^ refused to obey the Rdja and did much 
damage by making raids into Luna^dda and Kad^na. Unable to 
bring them to order Bhay&nsing applied for help to the Political 
Agent/and with his aid and by his advice making some concessions 
r«> the Khants^ peace was restored. At the same time the Bhils on 
the north and east frontiers fighting with the chief of Gad caused 
much trouble. To overawe them a frontier fort named Fatehgad^ 
»•*• the fort of victory was built. But this measure failed and 
order was not restored till the Political Agent established a frontier 
niflitaty post with an officer under his own supprvision. In 1865 the 
Rija fell imder the displeasure of Government for attempting, by 
force of arms, to settle a boundary dispute with his neighbour the 
Lun^T4da chief. In 1870 on the occasion of the visit of His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, the Rdja went to Bombay, and is 
«aid to have been so struck with the city, that he determined to improve 
the roads and buildings of his own capital. But in 1872, before any 
progress had been made with the proposed works, he died. With 
Bhavansing the main branch Of the Sunth family came to an end. 
The Sunth family has not the right of adoption. But the privilege 
^as granted to the widowed ^ni and she after much search, for the 
nearest collateral had branched o£E fourteen generations back, chose, 
with the approval of Government, a son of the Sangdv4da family as 
heir. At tne time of his adoption the young R4ja was about twelve 
y<ars old. *tn the following year he was sent to the Rdjkumdr 
College at R^jkot where he is still being educated (1879)*. In 1860, 
wben the Panch Mahals were transferred by Sindia to the British 
Government, the Ri>ja of Sunth became a British tributary paying a 
yearly sum of about £610 (Baroda Rs, 7000) and receiving a robe, 
firpdv, worth about £3 (Rs. 30). He claims as choth, £60 12«. 4d. 
(Rs. 606-2-7) from Panch Mahdls and Bansv&da villages.^ In 
January 1879 the young chief was married to Daridvkuar, the 
(iaiighter of the chief of Bambora in Meyw4r. 

The state of Sunth came under direct management in June 1872, 
hut it was not till April 1873 that permanent arrangements were 
made for its administration. As it was more backward than 
Lunavada no field survey was made. A circuit survey was 
ojmpleted and ito internal and external boundaries were laid down. 
The revenue from some of the land was collected under the crop- 
^hare, hhdgbatdi or kaltar, system. In consequence of the abuses 
to which it ffave rise, this system is being gradually superseded by 
a holding, khdidbandi, system under which the holdings are roughly 
measured in half acres, bighdsj and a money assessment is imposed. 
An inquiiy has been made into land alienations, and, under the rules 
fanctioned for Lnndv&da, a quit- rent has been levied. The customs 
duties have been revised ana better supervision and greater trade 
Ucilities provided. Civil and criminal courts have been established 

* The amotuit of choth is as foUows : from GorAdu fti the JhAlod sub-division, 
R«. 44-2-7 ; &om the Godhra sTtb-division, Rb, 170 ; from Chilk4n under BAnsvida, 
Ri. 317 ; from Saojeli, Bs* 75 ; total, Ba. 006<2-7. 

Chapter XIII. 


tBoml>»7 Ckmtteer, 




Chapter XIIL like those in Lnn&y&da. A regalar police force^ organized and 
States. placed under the superintendent of the Federal Police^ has, since 

1873, greatly increased the security of person and pit)perty. 
B&mpur the chief town of the district has been connected with Godhra 
by a cleared road, part* of which was made at Sunth expense. The 
Lun^ydda road formerly impassable for carts has been * much 
improved especially where it crosses some small hills. In Bampnr 
good substantial buildings for the state officials and for a 
dispensary have been built, and the town has been joined to its new 
suburb, named Pratdppura after the young chiei, by a low lerel 
bridge across the river Suki. A good road with a double row of 
trees fias been made from Sunth to the river Suki, and a few well 
built new houses add much to the appearance of the town. By 
sinking new and repairing old wells the water-supply has been 
greatly improved. Schools have increased from one to seven, and 
a dispensary, supplied with a good stock of medicines, is much 
resorted to by the poor. 

The following is the Sunth family tree : 



Limder (founded KadinaX 

( I ) Bast (founder of Sunth iaS6). 

( II ) Nftvghan. 


(IV) Prithislng. 

^V^ Suriji. 

(VI) JMlng.* 

r 1 

(VII) JLkhah^. (VUI) Q^jting. 

(XIV) Rftfnring 

( IZ ) Eumbho TUno (defeated 
by Ahmad I. in 1443). 

( X ) lUmaing. 

( ZI ) RAymal. 

( Xn ) Mandlik (about 1696 - IMSy 

(Zm) SuraJmaL 



( ZY ) Prlthislng. 

ZV ) SabalBlng (about 1607 to teS5X 
(ZWI) Gajsing. 
(ZVin) lUhvdngt (about 1688 to 17M). 


(ZIZ) Frlthising (about 17S8 to 1786)l 
(XZ ) Batanalng(diedl76SX 


) Bad 

ansing (died about 1774). 


(XZII) Bhlv Blng 

(ZZm) Keearldng (died 1810)l 
(ZXr^) Gi4alog(died 1819X 


(ZXV) KaliAnsing (died 1885). 

(XZVI) Bhavtosing(dJ«dl87S)L 

(ZZVn FratAp^Bg (adopted), the pn»( 

The order of faooeiiion is Indioated by Boman noi&erali. 
Ob« lilt naket XAhTilng the great grandaon of Jagatitog the brother of 0«|tlng. 





BaTa*sino r, between 22° 63' and 23° 17' north latitude and 73° 17' 
anJ'/y 40' east longitude, with an area of 150 square miles, had, 
in 1872, a population of 41,984 souls or 279*89 to the square mile, 
and in 1878 an estimated revenue of about £8000 (Rs. 80,000). ^ 

It is bounded on the north hj the Mahi Kantha states, on the east 
by thcf Mahi, the Rewa E&ntha state of Lun^vada, and a part of the 
Godhxa eub-diyision of the Panch Mahals, and on the south and west 
by the Kaira district. It is about thirty miles long and from ten to 
twelve broad. Except for a chain of rocky hills in the west, the 
country is open. 

Fevers are common, but the climate is on the whole healthy. • 

The soil is generally rich yielding millef, pulse, rice, oil-seeds, 
wheat, gram, and sugarcane. 

The 1872 census showed a population of 41,984 souls or 279*89 
to the square mile. Of the whole number 37,829 or 9010 per cent 
trere Hmdus, and 4155 or 9*90 per cent Musalm&ns. Of the 
Hindus 29 11 were classed as Br&hmans ; 848 as Kshatris, Rajputs ; 
3178 as Yaishas, traders and merchants; and 11,714 as Shudras, 
cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes; and 
19,178 as unsettled tribes, 18,241 of them Kolis and 937 Bhils. 
Of the 87,829 Hindus 121 were RAmdnujs, 150 Vaishnavs, 2460 
Vallabh^chdris, 4 EAbirpanthis, 583 Svamindrdyans, 2473 Shaivs, 
31,474 Unsectarian Hindus, and 564 Shrdvaks. Of the Musalmdns 
183 were Syeds, 1454 Shaikhs, 492 Pathans, 85 Moghals, 16 
Memans, 280 Bohoris, 19 Arabs, 3 Makrdnis, and 1623 ' Others \ 
Of the whole number 3875 were Sunnis and 280 Shi&. There 
were 249 villages or 1*66 to the square mile, with on an average 
168 persons to each village. Of these 193 had less than 200 
inhabitants, 33 from 200 to 500, 16 from 500 to 1000, 5 from 1000 
to 2000, one from 2000 to 3000, and one, the town of Baldsinor, 
had 8836 inhabitants, of whom 6263 were Hindus, and 2573 
Musalmans. There were 9684 houses giving an average of 64*56 
houses to the square mile and 4*33 persons to each house. Of the 
total number of houses 2998 inhabited by 9755 persons were of 
the better, and 6686 with 32,229 inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

This state is divided into two distinct and nearly equal parts, the 
sub-divisions of Bdldsinor and of Virpur. Bounded on the north by 
the Rewa Kantha state of Lundvada, on the east by Lundv&da and 
the Kaira district, on the scmth by Kaira, and on the west by 
Ahmedabad, the Balasinor sub-division consists of forty-one villages. 
The soil is rich yielding millet, rice, pulse, oil seeds, wheat, gram, 
and sugarcane. Except on the east, where the Mahi waters the 
villages on its banks, ponds and wells are used for irrigation. The 
Virpur sub-division is bounded on the north by Lunavdda and the 
Mahi Kantha state of Magodi, on the east and south by Lun&v&da, 
and on the west by the Mahi Kantha petty states of Sathamba and 
(xabat. Of its fifty-seven villages, which are much mixed with 
those of Lundvdda, thirty-eight are state, Jchdlsa, and nineteen 

Chapter XIII. 






' This rsvenae indadea a yearly claim on Kaira villages amounting to about 
£358 (Ba. 3580) and £85 (Ra. 847) from Lunilvida. 

1 561—18 

privatej indmi, held on eeirice tenure. The soil is rieli jh 
rice, nullet, pnlse, oO-seeda, and, tn watered lands, a littM I 

Of the early history of B&l^sinor nothing certaiB : 
It must have been pa rt, of the So lanki estate of Tirp tir..tiir 
1505, Virpur was conquered by Mahmud Uee-.n! 
Moghal. The forrunes of Balasinor are closely c 
of the celebrated ^^ot^ui^ily, to which its present : 
fbonder of the famil^waa ^f^jT Stf," who, about • ^ 
Berenteenth century, was made door-keeper, fciiii, oi the im 
Conrtj and in 1059 waa appointed commandant, thandiir, a 
tronblesome Koli disttict of Chuval ia the north-west of /'" 
bad. In 1693 hia bod S afdar Kha n Babi was goTemorofJ 
1 703 when Prince Muhainmad Azam Shah wan appoints 
Gujarat, the Emperor sent an order to deooy Diirgd 
governor of P^fan, to Ahmedabad, and either confine i 
This order Safdar Khdn Babi offered to carry oat, but 6ule^ 
to the bravery of Durgadas' grandson who, covering his retreat if 
the loss of his own and all lus followers' lives, gave his gmodUL 
time to escape. Shortly aft^r (1706) Safdar Khiln, be«tea hyl 
Mari^tbas at Batanpiir in RAjpipla, wa^ tal^en prisooa f 
released only aft«r paying a heavy, ransom. About the n 
Durg&d^ Rithod again went into i^bellion, when Snfdar f 
concBtion of being made govomor^^itt>inised to kill or take Dbi_ 
The offer was accepted, and, as from that time Dasg&ihi ig 
more apohen of, Safdar Khiin would seem tu have succeeded in k 
him. In 1717 when lUid&r Kiili Khrin was apjwinted di 
Viceroy, a dispute arose between him and Saidar Khitn, and iiTI 
affray Safdar KLan'a baggage was plundered. Uolleciin^ 1 
followers Safdar Khan attacked the deputy Viceroy, but waa deua 
In 1722 Muhammad Bahddur, son of Salnbat Kluin B&bi, t, 
Safdar KhfinTIabX was, with the title of Sh(;r Kh jn, placed in <i_ 
of Sadra a nd Virpur . Three yeai-s later (17-6), Safdar Ktfej 
died. In~1728, on the death of the governor of Jun^B ' * 
Muhammad Khfin Babi wa.<i apiRiinti-d d qmty govern qj 
his son Sber KLAn to act for him. Two yoan lai 
MuhammaH JvhAn 'Babi died, ntiil Sher Kbiin Bfibi, I'jHiiie'V 
ment of Junagad, i-etired to his estate of Gogha. In the ' 
on paying his respects to the new Viceroy AblmynMng, httV 
confirmed in his father's lands, an^, in 1732, on the oaptnf 
Baroda by the Viceroy, Sher Khan BAbi was placed in chsrn 
the city. In 1734, wbile Sher Khdii Bdbi was visiting BiUin 
Mahddaji Gaikwar, brother of Pilaji, who then held JuabU 
sending for aid to Damfiji, marched on Baroda with a strons 
On hia way to relieve the city, Sher Khtin was defeated by Su ' 
and forced to relire to Balnsinor, leaving Baroda to mil i 
Gaikwtir's hands. Shortly after, Rangoji the Deputy <rf- puj 
quarrelled with Puniiii Vichal, and asked Sher Khan -*' " 
him. To this Shor Khiin agreed, bni ncit having fuiM 
troops, at first delated, and afterwards plundered i 
Nadiid. Not meeting with Rangoji, Sher Khan 
to Sapadvanj, and thence marched against the MarAtha 


The Maratbaa attacked him^ and in the conflict many men on both Chapter XIII 

sides were slain. Next mornings after an indecisive engagement^ States, 

fiifhting ceased, and at night Sher Khan stole off towards , , 

Kapadvanj, joining Rangoji's forces. Shortly after (1746), Sher ^^i-asinoe. 

Khan was wounded and forced to take shelter with Eangoji in History. 

Kapadvanj. The town was besieged by the Gdikw^r, but, with the 

h'.-Ip of Holkar, it was relieved. At Balasinor, in 1753, in a dispute 

U^tween Sher Khan Babi and his mercenaries, the Arabs for a time 

took possession of the fortress on the hill. Shortly afterwards when 

Sh«r Khan Babi was in his estate in Sorath, Sadashiv Ramchandra 

went from Porbandar to Junagad, where he was joined by Sayajirdo 

Gaikw£r. Sher Khdn Babi was there presen4ea with some horses, 

and appointed Maratha deputy. In 1 758. Sher Khan Babi died at 

Jimiigad. and the nobles of his court seated his son M^bgjgjaad 

Mc<] iol>at Khan in his place. At Balasinor Sher Khan Babi was .- 

succeeded by iiis son Sard^ Mu h a m mad Khan who, opposing the (1- 

Marathas, was attacked by ' Sadasfiiv Uamchandra, and forced to ^^ 

pay tribute. Two years later (1760), Balasinor was taken by the 

Maratha commander Bhagvantrav and, in the next year, recovered 

by Sardar Muhammad Khan Babi who, on condition of paying tribute, 

was allowed to keep it.^ 

Sardar Muhammad Khan was succeeded by his son Jamiat 'Kh.&n, 
and he by his son Salab at Khan, during whose liietiine the 
control over the state came* mto tTie hands of the British Government.* 
Meanwhile both the Peshwa and the Gaikwar had established tribute 
rights over Balasinor. In 1 768, the Peshwa' s manager at Ahmedabad 
levied a tribute of £300 (Rs. 3000), and this, afterwards increased 
to £1000 (Rs. 10,000), passed to the British on the fall of the 
Peshwa in 1817. In 1780, the Gaikwar imposed a tribute of £836 
(Baroda Rs. 4000),* and this snm was permanently fixed in 1813 
at the settlement of the affairs of the Mahi Kantha tributaries at 
Baroda Rs. 4001 and since commuted to £360 (Rs. 3601-2-7).* 

In 1820 on Salabat Khan's death the succession was claimed by 
hid kins man the Naw ab of Junagad. This claim was disallowed, 
and A bad K han, Salabat* s cousin and adopted son, was raised to 
the chiefehip, and the British opium regulations introduced into 
hi 3 state.^ Abad Khan was only a boy, and as his state was 
seriously mismanaged, he was in 1822 removed in favonr of his elder ' 
brother Idal Khan. After ruling nine years, Idal Khan was, in 1831, 
succeeded by his son Joravar^Khan. The disputed claims of 
Balasinor and Lunavada on y irpur continued to cause much annoy- 
ance, and in 1852, that both claimants might be under the same 
authority, the supervision of Balasinor was transferred from Kaira 
to the Biewa Kdntha. As the contending parties would hear of . 

» Compiled cliiefly from Major Watson's Gujarat 
' During the time of this Nawdb, Arjunsiag of Ga 

During the time of this Nawdb, Arjunsiag of Gad a vussal of the BAnavAd* chief, 
levied contribution. lUs M&la, 484 

• Bom. Gov. SeL XXIII. 22S, 229. « Aitchiwm's Treatiea (1876), IV. 268. 

* Aitchiaon'a Treatiea (1876), IV. 282. 


[BomlMy OiaettMr, 



Chapter Xm. 






BO compromise^ Yirpur was managed by tlie Agency, and Ida sliarn 
of the revenues paid over to each claimant. At last when^ in 1867, 
Lan^y^da came under direct management, the whole Yirpur 
question was inquired ijito, and as it was found that the Balasinor 
rights were much more important than those of Lunavada, the 
sub-division was handed over to Bal^i&inor, Lunavada being relieved 
of a tribute of £247 (Rs. 2470). 

The present Nawab Joraw ar J^ j ^ n is (1879) fifty-three years 
of age. He has a brother Bahadur Khan and three living wive^> 
Bibi ^rddr Bakta, daughter of his uncle Abad Kh&n ; Ch^d Bibi, 
the daughter of a Gh^chi of Balasinor; and Grajinbaz of Baroda. 
He has two sons, Manovar Khan born in 1847, and Bndliu Mia 
bom in 1870, and a daughter Dosi Bibi bom in 1865. He is a 
chief of the second class, and is entitled to a salute of nine guns. 
He pays a tribute of £1108 (Rs. 11,080) to the British, and of 
£360 (Rs. 3600) to the Gaikwdr Government. 

The following is the Balasinor family tree : 

(I.) Sber Khin 

(the 8oa of SaMbftt 


'An, the ffituutaon of Siier Kbin 1.) . 
(died 1758), V .^;0.^^^.,.Ctl- 

(II.) tSardir HuhammM]. 

Mohobftt Kli«n 
(obUinod Juni^pkdX 

(III.) JamiatKhAn. 

(IV.) SvUbat KhAn 
(died 18i0). 


(married to Naver KbAnji of Cambaj). 

(YI.) Idal Khin 
(died 1831), 


(V.) Ab4d KhAa 
(depoicd 1819). 

JorArar Khin 
(tbe present Chief). 

Sankheda Meliva's, lying between 21° 49' and 22"^ 5' north 
latftnSe", and 73*^ and 74° 10' east longitude, with an area of about 
811 square miles, a population of 46,966 souls or 150 to the square 
mile, and, during the fiye years ending 1878, an estimated yearly 
revenue of about £11,000 (Rs. 1,10,000), includes twenty-seven 
estates varying in size from one to 103 villages. 

It is bounded on tbe north by G^kw&r territory, on the north>east 
and east by Chhota Udepur, on the south by R^jpipla and Kh&ndesb, 
and on the west by G&ikw&r territory. The twenty-seven Sankheda 
Mehv&s estates, much mixed among themselves and with Baroda 
villages, may be roughly brought under eight group s, seven of them 
Rajput, and one Musalmto. The Mu salman group. Pfatliv di, has 
five villages, with an aj:'ea of five square'^mles, and a yearly revenue 
of £500. The following are the chief available details of the 
Rajput groups. 




Sankfieda Mekvds Bajput . 

Bstatee, 1879. 

Cliapter XIII. 












£. ff. 

To whom. 






221 10 






157 16 


Agstr... ••• 




18 12 







6 14 


* Choba k^ 

t)erallA > 1 








18 6 


Alva (A) 




6 14 

DitU». , 







47 10 







500 14 



"5"^ Khora 



210 1 1:{9 8 




400 116 2 


1^ lU'TBOD. 




6 3 


> 1 Dudhpur 




3 10 




85 4 








9 10 


? CnA'V0A( 





24i li 


lUmpura 4 



143 4 


. 'JlnUKiznsoli(A)... 




38 6 


U Q0K4..... 

Cbudesar ^) 




81 a 






3 14 


C DAfMA..) 





85 U 






46 2 







10 6 


^ 60LA5KI .. 





86 6 






109 i 


^ PAiUI^R... 





213 a 


KoTt.— The^tatM in«rkod (A) are at present under tho direct management of the PuHUcrI Agent. 

The district is for the most part open, only a small portion in the 
south-east being hilly and covered with forest. It is crossed by 
several rivers. Besides the Narbada which forms its boundary on 
the south-east and south-west, there is, in the north, the Or or 
Orsang, and through the centre, flowing from east to west, the Heran, 
Asvan, and Men. Besides a few hills in the south-east on the bank 
of the Narbada, a forest-clad range, from 250 to 300 feet high and 
about four miles long, runs through the Nasvadi estate, parallel to 
the course of the Asvan. Except in Gad, Palasni, and a few other 
billy and forest covered tracts, the climate of the Sankheda Mehvds 
is on the whole healthy. There are three kinds of soil, alluvial, 
light, and black. 

The 1872 census showed a total population of 46,966 souls or 
150*5 to the square mile. Of the whole number 44,883 or 95*57 per 
cent were Hindus; 2066 or 4*40 per cent Musalmdns; and 17 
Parsis. Of the Hindus 928 were classed as Brdhmans ; 4843 as 
KshatriB, Rajputs ; 738 as Yaishas, traders and merchants ; 5586 
as Shndras, cultivators, craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; 
and 33,193 as unsettled tribes, including 12,595 Bhils, 11,925 
Dh&nk&s, 8043 Kolis, 496 N&ikd&s, and 134 Y&lvis. 

Of the 44,883 Hindus 850 were Vaishnavs, 38 of them 
Ramanujs, 26 Virvaishnavs, 779 VaUabl^&ch&ris, and 7 Kabir- 
panthis ; 545 were Shaivs ; 60 Shr&vaks ; and 43,430 belonged to no 
special sect. 



[Bombay GixeiUer. 







Of the Masalm&ns 2017 were Sannis and 49 Shi&s. Of these 8 were 
Syeds, 115 Shaikhs, 100 Pathan8,52 Bohords,aud 1791 'Others.' The 
17 P^rsis were Shahanshdis. There were 326 villages, or 0*75 to 
the square mile, with, on an average, 144 persons to each village. Of 
the whole number, 254Tiad less than 200 inhabitants, 60 trofn 200 
to 500, 8 from 500 to 1000, and four from 1000 to 2000. There 
were 9674 houses and 9468 enclosures, giving an average of 22* 4 J 
houses, and 21 '94 enclosures, khadlcis, to the square mile, 4*85 persons 
to each house, and 4*96 to each enclosure. Of the houses 807, 
inhabited by 5101 persons, were of the better, and 8867 with 41,805 
inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

(j) Chohdn Oraup. Of the twenty-seveif Sankheda Mehvfo estates the following are 

• the chief available details. The Chohan group of eight es tates art* 

Mdndva, Shanor, Agar, Sindiapura, Devalia, Yannikla, Alva, and 
• ' Gad, MandvAj in the west, is bounded on the north by Shanor, on 

the east and west by Gaikwar territory, and on the south by the 
Narbada. It has sixteen villages with an area of sixteen and a half 
square miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £2900 
(Rs. 29,000), about £1500 (Rs. 15,000) from the estate, and the 
rest from outlying lands in Baroda territory. It pays the Gaikwar 
a yearly tribute of £221 10*. (Rs. 2215). The soil is chiefly a rich 
black loam yielding cotton, millet, sesamum, sugarcane, and other 
valuable crops. The bulk of the people are Kanbia and Rajputs. 
Stretching into the rich Gujardt plain, Mdndva su£Eered much 
from Maratha encroachment. The right of the Mand^»a chief to 
share both in the revenues and lands of Gaikwar villages shows 
that his power once stretched nearly as far as the city of Baroda. 
But long before the present century, its power had been reduced by 
the separation of the Shanor villages, Mandva, at the meeting of 
the Narbada and Orsang, is held in much esteem as a place of 
pilgrimage. In consequence of the indebtedness of the Rana, this 
estate was, between 1867 and 1879, under the direct management 
of the Political Agent. To the north of Mandva, divided north and 
south into two nearly equal parts by the Orsang, the six villages of 
the Shanoe estate have an estimated area of 1 1 ^ square miles, and a 
yearly revenue of about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). It pays the Gdikwilr a 
yearly tribute of £157 16«. (Rs. 1578). Eastof the river, the land is 
rather wild and rough, but to the west it is rich, yielding cotton, 
millet, oil seeds, sugarcane, and rice. Tl^p estate belongs to a younger 
branch of the Mandva family. Agar, bounded on the north and east 
by Vanmala, on the south by Kdinsoli, and on the west by Vajiria, is 
near the centre of the Sankheda Mehvaa Its twenty-eight villages 
with an area of seventeen square miles, yield an average yeariy 
revenue of about £1000 (Rs. 10,000). It pays the Gdlkwar a yearly 
tribute of £18 12i?. (Rs. 186). The soil id partly black loam and 
partly sandy. It yields cotton, millet, oilseeds, rice, and gram. Most 
of the people are Bhils, and the tillage is careless and backward. 
Though still one of the largest of the Sankheda estates, Agar has 
lost much by the allotment to younger sons of the estates of Vanmila 
and Sindidpura, and, by the mortgage of many villagesi to the 
Virpur chief. On the high road, half-way between Agar and Vajiria, 



•re the ruins of the fort of Kukrej, according to local story a place of Chapter ZIII. 

very great antiquity.* Sindia'puba, like Vanmdla the portion of a cadet U States. 

of the Agar house, has two separate parts, one surrounded by the -^^^ ^ 

lands of the parent state of Agar, and the other between Vanmala and MmvI'^ 

Nasvadi. It has four villages with an area o£ four square miles, and Chohdn Group, 

h yearly revenue of about £300 (Rs. 3000). It pays the Gaikwar a 

yearly tribute of £5 14«. (Rs. 57). The estate has been under direct ,^ 

management since 1870. The village of DgyALiA^one mile in extent, ^'^ 

held by a cadet of the Agar house, pays no tribute. Vanma'la, f, ^- 

held by cadets of the Agar house, is bounded on the north by /' 

6aikw£r villages, on the east by Sindiapura, on the south by the 

estate of Agar, and on the west by Vera. Its eleven villages have 

an area of ten and a half square miles, and a yearly revenue of about 

£i00 (Rs. 4000). It pays the Gaikwar a yearly tribute of £13 6». 

(Ra. IlJS). Except a few isolated limestone hills, the surface is 

geneaially flat, and fche soil good. Its people are Bhils, lazy and 

unskilled, leaving much of the estate under grass and brushwood, 

and, only near their hamlets, growing patches of the coarser grains. 

In consequence of the heavy indebtedness of the Thakor, the estate 

has, since 1877, been taken under direct management. The Alva 

estate of eleven villages, bounded on the north and south by Virpiif^-' 

and Pantlavdi, on the east by Gdikw^r villages and Pantlavdi, and 

on the west by the village of Devalia, has an area of five square 

miles, and a yearly revenue of about £550 (Rs. 5500). It pays the 

Gaikwir a yearly tribute of £6 14s. (Rs. 67). Most of the people are 

Bhils, rude^nd unskilled husbandmen. The chief crops are millet, 

rice, grants and oil-seeds. In consequence of the death of the * ^ 

Thakor, Alva was in 1878 taken under the direct management of the 

Politicad Agent. CUp, in the extreme south-east, is bounded on the n 

north and east by Cnhota Udepur, on the south by the Narbada ^> 

separating it from Khdndesh, and on the west by the estates of '^ 

Palasni and Virpur, by part of the Tilakvada sub-division, and 

Gardeshrar in Rajpipla. .Including 103 villages, thirty-nine of them 

assigned to the chief cadets, this estate, the largest in the 

Sankheda Mehv^-s, has an area of 128 square miles, and an estimated 

yearly revenue of about £2000 (Rs. 20,000). Through the Political 

Agent it pays the Chhota Ddepur chief a yearly tribute of £47 10^, 

(fe. 475). North of the Men the land is fairly flat and open. But 

to the south it grows gradually rockier and more thickly wooded 

till, near the Narbada, it i*, except on foot, impassable. The 

cultivators, almost all Bhils, are idle and unskilled. The chief 

products are, in the rainy season hdjri, mag, hanti, kodra^ rice and 

Utver in small quantities, and, in the cold weather, gram. The 

Thakor, a Ghoh&n Rajput, represents a younger branch of the Chhota 

Udepur house. The date of the establishment of Gad as a separate 

family is not known. Their poverty and the wildness of their 

country probably saved them from Musalm&n conquest. The 

people are in every way most primitive. The chief used to live 

I See below, p. 162. 

[Bombay QueUMT. 




. Mehva'9. 

(l^ RdthodQnmp. 

as a common villager at Gad in the wild conntiy soatli of the Men. 
He has lately moved north to Bori^^ and built a larger and more 
snitable house. 

The seven Rdthod estates form two groups^ Yajiria and Choringl&. 
In the west^ on the south bank of the Heran river^ lies Vajsu ^th 
its five branches, N^g^, Ydsan, Bihora, Dudhpur, and* Yura. 
With five of its villages entirely, and a sixth all but surrounded l>y 
G&ikwdr territory, the main body of the Vajiria estate is girt and 
mixed with the lands of its five branches. Its twenty-two villages 
have an area of twenty-one square miles, and a yearly revenue^ 
including land and money rights in 6&ikw&r territory, of about 
£2700* (Bs. 27,000).. It pays the Gaikwir a yearly tribute J 
£500 14«. (Rs. 5007). In the north-west, near the viUage of Vajiria. 
is a cluster of hills covered with forest and broken by water-courses. 
Most of the rest, though seamed with ravines, is level. In the west 
the soil is a rich black loam yielding all the more valuable crop^, 
cotton, oil-seeds, millet, rice, and gram; towards the east the 
lighter soil yields only such inferior crops as val^ mag, and kodra. 
Before the sub-division reduced it to its present size, Vajiria was a 
large estate, separating the Ghohdnsof Mandva and Shanor from those 
of Agar and Vanm^la . In consequence of the imbecility of the Thikor, 
this estate has, since 1866, been under the direct management of tlie 
Political Agent. Of the five branches of the old Vajiria estate, 
Na'noa'm is bounded on the north by Vajiria, on the east by Kalia 
an9 t)hu^e8ar, on the south by the Narbada, and on the west bj 
some 64ikwd.r villages. Its four villages, divided among four share- 
holders, have an area of three square miles and an estim^ed yearlj 
revenue of £200 (Rs. 2000). It pays the Gdikw6r a yearly tribaie 
of £129 8*. (Rs. 1294). The estate is very poor, the sbareholdeis 
little more than common husbandmen. The people are chiefij 
Bhils raising only the coarser and more easily grown crops. The 
date of the establishment of N4ngam as a separate estate is dcA 
known. V^^aA^ with seven villages divided into two groups, one on 
the north and the other on the west of Vajiria, has an area of fiv^- 
and a half square miles, and a yearly revenue of £400 (Rs. 4000). U 
pays theGdikw6r a yearly tribute of £115 2«. (Rs. 1151). The 
lands of both groups are much broken by ravines, and the tillage, 
almost entirely in the hands of Bhils, is poor and rude. The date 
of the establishment of V^an as a separate estate is not known. 
BiHOBA, originally part of Vajiria or its offshoots Vdsan and Vera, 
incTu^es two villages, with an area of one and a quarter square miles, 
and an estimated yearly revenue of about £80 (Rs. 800). It pay « 
the Gdikwdr a yearly tribute of £5 2«.*(Rs. 51). The proprietor i? 
little more than a common husbandman. The Dudhpub estate of one 
village, originally a part either of Vajiria or of its ofEshoots Vasan 
and Vora,)ias an area of three quarters of a square mile^ and a 
yearly revenue of about £30 (Rs. 300). It pays the Gdikw^r a yearly 
tribute of £3 10*. (Rs. 35). The proprietor is little more than a 
common husbandman. Voba, with four villages, divided into two 
groups by the lands o£ V^an, has an area of three and a quarter 
miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £500 (Rs. 5000). It 
pays the G^ikw&r a yearly tribute of £85 ia. (Rs. 852). As the 



coantry is much broken by ravines, the tillage area is small. The Chapter ZIIL 

e.state is well managed, and Vora, the Th&kor'a head-quarters, is a States. 

place of some trade with several Y&nia families. The date of the 

e^tdtbKshment of Vora as a separate estate is not known. In Mwr^'a^ 

ooQseqnence of the death of the Thikor in 1879, the estate has been 

taken under direct management. Cut off from the rest of the Mehv^, 

tu O&ikwilr territory some miles north of Yanm&la and Nasv^i, is 

Ch oba^i^ qla. the second main Bdthod estate. Its seventeen villages, 

witb an area of sixteen square miles, are divided into six shares, 

Ch orfagl a with eight villages ^ Derol i with one, Vardle witn two, 

S arauda with three, and Timbi with two, and to the east Ghelpur, 

& (iekacned village on the border line between 04ikw4r and Cknota 

Udepor territories. The total estimated yearly revenue of all the 

sbunee is £300 (Rs. 3000), and the yearly tribute to the O&ikw&r 

£9 lOs. (Ba. 95). Throughout, the land is much^roken with ravines 

and water-courses. The crops grown are millet, cotton, pulse^ 

cttstor-seed, rice, and gram. There are a few Kanbis and Rajputs, 

bat the bulk of the people are Eolis. 

The two Chavda Bajput estates of Bhilodia and B&mpura lie(^ <^'^<^froup. 
north-west of the R4thod villages. Bhilodia, bounded on the 
north by the B&mpura estate, on the west by TKe R^thod estates of 
Yajiria, Yora, and Bihora, and on the south and west by G4ikwi^r 
territory, is equally divided between two shareholders. Its eleven 
villages have an area of nine square miles, and an estimated yearly 
revenue of #900 (Be. 9000). It pays the G4ikw4r a yearly tribute 
of £242 129. (Ks. 2426). The land is much broken by ravines. 
Bat the sou is mostly a rich black loam yielding the better class of ^ 
crops, cotton, millet, oil-seeds, sugarcane, and rice. Ra'mpij.^, 
an offshoot of the Bhilodia estate, bounded on the north-east and 
west by 64ikw&r territoiy and on the south by Bhilodia, is divided 
among three shareholders. Its four villages have an area of four 
and a half square miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of £350 
(Rs. 3500). It pays the G&ikw&r a yearly tribute of £142 48. 
(Bs. 1422). As in Bhilo^ the soil is rich and yields the better 
kiada of crops. 

South of the Choh^n estates of Alva and A^, between the(v* ChriQnMp. 
Asvan and the Men near the town of Tilakv&da, is a settlement of 
6ori Rajputs, now divided into the three estates of Jir41 K&nsoli, 
Chudesar, and Nalia. The eight and a half miles over which these 
estates extend, though of rich soil are much broken by ravines, and 
the people are very poor growing only the coarser g^rains. Of the 
three estates, Jiba^:, Ka^oli^ divided among three shareholders, has. 
ten villages, witt an area of five square miles, and an estimated yearly 
revenue of £340 (Rs. 3400). It pays the GAikwir a yearly tribute 
of £33 6*. (Rs. 333). In consequence of disputes among share- 
holders it has been under direct management since 1870. Ghubssab^ 
divided among two chiefs and fourteen under-shareholders, has 
four villages with an area of two and a half square miles, and an 
estimated yearly revenue of £81 10«. (Rs. 815). It pays the 
6aikw4r a yearly tribute of £31 2«. (Ra 3110. It has been under ^ 

irect management since 1870. T^J^ih. » Beagle village, divided 

B 661—19 

[Bomtej Oawttae 





K^ JktimaChraup. 




SokMki Cfromp, 

7 Parmdr Qrwp, 

between two sliareliolders^ is one square mile in area,* and lias an 
estimated yearly revenue of about £60 (Rs. 600). It pays the 
G&ikw&r a yearly tribute of £3 149. (Bs. 87). 

South of the Gbri settlement^ beyond the river Men^ is the DaimA 
Rajput estate of Uch&d now divided into four parts^ Yirpur^ J^g^) 
Yirampura, and Uch&d^ covering between them an area of 26 square 
miles. The YlfiSfiJ^ estate^ ori^nally including only the villages of 
Yirpur and Yasna near TTch&a on the Narbada, wcua early in the 
present century greatly added to by its chief B&ji D4ima. lliis niBn, 
a noted freebooter, gave himself up at the time of settlemi^it in 
1826. • He ws^ then confirmed in his estate, and having a keen ere 
for money-lending and>other business, managed at the expense of his 
neighbours, the chiefs of Uch&d, Agar, and R&jpipla, to mcrease his 

i)roperty to twenty-two villages, and made his family one of the 
argest landholders in the SarJcheda Mehvfa. The present Yirpur 
estate covers an area of twelve and a half square miles and yields a 
yearly revenue of £1000 (Rs. 10,000), paying the 6£ikw&r a yearly 
tribute of £35 129. (Rs. 356). Li the Agar part the soil is a rich 
black loam yielding millet, 'cotton, and oil-seeds. In the parts 
near Uch^d the soil is lighter and' the ground much broken bj 
ravines and water-courses. Here millet is the chief crop, bat cotton^ 
oil-seeds, and, on the river banks, tobacco, are also grown. The 
R&jpipla villages, hilly and timber-covered, yield only scanty and 
coarse crops and the nowers and berries of the mahada tree. KsQiio 
a single vfllage west of Uch&d, with a good Narbada.frontage, ii 
divided among three shareholders* With an area of about foar square 
miles, it yields an lAmual revenue of £50 (Rs. 500), and pays the 
Qdikw&r a yearly tribute of £46 2«. (Rs. 461) leaving almost nothing 
to the proprietors. In soil, crops, and people, it does not differ ixom 
XJch&d. ViRAMPultA, on the Men to the north-west of Uch&d, has two 
villages witlfi an area of one square mile and an estimated yearly revenue 
of £70 (Rs. 700), paying the G4ikw4r a yearly tribute of £10 6^. 
(Rs. 103). The proprietor is little more than a common husfaandmaiL 
The soil is partly black and partly light, growing crops of millet, tuver, 
and rice; the people are mostly Bhils. Ucha'd, the parent state, now 
brought down to twelve villages, has an area of eight and a half 
square miles and an estimated yearly revenue of about £900 (Rs. 9000). 
It pays the G4ikw^r a yearly tribute of £88 6«. (Rs. 883). The 
inhabitants are mostly Kolis growing the coarser crops. 

To the east of the Chohdn estates of Agar, YanmAla, and Sindiiipura, 
and bounded on the north and south by G&ikw4r and on the east by 
Palisni territory, is Nasvidi the only Solanki estate in this part of 
the country. Its twenty-seven villages have an area of nineteen and 
a half square miles, and yield an estimated yearly revenue of £1000 
(Rs. 10,000), paying the Gdikwfir a yearly tribute of £109 2*. 
(Rs. 1091). The Asvan river divides the estate into two nearly 
equal parts, an open plain on the north but somewhat hiUy and thick- 
wooded in the south. The soil is fairly rich, yielding crops of millet, 
cotton, rice, tuver, castor-seed, and gram. 

To the east of Nasvddi and bounded on the north and south by 
Giikwfir villages, and on the east by the Gad estate, PaUsni is the 




'Ailj Pdumir estate in the Sankheda Mehvds. Its fourteen villages 
kave an area of twelve square miles and yield an estimated yeai'ly 
rerenae of £500 (Bs. 6000), paying the G6ikw4r a yearly tribute of 
£213 2^. (Bs. 2131). Like Nasv&di its soil is fairly rich, and yields 
crops of the better grains. In consequence of the minority of its 
chief, i€ has, since 1864, been under the direct management of the 
P«jlitical Agent. 

The P 4 ft t}^vd i estate, on the southern border of the Mehvas, 
contains two distinct groups, one of four villages, between the Alva 
i&ud Vanm&la estates, and the other of one village within the limits 
of the Amroli division of the Tilakvada sub-division.^ The 
pro prietors, called Khans, are suppo s ed to be the descendants of 
gome militajy adventure r. But nothmg is known of their origin or 
of the date of their gaining the estate. Its five villages have an 
area of five miles, and an estimated yearly revenue of about £200 
(Rs. 2000). It is free from the payment of tribute. The soil is 
black, the chief crops rice, millet, tuver, and kodra, and the people 
mostly Kolis* 

In the sacred hill of P&vfoa d centre the family histories of the 
Sankheda Mehvfe chief& Of the Thdkors or landed gentry, few 
can trace their &milies beyond the time, when a ChohdLn prince 
reigned at Ch&mp&ner, and drew the Kajput chivalry of eastern 
Gujar&t to defend the great stronghold of P&vdgad, when (1482-1484) 
chT^atened by the armies of Mahmud Sh^ Begada. The fall 
of Pav^igad iorced the Rajput chiefs to retire to the difficult countiy 
between the rivers Orsang and Narbada. There would seem at first 
to have been ei ght chief familie s, a Rdthod at Yajiria ; Choh&ns at 
Agar, M&ndva and Gad; a D&ima at Uchid ; a Gori at Jir&l ; a 
Solanki at Naav&di, and a Parm&r at Pal&sni. Later on, pressed bv 
the Masdm&ns, the chiefs of Yajiria, Affar, Uchdd, and Jiria, 
embraced Isl&m, and became known as Molesal&ms, while those of 
M&odva, Nasvidi, Palfisni, and Gad, kept their lands without 
changing their faith. In time the eight original families became 
Bub-m^ed« Younger branches of the house of Vajiria, taking their 
shnren of the family estates, established themselves at Y&san, Yora, 
Nang&m, Dndhpur, and Bihora ; in the same manner Yanm&la and 
Sindi&pnra separated from Agar ; Shanor from M&ndva ; Regan, 
Vzrpnr, and Ytom from Uchfid; and Chudesar and Nalia from 
Jiril. Early in the eighteenth century, when Moghal authority was 
weakened and Maritha. supx^macy not established, the Sankheda 
chiefs were able to spread their power over the rich plain lands of 
Gujarit enforcing tribute in land and money as far as the walls of 
Baroda. Bat they had no long respite, for the Mar&this, not content 
with recovering the chief part of the revenues of the plain villages, 
pressed the chiefis in their own lands, and by sending an armed force 
wrong from them the payment of a yearly tribute. When Baroda 
was in the hands of a strong ruler, the Sankheda chiefs were forced 
to pay a regular tribute and to r^rain from disorder and plunder. 
Bat with a weak ruler at Baroda they burst out like a half-(]uenched 
fire, and became the terror of the country, in 1822 the chiefs were 
in rebellion, paying tribute only under the pressure of fire and sword^ 








plundering villages, and stopping all trade bighfr&ya. As j 
become reapoDsible for public peace in Gujar^ the 
GoverDraent determised that the unnily chiefs ebould bo broufH 
order. The duty was entrusted to the Political Agent Mr, WUIoi 
who, in threo years, in spite of the rugged difficult country. I 
duwnaud secured all the rebel chiefs, and arranged wiUi the I2' 
to graut thein terms that would ensure their future subsistcnco. ' 
1825 the petty chiefs engaged to live peaceably ; to pay their dues 
regularly; to leave the settlement of theboantwjies of their f<-?, 
and of their rights in Gdikwar villages, to the British (.'•■'•■ 
and to give up all offenders who might take refuge in ' 
At th(f Bame time (7th Septoniber 1825), the Giikwar. nfi v 
what estates aud villages should he included in the ^ 
stipulated that the tribute of the krger estates should 
through the British Government, and of the smaller throtu 
local authorities 1 he confirmed the proprietors in their ejct| 
rights of eveiy description ; conceded that all boundary 1 ^_ 

disputes should be settled through the medium of the PoliticiJ 
Agent; acknowledged their independence in their own villa 
and theirrighls of heredit-ary succession and adoption; and lefttl 
general control and managomentin the hands of the Political J 
During the fifty years that have since passed the Mehvisi propt 
have given little trouble. They have ceased to be robben i 
freebooters, paid their tribute regularly, and accepted the V "' 
Agent's settlement of their boundary and succession 1" 
they have spread tillage, and rncreasfMl the resour^a of I 
estates. Among the rights guaranteed to the Sankheda ofajebtj 
the G&ikwJtr in 1825, one of the most important was that of haljinr ■ 
share, witla, lands in Gaikw&r villages, and, under Ma gif'u un 
other names, of recovering from them certain money duea. Thaw 
rights were enjoyed without question, till in 1862, Kbanderito G&ikwsT 
ordered a levy of one-eighth (2 anna» in the rupet-) from nil hotdert 
of rentfreo laud and revenue claims. Against this order, the sbarf, 
vanta, and allowance, ioi/rt (7 ir res, holders under the protection fl* 
the Rewa Kantha Agency appealed, and, after some diecuasioK, ■ 
Baroda court admitted that the order could not apply to CM^ 
guaranteed by the 1825 settlement. The great questiun of | 
extent of the guaranteed claims was opened up, and : 
^officer haa now for some time been em]jlt-.yed in ex amini ng them.' 
Ta'n^jUUjIebtra'S."' Except UoieKIn ttfi eilWYoe west wbieh 
stands on the right hank of the river, the P&ndu Mehv^ estntei, 
including Dorka, Raeka, and Anghad forming together the Dorks 
Mehv&, stretch about fifty miles along the left bank of the UaJit 
in a narrow broken line. This belt of estates has an area of 1S7J 
square miles, an estimated population of 41,618 souls, and, daring 
the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of £1I,CKIC 
(Rs. 1,10,000). Except near the Mahi, where it is " ' ' 
the country is level. Besides the Mahi, that, floi 

' Some detftilK have alrEKily been girc 



to Bouth-weat, forma the northern boandary of aU the estates 

Umeta, the river Earad divides Mevali into two nearly 

joal parts, and, in Jumkha, joins the Goma, which, flowinjf throngh 

ihiim and NaliAra, forms the south boundary of GotardL Tho 

■i crossing Jesar, Ohhaliai-, Sihora, and- Ndhara, omptiea itself 
ito tfie Mahi at the town of Sihora. 

Tiie climate is generally healthy and the soil light, yielding where 
vH tilled, rich crops of mUlot, rice, and Bugarcane, 

The 1872 censns showed a population of 41,^18 souls or 
08- 7 to the square m ile. Of the whole number 40,095 or 9^34 per 
BRt were Hindus, and 1523 or 3-66 per cent Musalmdns. Of the 
Lindne, 909 were classed as Brahmans ; 2591 as Kshatris, Kajpnts ; 
Vaiahfu, traders and merchants ; 32,382 as Shudras, 
iltivators, craftsmen, labourers, and dopi-essed classes; and 
BIS tmsettled classes, including 285 Bhils and 3380 Kolis. 
t the 4<l,09-5 Hindus 1225 were Vaishnavs, 9661 Ramanujs, 37 
nlmin&rdyans, 721 Ynllabhicharis, and 2Ij12 Kabirpanthis; 1895 
a re ShaJgs ; 107 ascetics; 23,733 Unaectarian Hindus; and 104 
hr&vakB. 0£the Musalm^ns IG were Syeds, 49 Shaikhs, 216 
lAns, 3 Memans, Q8 Bohoras, 15 Matcranis, and 1 156 were entered i 

* OUiere.' Of the whole number 1491 were Simnis and 32 Shifia. ' 

^e nnmber of Tillages was 154or0'7 villages to the square mile, 
1 tho sverage village population 270. Of the whole number 105 
Ulagea hai less than 2U0 mhabitants, 31 from 200 to 500, 9 from 
~1 to 1000. 13 from 1000 to 2000, 2 from 2000 to 3000, and one 
10 tntm uf Bhadarva, between 3000 and 5000 inhabitants. The 
i numbered 10,350 giving an average of 49' 7 houses to each 
|t)&re mile, nnd 4 persons to each house. Of the total nnmber of 
nasOA 2493 inhabited by 9559 persons were of the better, and 
BS7 tribb 32,059 inhabltiints of the poorer, sort. 

The estaleo bordering on the river Mahi are twenty -six in number, 

id Iliongb they only cuver 137^ square miles, their river frontage 

itches along fifty-eight miles. In former times the Kolis 

nil the land in tho Mahi valley, and were gradually 

Ited by various Rajput tribes. Some estates in tho Mehv^ 

I atill held by Koli proprietors and others by Bariyas, who 

uim a part Rajput descent, probably from discontented chiefs 

who had 'gone out' in revolt, and had married the daughters of 

JO of their Koli supporters. According to the common phrase, 

ly ti Kik wator from a Blul and so lost caste. The Fandu Mehv^ 

Fakbu 1^ 

ites form foi; 

AEW lorm tgjjymiUpB, one owned Dy tvolis ; one by i^anyas ; one 
/ Rnjptits jTnTon^y Muhammadany There are seven Koli estates, ( ! ) Roli Ora 
laffle Tillages divided among a number of shareholders. The estate ' ~ 

t MKVf ,f.t is 6ve miles in extent with one parent village and four 
nletct. It is divided into four shares. The yearly income from all 
tfceai8£210 (Bs. 2100), and tho tribute paid to the Gaikw&r€150 
Bb. loOO). The part to the north of the Karad river is the richest, 
ridding crops of millet, cotton, oil-seeds, and sugarcane. The land 
J the south of the river is untilled growing only grass. It borders 
n the Q&kwfir's SavlJ sub-division, of which it ouco formed a part. 

r ZIU. Kortli of Mev&li, and separated from it bj Juinkha and K£I 
F Btateo. ^^ Goma river on the south and Gdlkw&rland iq the weet^ is Goj 

r^ „ %". Divided among four shareholdors, this estate, of one ^ 

unu. sHvj^- ^ hamiets, is 1 J square miles in area, and yields a revefl 
j*'*' '*^P- £60 (Rs. 600), paying the Gaikwar a yearly trihute of JUJ 
(Bs. 425). Between the P&ndu estate and some vilta^eft of Smi 
^ the Panch Mahals, ai-o the two small eetales of Kasla Pag i. and^^ 
^" P agjna Mnv&da . Those estates, each of one village, nave a uolfe^vi 
iV area ot two square miles. The first, owned by five sbareboldergj 
■^ has a yeavly income of £10 (EU. 100), and pays tbe Gaikwar a 
yearly J: ribute of £6 10s. (Rb. 65). The second, divided between two 
holders, has a yearly tocomsof £25 (Rb.250), and pays the G^kwiir 
a yearly tribute of £12 IOm. (Rs. 125). The holders are poor, known 
as ^a^iff or trackers, and in noway above common husbandmen. 
/' G oTBRA on the Maht, bounded on the south by Gdikwdr, and on the 
nortt and east by Panch Mahals territory, ia cat off from the rest of 
""''^ the Mehvfo. J^ivided among three Koli sharehold^^ knovnuB 
I kotvdU, it has an area of IJ miles, a yearly revenue of £G3 ^1 

(Rs. 635), and pays the GAikwir ayearly tribute of £20 2*. (Ha. 20f| 
Though most of the land is covered with brushwood, the village w9 
some importance from lying on the main road between Gujardt and 
Malwa, and commanding one of the best of the Mahi fords. Besides 
the Koli proprietors, some Syeds of Pili on the other side of the Mahi, 
have a share in the village revenues. This estate is at present under 
direct management. Four miles south of Gothra is Jesab, bonnded 
on the north by G4ikwdr territory, on the east by -FaScli Mshils 
villages, and on the south and west by villages of the Pinda MobriU. 
It has an area of IJ miles, ayearly revenue of £40 (Rs. 400), shared 
between four joint owners, and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £15 2*. 
(Rs. 151). Watered by the Mesri river the soil is good, and, were 
the owners less sunk in debt, could yield almost any crop, Aug jab 
the sonth-most village in the Mehvas, lying on the Main is cnt off 
from the other estates by Gaikwar land. With an area of SJ mile«, 
shared among six joint Koli owners, three of them called kotcdU 
and three pcu/is, it yields a yearly revenue of about £200 (Rs. 2000), 
and pays a Giikwar tribute of £175 9s. (Rs. 17544). The soil is 
good, but the ground is ranch cut by ravines. A thrifty Kanbi 
population covdd in a short time double the revenue. The Anghad 
Kolis are notorious thieves. Daring the mutiny (1857 - 1859) time, 
they gave such trouble that their village was moved to a more opea 
part of the country. One share of this estate is undof dift " 
management. This finishes the Koli group. All the Tillages t 
wretchedly poor, burdened by the tribnte, and cut into such i ' 
shares that the hope of improvement is small. 
fMfa Oroup. The Bdriya group includes seven estates, six of them close 

I together in the heart of the P&ndu Mehv^, and the seventh and 

largest, Umkta, in the extreme west. Of these the largest aa^ 
, probably the oldest is Sihoea. Divided into two by a atri 
' Amrapur land, it has an area of 15J square miles, containini 
■^ villages and hamlets yibldingayearty revenue of £1500 {Ra. IS, 
and paying a yearly Gaikw&r tribute of £460 2s. (Rs. 4801). 
well watered, fi-onting tbe Mahi and crossed by the Mean | 

re opea 

1 Bid| 


kkm. Tbe village of Sihora, the seat of tLe Thikor who lives fn 
MneHtute, is at the meeting of tlie Mesri and Mahi. It is a basy 
Itle place with a large number of dyers and cotton printers- The 
itsta is furrowed by ravines, and much of t^e land near the river is 
>ver^ with bruehwood. The tilled parts are rich, yielding cott-on, 
ice, millet, and gram. In a comer, formed by the meeting of the 
foma and the Mohi, between two pai-ts of the Sihora estate to which 
i probftbiy at first belonged, is AkkVpck. This, with an area of two \ 
qtiftre miles, a yearly revenue oi i.5ii Vis. (Rs, 386), and a Gaikwar , 
nbate of £20 2s, (Rs. 201), is divided among four shareholdera. 
"he nature of the country and ite crops are like those of fiihora. 
LiUiORA , to the south of Sihora and probabty once a part of that j 
K^te, has the Mahi on one aide, and GaikwSr territory on the other. ' 
nctading Kanora, the estate, divided among eight aharoholderH, 
IBS seven villages, an area of SJ square miles, a yearly revenue of 
^!220 (Ba. 2200), and pays aGdikwdr tribute of £160 28. (Rs. 1601). 
lioagh the land is much cut by ravines there is an excellent Mahi 
"outage, yielding cotton, millet, rice, and gram. Ya bk ol Ma'l i 
Monded on the south and west by GaikwSr land, lies beiween the ^ 

a of Mevali and Sihora, to the latter of which it probably once 
idonged. Divided between two shareholders, it covers an area of 
<} square miles with, including Yamol Mai, five villages yielding a 
vmny revenue of £100 (Rs. 1000), and paying a Gdikwtir tribute o£ 
:8 lO*. (Rs. 85), This estate is chiefly grass land with patches of 
Qloge cto^ to the hamlets. NVhVra, with Ootardi to the north i 
nd llflvali to Ihe south, lies between Gaikwar territory and Sihorajy' 
f which it is an offshoot. Divided into two parts by the Jumkha 
B and shared by two owners, it baa an area of three square miles 

vritb, including N&h^ra, five villages yielding a yearly revenue of 
WO (Rs. 60U), and paying a GiikwSr tribute of £2 10«. (Rs. 25). 

^Tatered by the rivers Ooma and Mesri, its soil and crops are like 
hose of Sihora. At the meeting of the Karad and Goma rivers, 
J vUKBA , prolwiblyan offshoot from Sihora, has Nahdra on the east and | 

Rrost, UotArdi on tbe north, andMevalion the south. One square mila - 
ti ftrOB, it has two villages yielding a yearly revenue of £40 {Rs, 400), 
md paying a Gdikwdr tribute of £5 2s. {Rs, 61). In soil and crops 
'tunkha is like Sihora. The above six estates are all in one clusterin 
be heart of the P&ndu Mehvas. The only remaining estate held by 
k Biriys proprietor ia UyfijA. On the Mahi, west of Baroda, formed 
if two groups of villages, onrf of five in Kaira, and the other of seven ' 
s PetUd, this estate dates partly from the close of the fifteenth and 
MTtly from the close of the seventeenth century. According to their 
Hnily accounts, Jh&njarji aTaribfir Rajput, flying from Chdmpiner 
lb the time (1484) of its capture by Mahmud Begada, took refuge in 
he Mnhi woods, and, drinking water from a Bhil, lost his caste. Soon 
tftervrarda, killing Jayasingji of Biljiir, he received from theBhetashi 
^^'- f B gift of eight villages. About 200 years later (1694), the 
Imanof Umeta, unable to save his village from Koli robbers, called 
help to Jhanjarji'a descendant, Dalpatsing, giving him four 
A«flin reward. At the division (1751) biltweeu the Giikw^rand 
Poshwa, the Peshwa got five, and the Gaikw&r seven, villages. 
I 1812 and 1820 the Umeta Th^kor was classed among the Mahi 

Chaptsr ' 


pAKDn Ml 


pkmhfty GiuUar, 


m. K&atha tHbntarieo, and liis tribute fixed at £500 (Ra. 6000) tn tk 
BHtisIi, and £255 i». (Ra. 2552) U> the Gnikw&i*. The gtoap tt 
seven Tillages, in a broad bend of the Mahi, con>r« mu area of tvintj- 

'** one miles, and yit-lils a yearly revenue of £1800 (Ra. Ig.ffH)). to 
Boil ia light, and yields good crops of cotton, oil-seed, SDg^rcwt, 
millet, and rice. 

>«p' In tho Pdndu Mehviia there are three chief Bajpui eEUtct, 

Bh&larra, Dhari.audR^ka. Bha'i/ j^va. pleaaantlv plart-d ••n tlulcJi 
f bank of the Mahi about the middle of the Uue of the Mi^Ir. 

covering an area of twenty-seven square miles, witli, 
^^ Bhfidar\'a, thirteen villageSjhf^ayearlyrevenneoffSGOUiJi 

KV and pays a QAikwAr tribute of i.1907 12«. (Ra. 19,076). Ihe ^m u 

light and rich. Bh^darva, onue a very large estate, has soSmd I 
from two causes. The Muhammadaus and the Mnrnthila hifa « 
greatly reduced its size, leaving tn thirty-three villages oniv u fuii.-th, 
vdnta, io some of which the Bhidarva chief has husbaitiii i 

own and distinct civil and police powers. Again, of the \ ■ 
still form part of the estate, a lai^e share of the land ]■. 
chief's careleaeness, been granted away, or, without any propiv lul, 
allowed to bo held as private land. DHABiy the northmost oi du 
Panda Mehv^ estates, anrrounded by Pancli Mahals territory, tai 
divided among six shareholders, has seven villages with au uni'if 
3i miles, a yearly income of £200 (Rs. 2000), and a Gaik« . 
of £95 29. (Bb. 951). The soil good, thoogh rocky in ]<.. 
millet and rice. RVbka, on the Mahi to the south of Bliii.. 
an area of 2i square miles, a yearly income of £]oO (Rs. iov".', , •uu 
pays a Gaikwar tribute of £120 (Rs. 1200). Two-thirds ol Ou 
estate belong to Ss^skJ proprietors, and one-third to the Paged^ 
of Baroda to whom they sold it many years ago. The land ia mnrli 
cut by ravines running into the Mahi ; but the soil is goo'i . 
crops of millet, rice, tobacco, sugarcane, and oil-seeds. 1 
of this estate are uuderdirect management. The Chohan -; . 
themselves at Chha'ma b at a very early period. Tte origimir niiii« 
of the estate embraced VakhtSpnr and RHjpar, which were 
subsequently assigned to cadets of the family. It nowwntainsaa 
area of eleven square miles with tweoty-four subordinate village* 
and hamlets. It hasa yearly incomeof £1200 (Rs. 12,000), aod pays a 
yearly Gaikwar tribute of £840 2s. (Rs. 3401). Except fcr tJ-.uVVar 
territory on the north it is snrroundod by other Mehviis t-aiMU-s. 
The river Mesri runs through it. Close to Chb&liar, the land ia i 
and well tilled, though much broken by ravines. In the north-^ 
it is poor, tho husbandmen mostly Bbi Is, "growing only inferior crfl 

i^ V^^ftJA^tJi?, to the north of Chhaliar aJid sepamt^^d from it byjj 
river Meari, has two joint owners, an area of H miles, a yaj^ 
income of £50 (Ha. 500), and pays a Gaikwir tribute of £lq 
(Rs. 151). Its Boil and crops are like the poorer parts of Ch." 
^'jg^fl, on the Mahi to the north of Chh&liur of which itooc 
part, has an area of IJ miles, a yearly income of £37 I0«. f 
and pays a G&ikw&r tribute of £52«, (Rs. 51). Itgrowsn 
and tobacco. To the north of R^ipar lies the Q^Uuui,^^'^^ 
with its ofFshoota Moti and N&ni v arnoli. With the Mahi o 




Itvdd has Crtikw&r villages on the north and east, and the two 
YarBoliB on the south. Divided among four shareholders, it has an 
are<i of six square miles, with eleven villages, a yearly income of 
£150 (Bs. 1500), and pays a Gdikwar tribute of £60 28. (Rs. 601). 
But tor want of capital its Ught soil could ^eld all the better crops. 

The two VarnqliS j big and little, moti and nam, about a 
square mile eacfi m extent, lie between Itvdd and Bdjpar. Their 
income is respectively £29 (B«. 290) and £20 (Rs. 200), and the 
tribute they pay to the Gdikwar £10 2». (Rs. 101), and £2 lOs. 
(Rs. 25). There are two proprietors in Moti and one in N&ni 
Vamoli. The soil and products of both are like those of 
Itvad. The estate of ^QlfiB^ lies on the'Mahi between Eanora 
and Bhddarva. Its area is 3f miles, and it has five dependent 
hamlets. Its yearly revenue is £210 (Rs. 2100), and it pays a 
Gaikwfo tribute of £150 28. (Rs. 1501). Of its six shareholders, 
five are V^ygJigl^ and one is a c^^isia Rajput. Owing to heavy 
tribute arrears, they are miserably poor. Ai in ot^ier neighbouring 
estates the soil is rich but wants capital, and is much cut with 

The last two estates are P&ndu and Dorka. Pa'npu is bounded on 
the north and west by Chhdliar, on the south by feaikwar territory, 
and on the east by Ealol in the Panch Mahals and by the small 
estates of Moka Pagi and Kasla Pagina Muvdda. Divided between 
two chief, and a number of under, sharers, Musalmdns known as 
Khaftg&dfa, it has an area of nine square miles^a^^earTy revenue of 
£520 (Rs. 5200), and pays a Gaikwar tribute of £450 (Rs. 4500). 
The soil is good, and, if the shareholders were not miserably poor, 
could yield all the best crops. All their available property sold and 
mortgaged, they have no capital to spend, and owe heavy tribute 
arrears. Half a share of Pdndu is under direct management. 
The small estate of Dy^\,i^/\ lies on the Mahi between R4eka and 
Bhadarva. Divided among five Kan]j) j[ ^ sharers, its one village has 
an area of 24 square miles, a yearly revenue of £240 (Rs. 2400), 
and pays a G^ikwdr tribute of £110 9^. (Rs. 1104 8 as.). The Kanbi 
owners have sunk to the level of village headmen, the revenue is 
collected by Government officials, and any surplus is spent for the 
general good of the village community. It is the seat of the 
Th&n dir of Dorka Mehv as. 

The Pioida Mehvfis, like other lands along this part of the Mahi's 
course, seems to have been originally peopled by Kolis. The Kolis 
say that they are sprung from Tauvandshva, and remained for many 
generations on the sea shore in the delta of the Indus. At length 
by the goddess Hinglaj, under the leadership of Sonang Med, 
they were brought to the Nal. Sonang Med had twelve sons, each 
of whom founded a clan. The race gradually spread itself over 
Gujar&t settling, amongst other places, on the banks of the MahjL, 
whose rugged ravines suited them well, sheltering them from the 
punishment of their raids and robberies in the richer parts of the 
province. R^ja Earan Solanki (1064-1094)'has the credit of beings 
the first Rajput ruler who checked their thievish habits. His success 
was only for a time, and since then, whenever the central power 

B 561—20 I 

Chapter ZIII. 
Ta'vdv Mbrvas. 




[Bomtej Oaaetkiir, 



Pa'itdu MtHVA'S. 


has been weak^ tlie Mahi Kolis have burst out in their old excesses. 
Towards the close of the fifteenth centuiy, apparently after the break 
up of their centre at Ghimpdnerj many of the RajpntB driven out of 
the richer lands^ fell back on the rugged Mahi baxdra, and drove the 
Kolis out of their villages. Bh&darvaand Dhari fell to the Solankisi 
Itv&d and Yamoli to the B&thods, and Chh&liar to the Cho1:i£ns. 
About the same time some Musalm&ns, calling themselves Khiozid4d 
settled at PiLndu^ and took four or five villages. 

Able to spread their power and harass the country during the 
decline of the Ahmedabad dynasty (1536- 1583) j they were again 
broughf to order undef the Moghals^ and though troops had ^om 
time to time to be sent against them, their power in no way spread, 
till, early in the eighteenth century, the quarrels of its officers and 
Maritha attacks loosened MoghiJ rule. Daring the rest of the 
eighteenth century, all these communities, whether under Koli, 
Baiput,orMusalmdn leaders, attacking the rich Baroda plain villagea, 
levied large tributes under some of the many forms of bbckxnail. 
The estate of Bh&darva, the two small estates of lUeka, Dorka, 
and Anghad, and the larger property of Umeta in the west were, 
with other greater states, under the Gr&ikw&r agreements of 1812 
and 1820, placed under the protection of a British officer. The 
remaining estates were, under the convention of 1825, included among 
the tributaries placed under British protection. Under this agreement, 
estates, though only single villages divided among many shareholders, 
were allowed to hold tiie position of tributary chie&, the amouDt 
of tribute being settled in consultation with the GhUkwir officers. 
This assessment would seem in some cases to have been fixed at coo 
high a sum. The estates have ever since been struggling with debt, 
and, compared with most of the country rounds the diatrici n 
miserably poor. 

Kada'na, bounded on the north and east by the Mejrwdr state of 
Dungarpur, on the south-east and south by the Bewa K^tha state oi 
Sunth, and on the south-west and west by Lun&v&da, has an area of 
ISO equare miles, with, in 1872, a population of 12,689 souls or 97*6 
to th^ square alile. During the five years ending 1878 it had an 
estimated average yearly revenue of about £1500 (Bs. 1 5,000}. 

A round compact tract, Kaddna is rugged^ covered throughout 
with hills and forests . In the south, near the town of Kad&na, the 
Mahi breafca through the range of hills that, in a curved line, 
crosses SimtE'and'Kadfina. On the west the Bhadar, and on the east 
the Subna, small streams dry except ^during.the rains^ flow south 
into the Mahi. The S[ad&na hills are of no great height, seldom 
more than six or seven hundred feet. Like the Sunth. hills separated 
by narrow valleys, their forest-clad sides and rocky rid^s, broken 
by very few passes, stretch north and south in pareJlel Imes. 

The climate is feverish and unhealthy. In the extreme south-west, 
on the left bank of the •Mshi, the land is open and rich ; but to the 
norths except a narrow fringe along the river bank, moat of the 
country is barren and rocky. 




The 1872 census showed a total population of 12,689 souls or 
97*6 to the square mi le. Of the whole number 12,881 or 97" 58 per 
cent were Hinius/^d 808 or 2*42 per cent Musalmfins. Of the 
Hindus 555 were classed as Br&hmans ; 8^5 as Ejshatris, Bajputs ; 
66 as JV'aishas, traders and merchants ; 2814 as Shudras, cultivators, 
craftsmen, labourers, and depressed classes ; and of unsettled tribes, 
8 611 Bluls . Of the 12,881 Hindus, 54 were Vaishnavs, 2 of them 
R^mZnujSj 59 Yallabh&ch&ris, and three Kabirpanthis j 1753 were 
Shaivs; 8 Shravaks ; and 10,556 belonged to no special sect. Of 
the 308 Mupalm&ns 296 were Sunnis, 61 of them Syeds, 33 
Shaikhs, 158 Pathans, and 44 ' Others ', and 12 were Shi&s; all of 
them Bohor^. There were 100 villages *or 0*64 to the square 
mile, with, on an average, 126*89 persons to each village. Of the 
whole number 79 had less than 200 inhabitants, 19 from 200 to 500, 
and 2 from 500 to 1000. There were 3002 houses or an average 
uf 19'25 to the square mile, and of 4'20 persons to each house. Of 
tbe houses, 459 inhabited by 2205 persons were of the better, and 
2543 with 10,484 inhabitants of the poorer, sort. 

According to the bards, Kad&na was, about the middle of the 
thirteenth centurv, established as a separate power by Limdevji, 
a younger brotner of Jdlamsing, a descendant of Jilamsing 
the founder of the town of Jh&lod in the Panch Mahals. Since then 
in spite of its small size, the wildness and poverty of the country 
and the biyvery of its Bhil inha bitants^ have saved it from b eing 
gwa llowed up by its larger neighbours or from bemg forced to pay 
tribute to the paramount power. Except that it was always at w ar 
with Sjinth, Dungarpur, or Balfaino r, nothing of t!he history of 
Kad£na is known till the accession of the present chief. ^ Parvatsing 
was never on good terms with the late B&ja Bhav&nsing of Sunth. 
Bhav^bsing claimed sovereignty over him and in 1856 complained to 
tbe Political Agent that the Thakor had introduced an infant into 
hU house as his own son. The Th&kor admitted that the child was 
Dot his. He pleaded that it belonged to the family and that the 
other members of the bJiwydd were willing that it should be adopted 
39 his heir. The B£ia of Sunth failed to prove that he had any 
power to interfere with the Kad&na chief. Under these circumstances 
Government allowed the Th&or to adopt the child and declared his 
aute Independent of Sunth. -^ 

S anjelt ^ an estate of twelve villages, in the north of Bdriya, has 
an v^nS 33^ miles, and in 1872, a population of 2532 souls or 
74*68 to the square mile. It is bounded on the north by Sunth, 
on the east by Jh&lod, on ike south by B&riya, and on the west 
by Gk>dhra. The land is fertile, but nearly all the people are Bhils 
and poor husbandmen. The villages are wide scattered, made up 



History. « 


^ Accofding to the fMwly barda the raeeent chief ia the twenty-first in saccessiQii. 
The names ere i limdevji ; Bfadesing ;I>haraj[i ; SoltAnsinff ; ShArdulsing ; Bhimsing ; 
KlUnsiag ; Bhojrii ; BAghavd&s ; Ashkaran ; SuraJTial ; limbji ; JM^rapsing ; 
Asupei^g^ Umedsiag; Ddatsing; Devising; Sorajmal; Bhimsing ; Va fchatsing ; 

IW IB* , 
«v «M» jg»a^ — » M kaiiii.w J< gigl-<Op g««a M« 
; » B Tai 

I 41 er r^ to the »qu» 
» iTij, rar^t^ «I-77. Of tl« «^c^ noabflr, 

a (rf Sl-SS lo Ik 

-, «kl TDS «sk SOa occsputf of 

penod <j( wan t 

S«tna£tp n^s^il Bcjpnr.a ^iU^e 

B fibs tenrtun^ (rf tte K«* o< UinT* 
SUUb-ad-diB Gon. He aad hk ■ 

BOvtknidirtnctBaf BuijafroBtlwEroDtknaf Svntb to-V 
. FiBaiii,aiid to bam kept ^ocb <if it till thetime of E 

wbowsstn ITSdkinidt^theBirijvdiief. The a ^ 

WM takeo bj his raothra- to Jofaat, where her buher raMt^ 
be carae of age, Babidnisiiigii reCBmed, and waa ahin 
against Barij*. He waa succeeded br Jagslsingp, a not 
hooter who was I&moas for a taft of hair od his hock like a t _ 
During his time, tbroogh the help of the British GoTenuneDt, U" 
B&rifs chief agreed to ^ow the ^nieli chief to keep twolvs nllligt' 
within hia owo contTvl and entirely tree of Bari^ra. These rjllaff^ 
are now in the nndispnted possession of the Thikor, and ft* 
boondaries of the estate hartog beeojatelr defined, all ]ireteiA 
o( interference on the pait of Barija has been removed. *&■' 
diiefa of Sanjeli were known by the name of the forest chiefe, Jjf^ 
Sajif. He died abont 1858, and was epcceeded by his adopt 
Pratipsingji, the present Thikor of Sanjeti. 






ABflmderaj in Mfinsel in the south of Sdjpipla^ has a small Chapter XIV. 
mosque said to have been built to celebrate the birth of Shaikh Places of Interest.^ 
Ahmad the saint of Sarkhej near Ahmedabad^^ and the friend and 
adviser of Sultdn Ahmad I. (1411-1443). 

Bala'sinor, north latitude 22° 59, east longitude 73"* 25', the chief 
town of the B&14sinor state, with, in 1872, a population of 8836 
souls, 8tand|9 near the Shedi river, about forty-one miles east of 
Ahmedabad. Surrounded by a stone wall with flanking bastions * ^ 

and four gates, the town is ill placed, commanded by a high table * 
land, and made hot and close by a wall of rocks that half encircles it. 
The town is of little interest, its main street narrow and winding 
with no noticeable buildings. Outside of the north gate is a large 
picturesque lake with a raised causeway running along its western 
edge, ana, on the east bank, surrounded by trees, a summer house of 
the chiePs. On the high ground to the north, overlooking the lake, 
stands the Nawdb's palace, a half fortified building four stories high, 
with turrets and a small flimsy-looking cupola perched on the top. 
From the town, a sudden rise leads to a massive gateway with 
flanking towers, and, beyond the gateway, a winding road passes to 
the palace plateau. Standing in a square court surrounded by stables, 
the building is mean and tawdiy, its appearance marred by 
casual additions made from time to time as more room has be^n 
wanted. It is now seldom used by the Nawab whose ordinary 
dwelling is in the garden house by the lake side. On a hill, called 
Dev Dungaria, about threS miles (2 kos) from the town, a fair is 
held every year on Bhrdvan vad 8th (August) in honour of Dev 
Dungaria Mahadev. 


k, or DevgadBa'riya, north latitude 22"" 42', east longitude 
73° 51', the chief town of the Bdriya state, with, in 1872, a population 
of 2891 souls, lies almost in the centre of the state, about half a mile 

' Bom. Got. SeL XXIII. 316. An account of the saint is given in the Bombay 
Gazetteer, IV. 291. 

168 STATES. 


Chapter XIV. from the P&nam river, in an angle formed by two lines of hSLh, one 
Flaoef oflnterait. ^^® Devgadhill, stretching towards the north, and the other, 

eastwards. The third side was enclosed by a wall by the late Rftj& 
BARiYA. Prithirdj. The gorge^ at the angle through which the drasn&ge 

of the enclosed valley escapes, is closed by a gate. In thalo^t? 
part of the town is a lately built jail surrounded by a garden. 
About the end of the eighteenth century (1785), the town seems t^ 
have been of considerable importance. It was a much frequented 
thorough&re between Gujar&t and M&lwa, the toils levied at it^ 
gates generally exceeding £2000 (Bd. 20,000) a year. It is described 
as neai, containing many brick-built and tile-roofed houses, with 
decent orderly inhabitants, well dressed shopkeeperSj sad clean 

• soldier-like troops.^ Seen from the north or east, B&riya is a 

handsome town. In front, are a stone gateway and clock tower, aod 

• flanking walls stretching to the right and left ; beyond, are the roof^i 

of houses, and beyond the houses, some way up the Devgad hill, is 
the palace, itswhite walls standing out from the wooded background. 
The main street is broad and straight and the houses irregular 
and picturesque. The palace, built and included within the walla 

• of the fort by the late Bilja, and lately improved by the addition of 

a garden, is a large rectajigular three-storied structure with domed 
comer towers. From an inner courtyard, staircases lead to the 
different rooms. That on the left leads to the Darb^ roonij large, 
with doors opening on a verandah, and with a grating overhead 
from which the ladies of the palace, themselves unseea, can look 

• * down upon the doings in Darb&r. Though somewhat bEidly aired 

and lighted and with steep troublesome staircases, the buildnig has 
the merit of strength, congruity, and completeness. Though on thd 
whole a handsome well built town, its position is low and unhealthv. 
On the south and west the hills shut out the breeze, and, on the high 
ground on the other side, not a quarter of a mile from the east gate 
of the town, a lake, as high as the roofs of the houses, fllls the town 
with damp and fog. Of late years much has been done to keep the 
town clean and drain and metal its roads, and a dispensaiy has 
been opened with free medicines and advice. Still the towns- 
people suffer much from rheumatism and fever. 

On Dasera day il'^o svd 10th (September. October) about 6O00 
or 7000 Bhils, Kolis, and other lower classes, with a sprinklin£^ ot 
Br&hmans and Ydni&s, meet in B^riya to see the B&ja's procession, 
as he goes to worship the shami, Mimosa suma, tree. All receive 
presents, the low caste people a pound each of Indian com flour 
or of pulse, and the higher castes, ali that is wanted to make 
a good meal.' The people of the lower classes, dressed in their 
gayest, pass the day in drinking, dancing, and flute-playing. In 
former times, no one, even though accused of murder, could be 
arrested on Dasera. 

1 Forbes* Oriental Memoin, III. 378, 38a Hamilton (1818) desoribei it tm neat 
with many brick-bnilt and tiled houses. Desoription of Hmdustdn, I. 685. 

> This, called jkMa alUcUta or complete ratiosi inolades, bestdes flour, rioa and 
pulse, butter, oil, sugar or molasses, and spioes. 


iHutly on tlie Devgad hill and partly on tbe plain, stands the Chapter X: 
^^^afort, neither biutioned nor armed, about two and a quarter places oTinti 
H round, and with walla about ten feet high on the plain and Bix 
t on the hilt slopes. Behind the Raja's palace rises a hill about * hiya. 

► fe^t high considpred inaccessible and so not protected by walla, 
ithin tbe fort are fonr unfailing wella. There are three main 
m and one sallyport. Tha north gate is out of order, the east 
9 U in niins, and the south gate in repair; the sallyport ia on 
a west. On all sides the walls are ruinous. Even if in repair tha 
t is a place of no great strengtli. On the top of the Devgad hill, 
'I white building contains the tutelary deity of the Bariya 
^^ The story is, that three genoratiinis after the fall of 

Aiiu>aner, when Dungarsing was looking for a site for his capital, 
9 of his Bhils cutting wood on a hill struck his axe against two 
nA stones. Blood gushed ont and the ase was shivered. 
arine bis story Dungaraing visited the spot, called it Devgad or 
I'ft fort, installed the stones as the tutelary deity of the hill, and 
aded his capital at its foot. The stones are still, with great 
op, nsited by the Rdja every twelfth year. 

Bft'va'pir, a pass in the Rfijpipla hills, takes its name from a 
ilebi^led Muhammadan saint buried there about 900 years ago.' 

Chft'nod,^ north latitude 21° 58', east longitude 73° 30', in the 

west of the Sankheda Mehvfc, lies on the right bank of the 

.clase to where it meets the Or, near the town of Mandva, 

it thirty>Gve miles north-east of Broach. At this point, the banks 

> river are so seamed by ravines from eighty to one hundred feet 

that Mindva and Chanod, though on two neighbouring knolls 

^•iho same side of the river are, in the rainy season, sometimes for 

1, completely separated. To remedy this evil, the towns have, 

kia tbe last few years, been joined by a wooden bridge. From 

DOrth, wheeled vehicles can reach ChAnod only by two roads, 

tha tnain road from Baroda through Dabhoi, and the other from 

br, which join in a ravine about half a mile from the town. 

Ibis ravine the road passes, steep and winding, to the platean 

ire the buildings of the town are somewhat closely huddled 

atber. Even in the narrow crooked market street temples are 

led with shops, and the outskirts are reached only by narrow foot 

ttf. Almost all the building are religious, temples, monasteries, 

I reit-houses. Devotees at all times fill the place, and, on high 

V, OTerilow from temples and rest-houses into booths, lanes, and 

•eta. From the want of space, the ruggednesa of the ground, and 

division of ownership and authority between the Giikwfir and 

Milndra chief, Chfinod is at all times very hard to keep clean. 

tho great gatherings the dirt and smells, then always at their 

•at, greatly mar tbe effect of the high rugged temple- crowned 

ia, Ibe broad deep river, and the shores and boats crowded with 

PbrbM' OritmUl Memoin, U. 118. 

[iMiiii ilenvea Qilcud or Chiuclod from Uie Suitkrit ChandroJajia, moou-tma^ 

AltM. I. 137. 

IBomtay Guittoar. 
160 STATES. 

Chapter XIV. bonds of gay-dressed worshippers. The chief temples^ are those of 

■oi AM i^«i4-^«Mf Blapileshvar Mah&dev, KAshivishvandth Mah&dev^ Chandika M4ta, 

Places or inxeresi;. Adityeshvar Mahfidev, Rdmchandra]i Mah&dev, Shri Mata Veriii. 

Cha'kod. Blamleshvar Mahfidev, Narmadeshvar Mah^ev, Shri Hf«iiim4iiii, 

and Shri M^kandesHvar Mah&dev. Three flights of stegs lead 
from the town to the bed of the river. On one of these, of verr 
handsome cut stone still unfinished, the ez-Gaikw&r spent a stun o: 
£20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000). 

The chief fair, held in honour of the image of Sheshashii, 
lasts for five days from Kdrtik and 13th to vad 2nd (Kovember\ 
the 8uU 15th being the chief day of the fair. It is attended by 
about 1200 pilgrims ^om all parts of Gujarat, who bathe in tiu» 
river and worslup the image. Only articles of food worth aboa* 
£70 (Rs. 700) are sold. The police is managed by the Rana oi 
M&ndva, who, in return, levies a small fee from the stallkeeper^. 
Sheshash&i, well carved in black stone, is a four-handed Vishnu, 
sleeping on the back of the serpent Shesh or Anant, with his consort 
Lakshmi sitting by his feet, and the four-mouthed Brahma springing 
out of a lotus from his navel. The story, as given in the Narba»iii 
Purin, is that once a demon, daitya, becoming very powerful acd 
troubling the gods, Brahma besought Vishnu to destroy him. Yishon 
followed him to the Vindhya hills, and there with his discus slew 
him. But the demon had some Brahman blood, the discus blackened, 
and Vishnu was guilty of Br6hman murder. On his way back.. 
. Vishnu, at Chakrapdni Aro on the Narbada near Chdnod^ washed his 

* ^ discus and it came out pure. Thinking that the water wonld clear 

all sins, he stayed there and for many years slept on the waters 
Long after, a Brdhman dreamed that Vishnu wished to leave the river, 
and, searching for him, found this black stone figure. A temple was 
built and the image installed, and is still served by the Brs^man's 
descendants. Additions have, from time to time, been made by tbe 
6^kw&r. The temple income is about £250 (Rs. 2500) a year, the 
G^ikw&r contributing £136 lOs. (Rs. 1365), the Rdna of Mdndva 
£50 (iCs. 500), and the offerings of the pilgrims amounting to about 
£70 (Rs. 700). After paying the charges, generally about £200 
(Rs. 2000), the Br^hmans share the surplus. On Chaitra $nd 
15th (March), at the specially sacred meeting of the Narbada and 
Or, another great fair is attended by from 20,000 to 25,000 pilgrims 
from all parts of Gujardt and even iroxfi M41wa. Grain, sweetmeats, 
metal pots, and cloth, worth altogether from £'M)0 to £500 
(Rs. 4000 - 5000) are sold. The pilgrims bathe in the river, perform 
ceremonies for the souls of the dead, and^worship at the temples round 
Ch&nod. It is specially famous as a place of cure in spirit diseases. 
People possessed by spirits come trembling from head to foot 
and, making an offering to Ndrayan, are freed from their tormentor. 

^ In 1820 Hamilton found the chief temple finished in a style mnch superior to tlie 

generality of Hindu edifices^ the central spire being light and in good proportion, and 
be dome interior forty feet in diameter, painted by Ahmedabad artiste. AH tfa« 
temples abounded witn exterior sculpture, but very inferior to that of Elephanta sod 
Ciru. Description of Hindust&n, I. 712. 




'Die legend of this place is, that once a prince of the Solar dynasty 
nu.tiied Kamav, vrhen out hunting, by accident shot a Br^man. 
Sorely didtreesed, he set out to perform some penance, and sleeping 
under a banian tree, near the meeting of the Or and Narbada, woke 
to see the Br&hman he had shot pass by. B^ognizing the man, he 
gave hfm all he had, and, on Ohaitra sud 15th (March), washing and 
iiiuking ready a pyre, burnt himself on the river bank. His soul 
was wafted to heaven, and those who bathe there on that day are 
•:leanded from all sins, even the sin of killing a Br&hman. 

Dev MogrEi in Bdjpipla, has a temple of F^ndhar Mdta. Every 
vpar on the Maha Shivratri day, Mdgh vad 14th (February), ja fair 
IS attended by about 200 pilgrims, mostly Bjiils. During the two 
liays it lasts the Bhils drink large quantities of liquor. Every year 
the chief of S^bdra sends to this temple thirty pots of liquor, a 
aiWer necklace worth about 2«. (Re. 1), Is. (8. as.) worth of flowers, 
7i girl's robe, hodhni, four goats, and one male buffalo. The food and 
ilnuk are first offered to the goddess and then consumed by the 

Dhuinkhali in the east of Rdjpipla, has, about two miles to the 
south, the remains of a few temples with fairly well-carved images.^ 

Ha'mph) on the right bank of the Narbada, in the Chhota Udepur 
Rtato, at Uie extreme south-east comer of the Rewa Edntha, of local 
importance as a place of pilgrimage, has a ruined fort on a site 
of Bome strength, having the Narbada on the aouth and hills and 
ravines on other sides. This was the place of refuge, and for some 
time the head-quarters of the Chdmp&ner Chohins who are now 
represented by the Chhota Udepur chiefs. A road has lately (1875) 
been opened from Udepur. For the last eight miles it is little more 
than a bridle path. 

Jeyor, in the Ndndod sub-division of Rdjpipla, on the banks of the 
Narbada, has a stone and cement temple of Kumbheshvar Mahddev, 
held in local esteem, from its mention in the Narbada Purdn. The 
Brahman who performs the worship is paid a yearly sum of £40 
(lis. 400) by the Rdjpipla state. His Highness the G4ikwdr also 
contributes towards the expenses of the temple. Besides of Shiv, 
two images of small and large Panotis are worshipped with Ubations 
'^f oil. The offerings are shared by Tapodhan Brdhmans who worship 
tbe image of Shiv. On every Saturday in Shravan (July - August) 
a fair is held, attended by about 800 people, from villages within a 
distance of about twenty-five miles, the number rising on the last 
Saturday, if the weather is fair, to about 2000. The people come 
m the morning, bathe, worship the image, and leave in the afternoon. 
A few Bohords, confectioners, betel-leaf sellers, and grocers open 
stalls and daily sell goods worth from about £5 to £70 (Bs. 50 - 700). 

Slada'na, the chief town of the Kaddna state, with, in 1872, a 
population of 1478 souls, lies about eighty miles east by north from 

Chapter ZHT. 
Places of Interest 

Dkv Moora« 





B 561—21 

' Bom. Got. Sel XXIU. 315. 


iftttXtV. Ahmedabad, on r rulge that runs along tte left bniJt of tbe HaiA 
interest, shortly after it Icitv^s the liills, Tlie tortilied huuee, or fort, vihm Ua 
Th&kor lives, stands on ihe extreme point of tlip spnr that OTerlook' 
""■"*■ the towD, but. ie commanded liy hiUe liotli in front and rear. Thp iriBi 

are about ten feet higK, and tlireetjoart^rsof a mile round, Tlinrni^ 
three small guns, but no bastiona. The approach, np a « ' ' 
path throngh a gateway with flanking lowers, lends i; 
courtyard with out-houses along three sides, and tij 
by the Thfikor'a dwelling. This building is two stories i 
basement is occupied by store and cook rooms, and iu ilii? uiiui 
Btory^reachedby a ladder trap-door, are the Deirliiir room, where »l 
chief lives and receives guests and retaiiiors,and tfao ladies' rWMi 
approached by a side passage. A winding atone stnircaao luodt tol 
terraced roof. 

:tJBBK. Kukrej, between the towns of Agar and Vftjiri» in thn con(* 

of the Sankheda MehvAs, has the mina of an old fort. ' '-' 

to the local story this is the site of a largo city 
N agar i, in Chnhin days joined to Champaner by an ■■■■ 
passage. Neither written records nor the size of the rn! 
these local legends. There is a story that near a masonry " ■11 Hini'l 
treasure was once hid, and that about forty years ago workmro, wait 
by the Agar chief to dig out Ihe treasure, wore drivtn away ^ 
winged serpents. In 18(i8 the place was again opened in 
of the Political Agent. After digging to some depth, a at 
solid sandstone was reached, and as this did not appear to hanl 
ever disturbed, no further search waa made. 

tiKoDn*. Limodra, in Hajpipla, has a temple of Rikhavdevii. Pl^ 

inscription ou the footstool of the image, it appears tu tiare b 
np on M'irgshirsh xud Uth, S. 1120 (December lOtii). The 1 
was lost till 1804 (S. 1920), when it was found in a field in LtiB 
The RAja bnilt a temple and placed the image in it on Mdi/h ead 5th, 
S. 1928 (February 1872). The cipensesof the tem|ite aro defran^ 

from the rents of some houses and shops attached to i* •■■" 

to £15 (Rs. 15U) a year, and the offerings of the Jain '! 
flock there every year on Kartik awd 1 5th (November) jf 
5th (February), The fair lasts for a day and is atteii<l' 
by not more than 150 pilgrims. The only trade is in gnnn koIiI fio 
food to the amount of £5 or jEG (Rs. 50 - 60). An account of t^ 
^ Limodra carfietian mines' is given abbve (p. 12). 

■ Barlxiui (1514) (SUnlny'g Edition, Gfl) mimtiaiiithit M Limidim ww 
from wbiah tlie^ tiuide boaila for Eaat Africa (Biirberia). Extiact«<l in I 
wu white OB milk with »oniB red. It* colonr wbs heightened with fif i 
who pierced and mouufactureil tlie beoda in v&rious fuhions, onl, nctu^i i 
■nd made knife- ha adlei, bottona, and rings. Ciunbay merchaiita i< 
in the Red Sea port*, whence, by way of Cairo and Alexandria, the^ t 
and throughout Arabia, Persia, aod Nubia. Much chalcetloo)', Wl i >. 
bahagerr, wu also fouad in this town. Beads made nf it and woni t' < 
■kin, were able, it wa» »»id, to prraervo choatity. In 166S, ThoTeo 

„ - - - vill.6* . 
I HatniltOD «ayi: The onnin 


Luna'Ta'da, northlatitade 23'' 8', east longitude IS"" ST, with, in Ch&ptar^ZIT. 

1 872, a population of 9662 souls, the chief town of the Lundv&da state, pjAces of InterMt. 

brands about four miles east of the meeting of the Mahi and Pinam, , , 

yktid sixty-three miles east from Ahmedabad. The town, founded in hovAYAVA* 
I 434 bj R£na Bhimsingji, is backed by a hill about 300 feet high, 
which^ gradually rising from the west, ends in a ridge running 
iiorih and south with a very steep fall to the east. 

In 1718, Rija Narsingji greatly added to the strength of the place 
ijy building a wall, that, crowning the ridge, ran down the steep hill 
Hides, and, turning inwards, met at the western or Mahddev gate. j 

The walls are from eight to ten and a half feet high and ab^jut two 
sdJid a quarter miles round. There are ten or iwelve ruined bastions, 
:*zid foar gates, to the north, east, south, and west. The R&ja's palace 
in in the fort. About the beginning of the present century, Lnn&v&da 
was a great trade centre for merchants passing from Ratldmsad . 

nnd other parts of Malwa to Ahmedabad and central Gujar&t. The 
artisans were particularly skilful, and arms and other miKtary 
a4:ooutrementa were easily procured. In 1803, it supplied Colonel 
Murray's army so effectually, that, had not the fortress of Dohad 
iu the Panch Mahals been ceded without a struggle, he would have ^ 

(.istabliBhed his magazines and hospital at Lundy^da.^ 

The streets are crooked and narrow. The main street, winding 
through the market and the busiest quarter of the town from the 
Vansia gate in the north to the Darkoli gate in the south, is lined 
with houses, two or three stories high, many of them adorned with 
overhanging deeply earned wooden balconies. Built on the slope of * • 

a hill, the lower parts of the town, till lately when drains were boilt^ * 
duffered severely from flooding. 

The palace, on a terrace at the top of a wall about forty feet high, 
looks from below very high and imposing. It is a long narrow bund- 
ing, with a solitary domed tower to the south, and a west front three 
or four stories high, full of irregular outstanding mulHoned windows. 
The chief entrance passes through two gateways, and then rises 
sharply to the terrace on which the palace stands, where, through 
a third gateway, a courtyard is entered from which stairs lead to the 
different parts of the building. Except the Darbdr hall which has 
lately been added, the rooms are small and dark, and the staircases 
ateep and difficult. Immediately behind the palace terrace, rises a 
covered way leading to its orest, a way of escape for the inmates^ 

in tiie wUdest part of the jnngle an<f consiat of numeroiu shafts worked down perpen* 
dScoUrlyy about four feet wide, the deepest being about fifty feet. Some extend at the 
Kittom horizontally, bat usually not uLr, the pits being naturally incapable of beinff 
worked a second year, on account of the banks fallins down by the heavy rains ana 
B>«cee8itAting the opening of new ones. The soil is a uttle gravelly consisting chiefly 
ci quartz sand reddened with iron, and a little clay. The nodules weigh from a few 
cnrnoes to two or even three pounds, lying close but generally distinct, not being in 
•tnta but scattered profusely through the masses. On the spot they are mostly of a 
bUckisb olive colour like common dark flints. Others are somewhat lighter, and 

others still lighter with a slight milky tinge. DescriptitfO of Hindustin, L .714, 715. 

< HainiltoD*a Description of Hindustan, 684. 

[Bombay Q 

XIT. of tlie palace, sbonld they at any time be hard proaeed. At tbeQ 
itfXntorest. °^ ^^^ palace vtn\\ is a pleasant ganlen. Opposite it ts tho JkO, i 
immediately outside the gate, are the school auii dispenaary. 

Outside the south ^ito are the shrinea of thi' ^ds Lnooehw, 
Vishveshvar, Raochhodji, aud the monaatery of Nath BAra* ™'"' 
monastery is surrounded hy a loophol<-d qnadrao^ular w^ i 
flacikiug towers, and, if it were not oommaiided hy the town ' 
would be a place of some strength. It was Eomideti, in 1 75S (S. 1^ 
by a Gusfii named Manhordas, who is said to hav« suddenly apM 
lit Liin^v&da and to have worked many miracles by lJu»ueIp<J 
patrou«s9 the goddess Aunapunia. 

On the PAnam river, at a short distance from LunfivAda, arq 
two fairs, one on Sltriifaii. vail 8tii (Anjrnat.) at tho tenia 
Mehlolia Mahiidev, aud the cither on Mii<ili vail Hiii (Pebmar 
the temple of Kumilreshvar Mah^dev. Thoy are attended by | 
or 5000 pooplo, from Lnaav&du and the Bhil and Koli villaeeart 
who pay the Brahinaua id. {1 amm) a head. Only opy i 
cocoauuts, and other articles of food are sold. 
"- Ma'kni, nine miles north-eastof Sankheda, in a rich coantrywiBi'- 

Bpeoially tine trees and surrounded by 6elda of sugarcane, seems to 
be the Mangni which Sultfin Ahmad I. fortiBed in 1419.' It h 
fine large lake, with a brick and cement wall on the soutb-W 
was ovideiitlyouce a moat thi-iving and populoas place,* 

'* Ma'ndva, in the estate of the same name, in the eArenwl 

of the Saukheda Mehvas, stands on a high knoll overlooklBl 
Orsang nver at its meeting with the Narbada. It ia eeparat«dli 
the town of Chdriod by a deep ravine lately bridged over.* ' 
plutoau on which the town stands ia high above the river OrH__,„ 
and its edge, abutting on the river, ia, during the raias, liable toll*' 
eaten away by the violence of the stream, and, as t,he ravines rotud 
the town have eaten deeply into tbo earth, there ia cotistanl das^ 
of the whole or a part of the knoll being carried away. Kxaefi 
through the ravine no wheeled vehicles can approatrh the town. The 
only building of any pretension is the rt^sidonce of the chi^ 
Remains of bafltiona aud Hanking towers show that once, prob^f 
before the spread of tlie traikwdr's power, the family was axm 
richer and more prosperous than it now is. 

1. Mohan, or All Mohan, about twenty miles south of Udq 

was, during the seventeeuth century, the capital of the family o 
present Chhota Udopur chief. After losing Champilner ([■ 
they fled to Hampb on the Narbada, and 6eeni, abotit the middle Q 
eixteeiitb century, to have moved to All Mohan as a place an 
to attract trade. The ruins of the fort stand on a conical h 
200 to '300 feet above the plain. Below it a lino of circnraw 
inclades what must once have been the town. The plai 




with the rains of houses^ gateways^ and wells. The only remains are 
two broken-down round towers. 

UoUldi Gba'nta, in Rajpipla, has about foar miles ofF^ on a high 
bank of the Narbada, two very old temples, one of Shulpdnidivar 
Mab^ev or the trident-beariDg god,^ th^ other of Ranchhodji. 
For tffeir support, the Baroda state pays £70 (Rs. 700) a year, and 
rlie offerings of tlio pilo^rims come to about £10 (Rs. 100) more. 
Hitjpipla pays about £80 (Rs. 300) for the maintenance of the 
temple of Ranchhodji and the feeding of those who visit all the holy 
I f laces on the Narbada. Hero, every year, on Ohaitra vad 30th 
(April) a fair is held. Pilgrims from all parts of Gujarat begin 
to gather from Chaitra vad 11th, till, on th^ fair day, the number 
reaches about 4000. Beyond sweetmeats and food there is little trade. 

Mota Sa'ja, in the Jhagadia sub-division of Rdjpipla, has the 

temple of a saint named Dnyaniji. The story is that Gorakhji, the 

well known disciple of the great ascetic Machhindar, in an 

inienriew with the reformer Kabir at Benares^ asked him to give 

him divine knowledge, dnydn. Kabir replied, that, as he was 

a follower of Machhindar, he could not instruct him in his present 

life, but would do so in the next on the banks of the Narbada. 

G<jrakhji accordingly abandoned this life, and was bom again in the 

bouse of the Raja of Jesalmir in M^rwar in the person of Dnydniji. 

When eleven years old he visited Kabir at the kabir vad tree 

near Broach. Taught by the sage, Dnydniji settled in the 

village of S&ja, and built a temple of Ram and Lakshman. He 

diod on I^o$h and 11th (January), and every year on this day a 

fair is held in his honour. The fair lasts for thirteen or fourteen 

days, and is attended by 1000 or 1200 pilgrims, mostly religious 

be^ars from Surat, Broach, Baroda, and the neighbouring districts. 

Bohoraa, cloth sellers, confectioners, brasiers, and grocers open a 

few shops, and goods worth about £250 (Rs. 2500) are sold. The 

jnlgrims worship the footprints of Dnydniji. The expenses of this 

tt^mple^ amounting yearly to about £70 or £80 (Rs. 700 - 800), 

are met partly from land granted by the Rdjpipla state which 

yields about £-40 (Rs. 400) a year, and partly from land in Gaikw&r 

and British territories yielding nearly the same amount. 

Na'ndod, north latitude 21° 55', east longitude 73° 43', the chief 
town of the Rftjpipla state, with, in 1872, a population 9768 souls, 
lies about thirty-two miles east by north from Surat, on a rising 
ground in a bend of the Kdtjan river about eight miles from the 
Narbada. Flowing almost due north till it reaches the south end of 
the town, the Karjan makes a sharp turn for about two miles to 
the aouth-west. It then bbnds to the north-west for nearly a mile, 
and from that suddenly swerves north-east until it reaches tihe north 
end of the town, and then, leaving the town, flows towards the 
north. Kear the town the river is about 100 yards broad, but, except 
during the rains, it is easily fordable save at a few deep pools. 
Towards the east or back of the town the ground rises abruptly, and 

Chapter ZIV. 
Places of Intereirt. 


Mota Sa'ja. 


' 8hul a thorn or tzident, jxlni hand, and iehvar, god. 

rBombaj C 



J^Ur XIV. alopes rapidly toweirds llie west or Cmnt, wliere it ia bonndsd 
■ ofLiterMt. ''^K® beyond wliich is low swampy ground, in the cold s 

by tlie (^uitivntors as a tbresliing Boor. Thu spnce between tl 
'* of Llie river and the town is laid oat in gardens and riob fielda. 

As early as tSOi.'tbe Musalmilna nre said to have 
thcr N&udod, or Nadot, eliief from his capitiil, and mado'il 
lieod- quarters of one of tbt-ir districts, bnilding a mosqaa i 
issuing cuiD. Aud from tliat time until 1B30, tlifcbtt'f, tliougC 
had, since the fall of Muliainmadnn power (1 730), recovered, i 
of the district, never brought back his capital fromF'_|_'' 
NAndo^. Klindod baa ono main atreot runnint; from north to 9 
with, on both sideH, nyiny throe-storied hrick and conicDt 1 
their fronts covered with gaudy paintings and soine of 1 
richly carved balconies and overhanging wo'id work. Font 
winding, this street was, in 1868, after a fire, improved and ■ 
chiefly south towards tliu palace. On both sides, behind the fa 
of the main street, are wretched Bbil huts. At the aimtli end 
town is the palace, a bare quadrangular three-storied building 
four equare flanking towers, in a large untidy enclosure, 
gradually being surrauuded by a wall of cut atone. From t 
me nt, which is given up to store rooms and guard rooms 1^ I 
flight of narrow steps le^uls to the first floor, where the Darb^ 

reception room, narrow low and lighted from doora leading il~ 

front verandah, stretches nearly the whole length of the buildlsg. 
At the back of the reception room is a conrfcyard with rooms raund 
it, flanked by auitos of women's apartments. The south ^cJ of iha 
, palaco stands on the steep, eighty feet high, bank of the Karjaii rivor. 
Besides with vegetables, the market ia well supplied with Hnj^lidl 
piece goods, embroidered robes, brocades, coarse country clotfc, 
grocery, spices, tobacco, opium, glass bangles, cbildrcu's toy«i 
sweetmeats, and hot pieces of fried meat, kabdbs. The trade il 
mostly local, imports of hardware, groceries and cloth, and exports 
of agricultural produce, honey, wax. wood, and bamboos, Niodo* 
is mentioned in 185^ as celebrated for its cutlery, sword-bells^ 4 
mmbar skin pijuches. Country, dtin(/ri, cloth and tape, po^.H 
woven by the Dhoda.' 

■FR. Fl^thampur, about five miles south of Sunth, has i 

moBqu»«nd ininuret, one of the few remains of Musalm&n aupi 
in this wild p»rt of Gujardt. No writing has boen found i 
the mosque or minaret. According to the local story Pratt 
was the head-quarters of a Muealman ruler Prutham Sh&h,l 
•bout the middle of the thirteenth century, wa^ beaten aud d 
out by a certain Raua Sant. 

1^ Ra'jpipla, in the beginning of the present oentnry* 

of the liiLjpipla state, is called new Ri^ijpipla to diattngi 





from Uie village of Pipla also called juna or old Pipla, tlie original Chapter XIV. 
stroiig^hold of the chiefs, where they lived till 1730. Places (^^terest« 

Old Pipla, on a spur of the Devsdtra hill, is almost inaccessible 

to any one bat a Bhil. No wheeled vehicles can get there, the 

road^ •for abont eight miles (5 kos), lying thi'ongh a narrow 

^or^e between high overhanging hills. In former times it was 

a SMQ retreat, when, if invaded, the chief blocked the path with 

wood and mbbish. There are still traces of the village, now 

iuLahited only by a few Bhils.^ At Rajpipla there were two forts, 

one immediately behind old Rajpipla on the top of the Devs&tra hilji 

aboat 2000 feet high,^ and the other at new Rajpipla. The old 

fort ia almost inaccessible being approached by narrow footpaths, 

vrhichj with a little tronble, conldbe made impassable even for infantry. 

The new fort, bnilt about 1730 on the spur of a hill at the meeting 

ctf the Tarai and Karjan, is approached, along the bank of the Elarjan, 

th rough two miles of a wild and beautiful mountain gorge. Both 

sidles of the hills overhanging the stream are crowned by breast- 

works, and the road is rugged enough to make access to the fort 

very difficult. In front of the fort the Ldl Barvdja, a gateway with 

flanking towers, completely bars the road. Even after surmounting 

this, an invading force would be nearly a mile from the key 

of the position, and would have to fight its way through a rugged 

defile between heights and among rocks and bushes alive with 

Bbils. The fort, a square court with walls about ten feet high 

enclo^ng an area of eight acres (15 highds), contains the palace, 

a paltry structure with flanking towers armed by a few pieces of 

cnidoellaneous artillery. Old associations endear the fort to the 

ruling family, and every year, as the great Dasera festival comes, the 

K^ja marches in state from his palace to the fort, and, by the 

slaughter of a male buffalo, wins the favour of the guardian of his 


Ra'mpUTy with, in 1872, a population of 2284 souls, lies about a 
mile to the east of Sunth at the meeting of the small rivers Chibota 
and Saki. The road between thejjwo towns lies along the bed of 
the Chibota through a pass commanded by hills on either side. 
The town is modem and Laid out with some regularity, with a broad 
centre street leading from a ford over the Chibota. On tbt left, 
goon after leaving the river, are the jail and a new maffifet. A 
little further, on the right, are new state offices, and,4>n the crest of 
the hill, a new hospital. The trade and population of the place have 
of late vears rapidly increased, and some of the merchants' houses 
are well built and adorned with fretted stone work. * 

Batanpur, north latitude 21° 24', east longitude 73° 26', in the 
Rupnagar sab-division of R&jpipla, stands on the top of one of a 
series of small rounded hills, about fourteen miles above Broach. 
Hei«, in 1705, the Mar&th&s gained a most complete victory over 



I Bom. Gov. Set XXIIL 264. 

' Bote. Gov. Sel. XXIIL 323. 



XIT. the imperial army nnder Safdsr Efain BaLi and Noxar Ali 
•fLitenrt. ^^ ^^ ^'^'' '^^ ^ '' "^ ^^ ancaltirated tracti about firo mtloB ■ 
irest of Ratanpur, and three miles cam of the villa^ of tur'' 

^^ commonly called Nimodra, are the celebrated carnelian 
Formerly aU the st^inea Vero barutat Limodm.but, about I"' 
other CBtablishments were opened, one at- Snltiinpar and t1 
at R^ipara.* On the top of the hill above the mines is the b 
Bawa Ghor. Of the origin of the tomb. tJie servant, mnja* 
charge gives the following accouot. A long time ago the U 
Malchan Devi lived on the Hll and noar her a lamp, fed I 
pounds, of butter, continually burned. So strong was lh< 
that the prophet Mnhaianiiul at 3tecca asked Sbiukh Ghor 
or BawB Ghor to see whence the light i-ame. On the com 
B&wa Ghor, M^khan Devi sank nnder the grotmd, and 1 " 
settling there worked, and still works, mimcli>s. Even a li]^ 
his orders, and, if his victim only calls on tho saint's name, 1 
stops eating him. A fair is held every yenr on the titl 
Mtmammadan month of Rnjjah, when, according to the t 
the year, from 100 to 500 Muhamniadan worshippers come ft 
parts of Gnjarat. The Bajpipla chief has grantod lands ] 
aboat£20 \bg. 6^^. (Rs. 207 a«. 12) a year to maintain thi^ too 
the same hill, at a little distance from B^wa Ghor's tomb, . 
tombs of Bawa Habash aad Mai Moshra, the bruthprs of Bawn G 
who, when twelve years bad passed, came from !Mecca to look a 
their brother. Near this t<Mnb is a riiyan, KUmnsops indira, IfW^ 
commonly resorted to as a tree of ordeal. lt« intertwiiiAl brftacliM 
form a loop, through which suspected persons are mode to pass, I 
popular belief being that while shrinking and holding fast tliog"^ 
the loop allows the innocent to pass through unhindered. 

L*. Banjala, in the Jhagadia snb-division of HAjpipla, haa a ti 

GumJindev, or Uanuman, held in high local esteem. The sbo 
told by the tempio priests, is that many years ago (he attJ 
densely covered with forest. Gnlabdas, an ascetic, foand aa | 
hid in a thorn bush and raised a small shed over it and afte 
a stone and cement temple. In time money flowed in and ■ 
the temple large rest-houses, dharmahdhin, were built. On ■ 
Satui-day in Shrdi-ait (July - August), people from tlie villages i 
come to worship the image pouring over it offerings of oiL- 
temple Los a small resei^oir, where the oil offered to tho im^ft- 
is stored. The expenses of the temple, from £100 to fl?iO 
(Rs. 1000- 1500) a year, are met from the rents about US'' '" 
a year, of the village of Miilpur, some service land j"ii !■ 
£50 (Rs. 300) granted by (be Rfijpipla stite, and from tij. 
oil offerings. On A'sovnd 14th (October) or jffci/i" C/ciwrf.' ■ ■ 
a fair, attended by from 400 to 500 people, is held in himm 
image, Sweetmeat makers, grain parchers, and others opfn a few 
Stella wtere goods worth from £5 i^ £10 (Rs. 50- lOO) are t " 





SujOitll, the head-quarters of the Sunth state^ north latitude Chapter ZIV. 
23^ 13*, east longitude 73® 55', lies about eighty miles north-east of piaoet (rflntereft. 

AJ^medabady among the ranges of hills which cix>ss the state from 

D or til to south. From the west, the road passes over three hilly Suhth. 

nd^^s^and through several defiles and rocky valleys, to the narrow 

h oil o^^y where, hemmed in by hills, lies the town of Sunth.^ A 

littlo to the left stands the palace, an irregular building partly of 

brick and partly of stone, of great length, with one wing four or 

five stories high surmounted by stone gables, and another less lofty 

w4tli small domes and minarets. Between the wings is a modern 

wbdto atucco building, out of keeping with the rest, which, though 

o£ oo great age, looks like thehomeof afeuda^ chief. On th^ south 

side are the ladies' rooms, and, at the opposite end, over the entrance 

iz^teway is the reception room, lately finished with ornamental 

^rindows and slate balconies adorned with much fine tracery.' 

Between the palace and the hills which rise very steep, a space, 
endoaed by a wall with flanking towers, does duty as a fort,^ and 
mna along the crest of the hill for about 150 yards. About the 
centre of the wall a sallyport opens down a steep footpath to the 
other side of the hills. At the foot of the hill cluster a few humble 
buildings, the people all dependent on the chief. The approach to * 

the palace is up a steep causeway, leading to a gateway with two 
flanking towers, and thence up a winding road. 

Surpa'n, on the Narbada in the extreme north-east of Bijpipla, Suar^'ir. 

is a place of great sanctity.^ Details of its temples are given under 
' Mokhdi Ghanta * of which Surpan is another name. « 

Udepur, north latitude 22° 20', east longitude 74*^ 1', the - U»aFu»/ 
chief town of the Chhota Udepur state, lies in the centre of 
a broad waving plain where the Orsang river makes a sharp 
torn to the north-west. The southern flank of the town rests 
on the river, and its eastern front on a picturesque lake with 
well wooded banks. Beyond the lake, between a fine grove of 
mango trees and the river, is the plain where Tdtia Topi's 
army was routed by Brigadier Parke in December 1858. On the 
side of the lake, stands a rich Hindu temple, with a fantastically 
carved spire. Through the trees that fringe the lake, the town roots 
may be seen, and, above them, the palace, a curious incongruous 
mixture of old and new styles. Tlus buUding is in a large court- 

' The f oirt and town of Sunth stands three or four miles from tiie open country to 
Ibe westward* from which it is separated by moderately high hills. The ruling ohi^ 
in 1806 objected most strenuously to Sunth becoming a thoroughfare for commerce or 
armies, fearing a disMlutioa of his government. Hamilton's Description of Hindostin, 


' The slate from the river Valid near Sunth can be quarried in great slabs. It 
splits veiry fine and is worked into tracery like marble. The masons who designed 
and carred the traceries came from Meyw&r. 

> The fort of Sunth crowns the western face of a high rocky hill, the lower walls 
oommencing near the base. It is will built and contains a curiously •onatruoted 
palace, the two together strong enough to resist native armies. Hamilton's Description 
of Hindustan, L 685. 

^ Bom. Gov. SeL XXIH. 316. As so many of his napes were holy places, it seems 
psobable that Ptolemy's (160) Sarbana on the Mahi, as it leaves the hilh, is Surp4& 
OB the.Karbada. 

B 661-22 

[Bombftj OMitlMf . 



PlaoM of Zottrett 



yard, BUTroniided by half-finished brick ramparts and parapet 
walls. Through an inner oourt, a gateway leads to the palacd 
entrance, and from there a narrow dark winding flight of steps rises 
to the reception room on the- upper story, and a second flight to an 
tipper terrace. Roun<^ the palace are a namber of new hous^ ha\\x 
by the present chief, one for each of his sons. These houses are is 
marked contrast to the porertj-stricken appearance of the rest of 
the town, whose one street has but few good houses, and whose 
inhabitants, making little hj trade or manufactures, ai-e almost all 
dependents on the chief. 

VicpUTi in the Bdldsinor state, with, in 1872, a population of 
1800 souls, stands on* the B&vli river eight or nine miles west of 
Lun&vdda. It boasts a great age. Early in the thirteenth centory 
(1225), this town was taken from the Bdriya chief Yiro by Virbbadra, 
reat grandson of Dhayal, the founder of the Vy^g^hrapallii or 
aghela, branch of the Sblankis. On the southern face of the town 
is a ruioed fort. On the Bdvli river, close to the town on the north, 
is the shrine of a Muhammadan saint called Dariy4isha, which h 
visited from afar and is the chief glory of the town. Wonderful 
legends are told of this saint, whose real name was Mirza Muham- 
mad, and who is said to have been descended in a direct line from 
Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. Muhammad, it is said, foretold 
that a descendant of Abb&s would work miracles ' in Gojar&t. One 
Kutub Muhammad, the third or fourth in descent from Abbas, 
living in Shiraz in Persia, was working many miracles. « His fame 
reached the ears of a Brdhman of the then flourishing town of 
E&ranta in Lundv^a who was in sore straits, because his low caste 
ruler demanded his daughter in mamage. Seeking help from 
Kutub, the saint came to Karanta, killed the chief, and established 
himself in his place. He was afterwards attacked by the Bariya 
chief of Virpur, but, by the help of some Uajput mercenaries and 
some Ahmedabad troops his assailant was utterly defeated. Kutub's 
grandson, Mirza Muhammad, also a miracle worker, is said to have 
gone with Mahmud Begada against Champ&ner and by his advice 
to have greatly helped the siege. His tomb is a picturesque building 
with windows of quaint open tracery, under a huge tamarind tree 
on the banks of the Bavli.^ Round the tomb «re many half-ruined 
houses of the saint's descendants who live in idleness on the 
villagers* charity. A feir is held at the saint's tomb every year on 
the night of the twelfth *^of Itabbi-u^Akhar. Large numbers of 
Worshippers come, and, when the proper time comes, see the locked 
doors of the tomb burst open, flowers rise from tJie ground and 
Strew the saint's grave, and the stream tun butter instead of water 

> This BAvli or mad 8tre«m once followed the taixit Mina tad ran with hatter 
iailead of Water. Butter atUl mna on the fair d«y poured on, it is aaidy aome way 
vp tiie atream by the tomb eerTaBt. 





iya petty state administered by the Agent to the Oovemor 
in the Papch Mahals, with a total area of abont 143 square mil es^ a 
population^ in 1872, of 6837 son ls or 47*8 to the square mile, and, in 
the five years ending 1878, an average yearly revenue of £986 
(Rs. 9860), lies in the south-east of the Panch Mah41s, surrounded 
by the Bewa K&ntha state of Chhota Udepur. The country is wild, 
covered with low hills and thick forests. There is a fair supply of 
water chiefly from ponds and wells whose number is gradually 
being increased.^ The state has a bad name for fever. But at 
J&mbughoda, where the timber has been cleared, the climate has 
much improved. The average yearly rainfall is about thirty-seven 

In 1874 specimens of lead ore were obtained near the village of 
Jhab&n. But in the opinion of the Superintendent of the Greological 
Survey they were not rich enough to encourage further search. 
Except in some villages where are good groves of teak, the N^rukot 
forests have very few valuable trees. The inferior timber and 
firewood are, by the local Kolis and Ndikd&s, sent to Baroda and 
Dabhoi under a permit system, a cart-load of timber paying 3^. 
(Re. 1^) and of fuel 6d. (4 annas). 

Peopled by Ndikd&s and Eolis, the state had, in 1872, 6837 
inhabitants. Of these 3466 or 50*6 per cent were males and 3371 
or 49*4 per cent females. 

The soil is capable of yielding a larger outturn and better crops 
than it does under the present rude tillage. Of the total area one- 
fourth is unarable. being mostly hilly; one-fourth is arable waste; 
and about one-half is cultivated. In 1878, a considerable area of 
cultivated land was thrown up owing to the death, desertion, and 
insolvency of cultivators, and the loss of their live stock brought 
about by two successive bad seasons. With few exceptions the 
agricultural products are rain crops, kharif, chiefly rice, ddngar^ 
Oryza sativa, millet, hdjri, PeniciUaria spicata, maize, mahdi, Zea 
mays, pulse, tuver, Cajanus indicus, and banti, Panicum spicatum. 
In so isolated and unhealthy a country, outside husbandmen cannot 
be tempted to take land. The local cultivators are only NlLikd^ 
and Kolis who formerly lived chiefly by wood-cutting. They are 
begijming to settle to more regular tillage and to the use oi the 






^ In 1878, a well waa built in the villaffe of Kherva at a cost of about £87 
(Be. 370) and two were improved at a ooet of about £18 (Be. 180). 



ploagb. But the praotke of sowiiig aeeds in kre&t deanon, k 
known ■■ vairn, or of working hill sides wiifa a *nm ]T pj« j;«T 
■till g«ienl- The state hae l&tely foaxA thioagit a time of s 
scarcity and distrvsa. [b 1677, a reij acaotr lain^Il c»aN 
aeriotu bilore of cr^pa aod so great a sorcin' of fodder »l*«t ^ 
mmbCTs of cattle died. Thu distress <kub increiased in the s 
o( 1678 by a poor moAuda. Bassu Uiifolia, harrest. In Jolji 
An^iut, OD llie top of tkia doable ^ilnie came exce^ire raiiu n 
diaa cnce wsahing anaj macb of tbe grain. V ' 
exHaasied, the people were reduced to great 5tre:t 
and foreet proaace, till, in April 1676, a magmn 
relieved the distress. "Ae fall io the exports ui t 
rf draoght cattle, the large arm of land thrown out of uitage,! 
widespread eickness, and tho heavy special mortali^ ' 
•ererely the district suffered. 

In 1856, at a cost of £300 [Ba. 3O0O), a roagfa ctoaB-ccxaary v 
was cleared from J&mbogboda to Baroda. In 18131, two J9»n s' 
the KAikda rising, at a cost of £357 [Shidthdhi Rupees 40M], L' 
were cleared through the forest. The chief of these was sixiv a 
loog from Jambughoda to Dohad. In 1872, at a coet of f ~ 
(Rs, 24,t60), of which Government coDtributed nearly or 
and the Namkot and Panch Mahals Locil Fnnds the reBt^ | 
twenty-five miles long was made from J&mbughoda tbi ~^~~ 
in the Panch Mah&ls, j<jining the main line from Godhi^ 
on the south Bide of the Kard river. Id any NAikds «, 
Other local disturbance, this would prove a very valuaU _ 
line. The chief exports are forest produce, timber, and main. 
which large quantities paaa from and through the state to i 
and Dablioi. 

Among the Rewa Eintha chiefs, who, before its transfer to I 
management were most notorious as robbers and baudits, ws 
N^ikdfa of the country round Cb^gAa er. Oneof tbeirleadera^tl 
his territory does not appear as a separate state, was the ohi 
Tokalpiir , the present Narnk ot, a Barip Ko li by caste, In Febm 
1826j when a Political Agent was appointed, under promise of p 
these chiefs, ' after considerable hesitation and under the great 
dread and distrust,' came in and agreed to furnish secoi-ity Ktrtb 
future good conduct, proraiaiag to cause no disturbance, to behl 
as qniet cultivators, to leave to Govemtuent the settlements of t' 
claims on the revenues of neighbouring states, to keep no meroeau 
to be responsible for crime, to protect merchants, and to be sttfagfl 
to the authority of the Government poets.' Soon after (1829} ^ 
office of Political Agent in the Rewa Kdntha was abolished, ■' 
the Be&ident at Baroda removed to Ahmedabad. The 6£it ' 
manager, kamavisdar, of Sankheda waa appointed to collect the y 
tribute of £4 (Rs. 41) from NAmkot. This position gave Him n 
over the chief, and for several years the withdrawal of ft 
snpervision left him free to use his power as he chose. ITnablajl 

■ Bom. Gov. Scl .\.Xm. B24. 


Ni.RUKOT. 176 

manage his people^ and forced by the Sankheda manager^ who Virakot 

Imprisoned both him and his family, J agatsing (18 33) agreed HiitorT 

that^ l£ the Baroda Government kept order and protected him 

from Ghhota tJdepm*^ he would make o^wr to them one-half of 

his rfeyenne. A Gdikwdr post, thdna, was established^ and, in 

exacting one*half of the revenue, the commandant treated the 

people with such harshness, that, in 1837, they broke out in revol t. 

The services of a British force had to be engaged, and order 

was not restored without great difficulty. At the close of the 

operations, nearly the whole district was deserted, and every village 

burnt down. 8o hardly had they been treated, that th^ people 

refased to come back unless they were guaranteed freedom from the 

tyranny of the Gaikwar's post. On a promise of safety from 

oppression and of good treatment the people began to return, and 

thirteen villages were soon settled.^ The chief Jagta Baria was 

anxious that he should be taken under the protection of GoVernment, 

and offered to pay them half of his revenues.* The G^ikwdr 

remonstrated against any interference on the part of Government. 

but it was decided * that as Narukot had come under British control 

in 1826, the transfer to the Gaikwar of half of the chiefs estate could 

not be respected. The chiefs offer of one-half of his revenue was at 

fir it refused. But, in 1839,* to provide funds for the management and 

recovery of the state, it was accepted, and special control vested in 

the Assistant Political Commissioner.^ Since then the management 

of the stat€|.has remained with the British Government, the British • 

share of the revenue being spent on the improvement of the state. ^ ^ 

On the establishment of order in 1837, the people soon quieted down 

and for many years remained wonderfully free from crime.* In 

1858, excited by the movements of rebel troops along the eastern 

b<5*der, the Naikdas rose, plundered the post, thdna, of Narukot, 

and at Jambughoda attacked a detachment under Captain Bates. 

Afterwards they were joined by a number of Tatia Topi's men, and, 

favoured by the thickness of the forest and underwood, the revolt was 

not put down till March 1859. Nine years later, Joria, a Naikda of 

Vadek, near Jambughoda began to act as a holy man, bhagat , and 

claimed supernatural power. Gaining much influence over the 

pfiople, he was joined by Rupsing, also a Naikda, a pardoned 

outlaw and rebel. They together planned the establishment of 

a N aikda kin gdom, and getting together a body of armed 

followers, attacked and sacked several Government posts, among 

them Jambughoda. Troops were quickly collected, Vadek attacked, 

and the hhaga^s forces scattered (Feb. 16, 1868). The leaders escaped, 

but after a short time were 'taken, tried," anahanged. The people, 

assured that their misconduct would be forgiven, settled in their 

villages, and since then, in spite of the recent time of scarcity (1877- 

1879), order has remained unbroken and crime continued small.^ 

> Bom. Got. SeL XXHL 199. ' Bom. Gov. Sel. XXHI. 199. 

< Gov. to the PoL Com. 209G, 3l8t Oct. 1838. Gov. Sel. XXIIL 2U. 
« Gov. to PoL Com. lOth Joly 1839. Gov. Sel. XXUI. 223. 
* Bom. Gov. Sel. XXIII. 200. 217. • Bom. Quwr. Rev. m. 374. 

' Details of the K^d* riaingi are given in the Panoh Mahila Statietieal 
Aocotmt. Bom. Qm. m. 254-258. 



Dt|wi»f t tb* pnant tHatX, tbirtT'miie jem i£ >g», a » I 
hjr iHtTT Id 1387 it wu stated that, for tta o«s sao' ^ 
Bmm of Um proriooe, the manAffement ot tie lAata wtf IkIJ 

Hntmnftin untUr • British officer. Siiuae 18S7 tie < -' 

%m» opaasd. MtUod habits introdnced vaoag tbe | 
IVTMiW p«Ktl5 inrrmsod. Its oztreme fascknrdaMB < 
VMttkbta ii1»l*ul<l ol >ta poople still nuke Britsli eoidnl a 

t\\-<')-i iu t^K f«M uf forest tillagQ, whidi is cbws«d kh 
041 , 'i ■ oocupaut najs on tbs Dnmber off* 

H. < linillietilla. Tbe rates, at &nt czp 

iin^ nt«t> \K>va chuBged witb the donlilft e 

WtH^'"^ •■ >>■. (-■[■wlfttion la cultirnt« fixed fi"''^ 

Ikivm «.U>m H l'«u>r sivio of tillage. For it ■ 

lusiluwl »«»» the Nnikd*-* to tak« np laod, 

Aiwv«>ni.'i<i nfrx< iti 1S7J, f' r llic better clus <: 

(v.,.' ' i', R». fii) for the sf ■ Ld :-.if 

Y^., >l< S«. (Ito. I{; for the first ;«uvj 

(; t. ... . ^'l iissoasmeDl were 1«. (8 apin«*) £ 

|<>. i"i tL.> st>oo[id, 5». {Bs. 2|) for the tT ' 

(1.) I urtb and following Tears. These i 

till' I J, ;h[> chief object being to induce tlu a 

|vw l<<>:»>tt]o. In 1878 Ihehiffbest f 

tax . 'I »»<! <h. (Rs. 3) fore Niitda. 

Ii::. -'.t, v^ nnnnj.He. 1) a cieeriag.l 

vdliA,., - - ;it'rrt, Fulnari, Natbpari, Ka 

OHudit<>t't Mtt* U>Ul ri'ui-ir.Hii imd, oi the two rill^es 1 
•nj ltb*u)Htm, ti»ir tho rvvcnoes nre, after coUection, paid I 
bMiliut-n wbii itrt> rvUlions of the chief. Besides these, aoms I 
oWfa kiuuuea. ftAiiyo*!*, hare n riffht to certuin number of pH 
fcve 1^ v)wrg«. tbicvpt of ite bounderies no Hnrve; of tbe ai 

Iu ' - ^iitivM NArukotmonevdieiputMai 

So ! i'! tV'r vivil courta. Snch cases ■ 

biit« of his family and the resident V 

arc ■ V ]..iit, Frora the introdnctioti of! 

WttUttymiii'ul u[i (o l^iJS, luiilor ttit« PolitJiinl Agent, limited ms^rti 
powei'H wen* vimtwl iu an offlt>pr styled thdndd': Since the ISflS ritrng, 
a uativo nffloov of bottor [w»itii>u withlhe title of Mahilkari ha? hw* 
appointed. He exon'ises second clasa magisterial powers. ■ . -' " "^ 
hii jurisdiction being tried by the Political Ai^nt, v 
powora of a Judge ami Sessions Judge" From the Polir; 
dooiniuns ftp|H^tiU and referenoe* ho to Gi)vernmpnt. Iij ■ 
of tho wiurt's business the spirit of the British Acts and Kf-^iUiHtu 
is foUowwl. 

The ratio of crime to population amonated in 1878 lo JO 77 |vr 
1000 nguinst I MI in 1877, and !> in 187fi. This incr. m 
in cases tif petty theh, was due to the general acarcitv 
from bilnre of crops. Of the 1S9 cases decided in 187 
tried by the Mahfilkari, and four by tbe Political Ageni. 




the decimons were appealed against. The strength of the detachment 
supplied from the Panch Mahals Police, was> in 1878, owing to the 
unusaal amount of crime, raised from forty^one to fifty*two. Of this 
force forty^ne were armed, eight anam\jBd, and three mounted. 
Thojt are distributed over three posts, J&mbughoda, Khandivar, and 

The following table gives the number of offences reported, of 
persons brought to trial, and of persons convicted, during the eight 
years ending 1878 : 

Ndruhot Crime, W1'1S78. 






# v« 




• •• 







» ■ • 

• • • 







1875 ... 

1876 ... 

1877 ... 

1878 ... 













A look*up at JAmbughoda, in charge of the Mah41kari, is used 
for under-trial prisoners, as well as for convicts sentenced to 
imprisonment for fifteen days and under. Cases of more than 
fifteen days imprisonment are transferred to the Panch MahiLls 
subordinate and district jails. The cost of the J&nbughoda lock-up 
amounted in 1878 to £28 (Bs. 280) against £12 (Rs. 120) in 1877. 
In 1878 the number of prisoners was forty-nine, against forty-seven 
in 1877 and twenty-three in 1876. 

Compared with £350 (Rs. 3500) in 1849, the gross revenue 
for 1878-79 was £674 (Rs. 6740), or m thirty years a two-fold 
increase. The land revenue which had steadily risen from £439 in 
1871 to £777 (Els. 7770) in 1876,^ from the faflure of crops in 1877 
fell to £456 (Rs. 4560) and again in 1878 rose to £789 (Rs. 7890). 
lu 1878 the forest revenue amounted to £37 (Rs. 370) against £63 
(Rs. 630) in 1877, and £112 (Rs. 1120) in 1876. The decrease was 
owing to the scarcity of bullocks. For the same reason there was 
a fall in transit duties from £280 (Rs. 2800) to £147 (Rs. 1470). 

In 1868 a school was started at J&mbughoda with the object of 
giving some sort of education to the wild N&ikd&s and Eolis. It is 
maintained out of Local Funds at a yearly cost of about £35 (Rs. 350). 
The average daily attendance rose from 13 in 1873 to 33 in 1876; 
in the year of scarcity it fell to 24 and in 1878 again rose to 30*5. 

A dispensary, opened in 1872, is under the charge of a hospital 
assistant. Against 230 in'1874 and 693 in 1877, 596 persons were 
treated in 1878. Of these, 482 were cured, 47 left, and 67 died. 
Vaccination, under the charge of the vaccinator employed in the 
neighbouring district of Halol in the Panch Mahfls, rose from 
233 in 1874 to 498 in 1876, and in 1878 fell to 161. The birth 
aud death returns are, from the unsettled state of the people, and 

» The detailB are : 1871. £439 ; 1872, £447 ; 1873, £572 ; 1874, £652 ; 1875 
£706 ; 1876. £777 ; I8n, £450 ; 1878. £789. 

a 661—23 » 







178 STATES. 

Virokot the inability of their headmen to read and write> nntrastwoiHiy. 

PImm of Intartrt. 1^°^ ^^^ excess of rain and the fiulnre of crope, 1878 was a most 

unhealthy season. 

Ja'nibllghoda,with A population of 491 souls, is the head-quarters 
of the state. The chief lives at Jhotvar half a mile to* the 
north-west. Here in 1858 a detachment of the 8th Regiment N. I. 
under Captain Bates was attacked by the N&ikd&s under their leaden 
Rnpa ana Keval ; and in 1868 the station was taken and sacked bj 
a band of Joria hhaga^s followers. The police 8ta4don^ designed 
with a ^ew to defence^ has room for the police guard and for the 
local revenue and magisterial officers.^ A. qnadrangolar enclosure, 

, it has blocks of solidly built rooms ranged round so as to give a 

dear central space of 196 feet by 162. At each of the four comers 
*is a bastion, with steps leading to a roof, terraced and provided with 
parapets loopholed for musketry. The height of the terraces is 14 
feet 4 inches, and the parapets are three feet higher. The entrance 
ffate, ten feet broad, is provided with a wicket and protected bj 
flanking towers. The wuling is of brick and lime masonry; and 

• the roofing of concrete arches, carried either by cross walls or on 

wrought-iion joists. Above the gateway is a room, twenty feet by 
ten, and a batii room, twelve feet by seven, suitable for a European 
officer. Within the enclosure is a well. The work, b^an in 18^^ 
, was finished in 1872 at a cost of £4270 (Bs. 42,700). Besides this 
police station J&nbughoda has a school and dispensary. 

^ The MoomraodAtion la, for foot polioe 4 rooma each 10x10 feet and 26 rooma eat^ 
12x 10 ; for moiintod polioe 4 rooma and 4 ataUea eack lOx 10 feet ; for Teveniie uul 
maoiaterial offioera there are 2 rooma each 15x13 feet^ 3each 13x13, 2 each 13x10 
Miaofte 43x10 feet. 



A rnBtlltn_ Dr_ 

U /Ml Krt 

Seal* of Mum 

■ '- Fluil^^iaa^n^ur (Ma Baaa /fiT'S 




Chapter I. 




Cambay, at the head of the Cambay gulf in the west of Gujardt^ 
lies Ixjtween 22° 9' and 22° 41' north latitude, and 72° 20' and 73° 5' 
f'ast longitude. With an estimated area of about 350 square m iles^ 
It bad, in 1872, a population of abou t 83,000 so uls, and, in 1878, a 
revenue of nearly £40,000 (Bs. 4,00,000). 

It is bounded on the north by Mdtar in Kaira, on the east by 
Borsad in Kaira and Petl&d in Baroda, on the south by the gulf, 
and on the w^st by the S&barmati. The political boundaries are 
most irregular. In some places Cambay villages are embedded 
in Kaira ; in other parts detached fragments of Kaira lie in the 
heart of Cambay. Inland, the possessions of the Nawdb stretch 
about fifteen miles to the west, eighteen to the north-west, ten to 
the north, and twelve to the east. 

Except near the Mahi, where the surface is cut by wa t^r-coursesj 
and where the river b anks ri se in cliffs from thirty to" eighty feet 
bigh, the country is flat and open. Though in parts, especially 
along the S&barmati, rather bare oiTrees, during the rainy and cold 
seasons the whole is beautifully rich and green. 

Two of the larger Qnjardt rivers enter the sea within Cambay Rivers. 

limits. The S &barmat i, after flowing south for about 200 miles, 
falls into the gulf twelve miles •west of the city ;* and, a short way 
to the east, about 350 miles from its source, a five-mile broad 
estuary receives the waters of the Mahi. Though of great volume 
Id times of flood, these rivers are of no use either for navigation or 
irrigation. The mud deposits near their mouths make them 
impassable for vessels of any size, and the salt of the tidal 
wave and the height of their banks prevent them from being 
n^d for watering the fields. Except the Mahi and S&barmati none 
of the Cambay streams flow throughout the year. 


' The correct form of the name is Khambhdt. 
^ Satt&dera* MoantainB and Biven ol India, 31. 

[Bombay GaietUei 

Chapter I. 



!«, •. Drainage. 





Within Cambay limits there is no fresh- water lake of any sb? 
Stilly as in Kaira, almost every village has a pond^ or reserroir 
holding water for the greater part of the year. In most years^ fr n 
the middle of April till the rains set in^ generally late in June^ th* 
pond supplies are exhausted, and cattle have to be watered irwu 

From its position, between two large tidal rivers, the so3 <• 
Cambay is so soaked with salt that water becomes brackish at a littl 
distance below the surfei,ce. In many places new wells have to be suui 
every five years. Besides being brackish, Cambay well water i 
unwholesome, often causing painful boils when incautiously used. 

During seasons of heavy rain, much of Cambay is liable to \k 
flooded. Its rulers, in the time of prosperity (1400 - 1 700), guarded 
against this evil by cutting drainage canals. These drains, works 
of great labour and cost, are now much neglected. But the people 
complain little, and it would seem, either that the rainfall is fighter 
th&n it was, or that the surplus water is more carefully stored m 
village reservoirs. 

A gently waving alluvial plain, Cambay has no rocks and but fe^ 
pebbles. Nodular limestone, Jcankar, mixed with sand or chj is 
found in large quantities from ten to fifteen feet below the sarbi^*. 
Though not of the best quality, the lime it yields is much used fur 
house-building and other local purposes. 

Compared with the more inland districts the dimafo is good aoil 
the temperature equal. Thermometer readings, kept danog 
the three years ending 1847, show a mean minimum of 53" iu 
January, and a mean maximum of 76° in May. During the same 
period, the average yearly rainfall was 29 inches 30 cents. 

Before the railway made travelling easy, Cambay was the odIv 

coast station within reach of invalids suffering from the fevers anl 

heat of inland Gujar&t. Such was its value as a sanitariu m, tliar,| 

in 1837, a hospital was established for the use of European officeii 

and troops stationed in Ahmedabad, Kaira, and Baroda. On th^ 

12th March 1837, ninety-eieht invalids of the 17th Regiment ci 

Native Infantry arrived at Cambay from Harsol, about thirty-foa: 

miles from Ahmedabad. Of the whole number, eighty-three wer 

suffering from fever and spleen, and the rest from rheumatism an^ 

skin disease. At the end of March, fourteen more cases wtr 

admitted, making a total of 112 patients. One death occurred xQ 

April, of the rest, all except five, w^re discharged cured bjr tht^ 

end of May. By the close of the rains (October), the remaining 

five were able to return in good health to their regiment. Anotbcr 

remarkable instance is the case of seventy-seven invalids of the 2tA 

Grenadier Regiment of Native Infantry, who were sent to Cambay 

from Baroda in the month of January 1847. Of the whole number, 

sixty-eight were suffering from fever, one from consumption, and 

eight from Sind ulcers. The case of consumption proved fatal. ^ 

the rest, thirty-one were discharged cured in February, twenty 6^ <? 

in March, and twenty in April. About 1863, the Cambay hospital 




tf'as closed^ and there is now no medical institution in the town. 
Vaccination is said to be much practised, and to meet with little 
opposition, but no returns are available. No bad outbreak of 
cholera has ooourred for many years. The only disease mentioned 
as peculiar to Oambay is the troublesome ulcer mentioned above, 
called cuhraphi by natives, and by Europeans known as the Cambay 
or Broach boil. 

Within Cambay limits there are no forests, nor, except occasional 
orcliards, are there any groves or plantations. Still, here and there, 
{i^enerally near villages, are many*well grown fine trees. Among the 
largest and most common are the tamarind dmli Tamarindus itidica, 
n 1*771 or limbdo Melia azadirachta, pipal Ficus religiosa, banyan vad 
Ficns bengalensis, wood apple kothi Feronia elephantum, and mango 
ambo Mangifera indica. 

Towards the north and west the soil is generally black, well 
suited for wheat and cotton. To the east it is poorer, fit only for 
the inferior grains. Near Cambay, skirting the gulf, and along the 
banks of the Mahi and Sdbarmati, stretch vast tracts of salt marsh 
flooded at high spring tides. For tillage purposes the soils are 
divided into three classes, garden, rice, and dry-crop. 

The crope^ the same as those ^own in the neighbouring parts of 
Kaira, are the ordinary millets and pulses, rice, wheat, tobacco,^ 
and a little indigo. The cultivation of indigo hets of late greatly 
fckllen off. l^indu peasants dislike growing it, because in making 
the dye much insect life is lost while the Muhammadans, with whom 
this objection has less force, do not till land enough to raise any 
large quantity. Sown towards the end of the hot season, indigo is 
harvested in August before coming to flower. After being cut, the 
crop is stowed in large vats, generally set in a comer of the field. 
The vats are filled with water, and the plants left to soak for one 
night, and, in the morning, to draw out any remaining juice, the 
li^ves are beaten with wooden clubs. The water is then drained 
c-ff, the dye remaining at the bottom of the vat. Green-looking at 
Erst, the sediment, on exposure, soon gains the true indigo hue. 
Mordants are sometimes used to help to precipitate the dye. 

The tillage does not differ from that of neighbouring British 
districts* After the rains (Jiine-October), crops are grown by 
water drawn in leather buckets from reservoirs, water-courses, or 
river-bed pools. There is very little hot weather tillage^ and, except 
from wells, little irrigation. • 

The domestic animals are the same as in Kaira. In the days of 
the early Hindu settlements near the mouth of the Mahi, wild 
amimals were so numerous that a city, on or near the site of Cambay, 
fTcce bore the title of Bdghvati or Tiger town. As late as the 
end of the last century tigers and lions were found close to 

Chapter I. 






• TiU 1879, whfiii under agreement with the Naw^b it was stopped, opium was 
gr^wa in eight Tillages. 

[Bombay GcMtteM 



Chapter I. 


Cambay. Sir Charles Malet^ when Resident in 1781 j killed a lio 
near the Tillage of Kura on the banks of the Sdbarmati^ about tweut 
miles north of Cambay. The country people called it the canii 
tiger^ untia vdgh, and^ thought it the fiercest and strongest of tlml 
race. Camel-coloured verging to yellow, he was without spots 
stripes^ not high but powerfully massive, with a head and fon 
parts of admirable size and strength. About the same time, in th 
D^barmati villages, so great was the dread of beasts of prey that 
at the close of each day, the inhabitants gathered their catti 
within the village walls.* Of large beasts of prey no trac 
remains. The only game is nilgai , Portax pictus, wild hog^ and lar^ 
herds of antelope, Antelope bezoartica, that feed pn the shur 
herbage of salt marsh lands. During the cold weather every p>Di 
is aUve with duck, teal, and snipe. 

The 1872 census gives a total population of 83,494 souls, " 
238 persons to the square mile, a density of population great*: 
than in any Gujar&t state except Baroda. Of the total population 
71,505, or 85"64 per cent, were Hindus; 11,882, or 14-23 per cout 
Musalmdns ; and 107 P&rsis. There were no Christians. JIalv 
numbered 44,283, or 53 per cent of the population, and female: 
39,211j or 47 per cent, or an average proportion of 118 to lOO. 
Insane and infirm persons numbered 112, or 0*13 per cent of th- 
population. Of these two were insane, 15 idiots, 25 deaf and dniiil^ 
67 blind, and 3 lepers. There are no details of the strength of tlu' 
different Hindu tribes and castes. Compared with dther Gujantt 
states, the proportion of aboriginal tribes is very small. Arrauged 
according to religion, of the 71,505 Hindus 32,504 were Vaishnav?, 
including 16,457 Rdmfinujas, 8209 Vallabhacharyas, 1480 Kabir- 
panthis, 712 M&dhv&ch4ryas, and 5646 Svamin&r&yans ; 20J^/' 
wereShaivs;' 3868 Shrdvaks ; 525 ascetics ; and 14,461 belongt*^ 
to no special sect. Of the 11,882 Musalmdns 10,765 wero SnnDJ5, 
and 1117 Shite. Arranged according to occupation, there wen*, 
employed under Government or municipal or other local authorities, 
2227 souls, or 2'66 per cent; professional persons, 1274, or l'o2 
per cent; in service, 1604, or 1*92 per cent ; in agriculture, 13,670. 
or 16*37 per cent; in trade, 1138, or 1*36 per cent; in arts anJ 
crafts, 9855, or 11*80 per cent; beggars and paupers, 547 ; and not 
otherwise classed, (a) wives 26,316 and children 26,687, in a)) 
53,003, or 63*48 per cent, and (b) miscellaneous persona 723 c>r 
0-86 per cent ; total 53,726 or 64*34 per cent. 

Besides as husbandmen, Kanbis T^ork as camelian polishers, & 
craft once carried on chiefly by Musalmfins. Many BrahmaiLS 
V&ni&s, and other high class Hindus, have, owing to the decline of 

1 Forbes* Oriental Memoin, III. 90, 94. Kioolo Conti (1420- 1444) says, is Caiitl>»y 
wild cattle are found in great abundance, with a mane like the mane of a har8t\ 
and home so long that when the head is turned back, they touch the tail Tli^^' 
horns, he adds, are used Cike barrels for carrying water. Major's India in the XVth 
Century, II. 20. 

* This is doubtful. The returns shew 16,134 Llngiyatt a soot not known tfi 
Gujarit, They were possibly ling worshippers. 




trade^ movod to Bombay^ and so small is the local demand for their 

l^oar> that numbers of goldsmiths^ blacksmiths^ barbers^ seamen, 

ADd fi^iermen seek employment in Surat> Broach, Ahmedabad and 

other districts of Gnjardt, and in Bombay. Bemaining away about 

i»*>veii or eight months in the year, they retnm with their earnings 

during the rains. Very few of the Khdrv^s are sailors. Besides 

manufacturing salt, they have, in many Gujardt towns, and, to some 

(*xtent in Bombay, monopolized the work of turning roof utiles. 

Many educated Brahman and Ydnia youths find work in Gujarat, 

Bombay, and other places, as accountants and clerks, seldom visiting 

their native country except for marriages or other great •family 

erentd. Among Gambay Musalmans theer is an unusually large 

number of Shias (1117). The Nawab, a Persian by descent, is 

a Shia, and the Persian and Shia element was, in the eighteenth 

century, strengthened by three sets of refugees. Some came in 

1723, after (October 1722) Persia was conquered by the Ghiljeis ; 

others, in 1739, when N4dir Sh4h seized the throne and abolished 

Shi&ism as the state religion;^ and a third section are the 

descendants of soldiers who left Nadir's army on his return to Persia 

(1739). Most of their descendants are either connected with the 

court or in the Nawdb's service, and foreigners still come as recruits 

for the Nawab's Persian regiment. Besides Persians, there is a 

body of Shia traders of the Daudi sect, followers of the MuUa Saheb 

of Surat. Of the Sunnis some are cultivators, but most are either 

in trade or jvre carpet- weavers, shoemakers, book-binders, potters, 

or private servants. Sadias, Musalmdn carriers, have carts and 

bullocks, which they use in carrying goods from the landing place to 

t he town. As a body, the Musalmdns are badly off, with little energy 

and less enterprize. The Bohoras are an exception. Well-to-do and 

cnterprizing, they trade to China, Japan, and Zanzibar, settling 

there for as long as ten years at a time. Parsis, once powerful, now 

number only 107 souls. They are traders, distillers, and weavers. 

Before the time of the present Nawdb (1841), all state offices were 
given to Musalmans. This rule has of late been broken, and, except 
that a few posts in the army and household are kept for members of 
the J^awab's family, Hindus and Pdrsis are allowed to hold almost 
any office. The style of living does not differ from that of the 
neighbouring Gujar&t districts. Gujarati is the ordinary Hindu 
langnase. Musalmans use Hindustani, and many of them, the 
descendante of the eighteenth century refugees, still speak fairly 
pure Persian. 

According to the 1872 census, the eighty-seven Cambay villages 
indnded 29,505 houses, or an average of 84 houses to the square mile. 
Of these 7741, or about 26 per cent, were built of stone or fire-baked 
brick ; the rest had walls of mud, or unburnt brick, with roofs of 
thatch or palm leaves. Dwellings of the better sort lodged 21,049 
persons, or 25 per cent of the whole population, at the rate of 2*72 
souls to each house, and houses of the inferior sort lodged 62,445 
persons, or 75 per cent of the whole, or 2*87* souls to each house. 

Chapter I« 



B 561-24 

> Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, III. 83. 

[Bomtey Oasettear, 



Cihapter L 


Of the 87 villages^ 27 have less than 200 souls^ 22 from 200 to 
600, 25 from 500 to 1000, 9 from 1000 to 2000, 2 from 8000 to 
5000, one between 5000 and 10,000, and one above 10,000. 
They belong to two p:iain classes, coast and inland villages. The 
thirty coast villages include the arable lands along the sbore of 
the galf and the banks of the S&barmati. From their wheat-growing 
soil, these are known as the bdra villages, and yield a yearly 
revenue estimated at about £20,000.^ Though the soil of many of 
them is poor, some of the fifty-seven inland villages, in the rich tract 
of reddisn loam known as the charotar^ yield heavy crops of tobacco, 
millet, «otton, opium, and indigo. 

> Cambiiy Ba. 2,64«949 ; ImperudBi. 2,11,9091, The Camlwy com ia 15} per cent 

leei in valne than the Imperial rapee, 




BsroBS tbe time of railways, goods and passengers were T»krried 

by boat to Bombay and other ports. Now* the passenger traffio 

is alxnoat entirely by rail throngh Anand, aboat thirty miles east of 

Cambay . Though Ccunbay is without made roads, the conntry is level 

enough for carts. The Cambay harbour is ill suited for trade and 

yearly becomes more blocked with silt. The silt, brought down 

by the rivers in the rainy season,, or thrown up by the tide, is 

oonBtantly changing the bed of the gulf. Passages deep enough 

for coasting craft 01 frouL twenty-five to thirty tons are sometimes, 

in the course of a single rainy season, closed, and fresh channels 

cut through high banks of mud. At present (1879) boats moor 

a mile from the city gate, and, except during spring tides, have 

to be unloaded about half a mile from the landing place. During 

the last three years, the largest vessel that visited Cambay was one 

of fifty-aeve;^ tons from Kalikat.. 

Across the mouth of the Mahi, from Cambay to Kdvi in Bh)aohj 
a ferry-boat {dies at all seasons. Especially at the springS) when the 
tide rufihes with extreme violence,, the passage is diiScult.^ 

In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, one of the chief 
centres of commerce in western India, Cambay has a trade history of 
much interest. The first references are early in the tenth century. 
It then produced mangoes, cocoanuts, lemons, rice in* great abundance, 
and great quantities of honey. Leather -was largely manufactured. 

Chapter XL 

Tenth Century. 

' The many interesiang Pbrtnguese TnAb and' History references have been 
oKUtned through the kindnesB of Dr. Gerson da Cnnha of Bombay. 

s Of Uie neeeage^of the mooth of the Mahi, Ocilby (1670, AtlM, V. 215) gives the 
CoUowing details : Abont a leagne sealhward tram Cambay glides the river Mihi» 
whose shore mast be travelled at the low ebb of the sea, and not withont great 
danger becanse the sea rising flows np above five leagues, and at low tide you are 
ioroed to wade through two or three deep places. If any one should venture to wade 
through at the comina in of the tid9, he would undoubtedly be swallowed by the sea, 
(or when the water flows with greater strength and higher than ordinary (for it 
observes no rule, but rises or falls more or less according to the oourse of ^e moon), 
it carries and washes away both horse and man, and oftentimes with such force, 
that an elephant cannot withstand the same, nor all his weight prevent him from 
beiog carried away ; therefore all travellers wait for a certain time to wade through 
the seme, via, when the* sea is low, which is at the new moon, at which time they, 
may so over it in coaches or horseback without any danger. Coaches are commonly- 
held net on both sides that they may not be overturned bv the waves. Those that 
go on foot strip themselves naked, and, tyin^ up their olothes, carry them on their 
thooldert. Many times a whole caravan with abundance of people travel over the 
Mme, some on horseback and others on foot, both men and women stark naked, 
scGOttuting it neither shameful nor immodest. 


[Bombay QiaMeer , 



Chapter IL 




and Cainbay was famons for the sandals which bore its name.^ Many 
of its merchants were Arab and Persian Musalmans who had mosqoe^ 
of their own, and were kindly treated by the Hindu governor.* ITit. 
trade was harassed by pirates known as Batodrij, from their boat «f, 
haria. Scouring the Arabian Sea as far as Sokotra, they cha^^ tht* 
Arab ships bound for India and China, ' as the Greek gaHeys cha^evi 
the Musalmans in the Mediterranean'.' 

Daring the eleventh centary, though the Baw^rij from Catch and 
Somnath still harassed its ships/ Cambay maintained its pomtion xa 
one of the chief centres of Gu jardt trade. Its markets were supplir-J 
with the ginger and cotton of the sarronnding country, widi tht> 
produce of north Indi& brought overland from Mult^ either dxre^*^ 
or by the siBa-coast, with Cutch balm, and M41wa sugar. By ^^ 
Cambay traded west with Persia, Arabia, and Sofala in Afiioa, vA 
east with Malab4r, Coromandel, and, in great ships called junki. 
with China. 

In the twelfth century, wheat, rice, indigo, and Indian cane* wen^ 
the chief exports, though merchandise of every country was to be 
found and was sent from Cambay to all parts. Pirates still infested 
the Gujar&t seas ; but at Cambay itself traders had gained some 
security, as a fine fortress had been built by the ' Gk)vemment tf 

At the close of the thirteenth century Cambay was one of the twa 
chief ports of India.^ Its exports were indigo in great abundance, 
cotton exported to many quarters, much fine cotton cloth\>r buckratu, 
and a great trade in hides.® The chief imports were gold, alvt»r, 
copper, tutia (the inferior oxide of zinc used as an eye-salve), 
madder from the Red Sea, and horses from the Persian Gulf.* 

> Misudi <913), Prairie* d'Or, L 253. 254 ; Reinaad's Memoir Sur. llnde, 221 ; ui 
Ibn Haukal (943) in Elliot, I. 38. 
3 Ibn Haukal (943) in Elliot, I. 34. 

* M4stidi(913) Prairiead*Or,in. 37 ; Yule's Marco Polo, n. 844. Bosidaa R»jp«U 
of the Sang&r tribe these pirates included J&ts, Meyds, and Knrka, Acoordhig tp 
Wilford {Kb. Res. IX. 224), under the name Divefd, or men of Din, their interferenco 
with trade so enraged the Romans, that they were forced to send hostages to 
Constantinople. The early Arab writers (800- 1(X)0) mention the Jits (SS4-S5v>> 
making a descent on the Tigris with so powerful a Beet that the whole strength <Tf 
the Kaliphat had to be sent against them ; (Ibn Ala^, 834, in Reinand's Fragments 
201) ; the Karks carrying their raids as far as Jadda in the Red Sea (Elliotts History » 
I. 509, and II. 246 - 248) ; and the Meyds of Saastehtra warring with the men of Bam. 
(ElHot^s History, I. 621). 

* Al Biraoi (970- 1039) in Elliot's History, I. 67, 69. 

' Jaubert's Edrisi (1090-1153), 172. As this Indian cane grew on hilhv the reeds* 
which BO late as the eighteenth century were exported for arrows to Hindastsn. 
Persia^ and other countries, are probably meant, bird's Mirit'i-Ahmadx (1748-1762), 

* Idrisi in Elliot's Histoiy, L 84^ 85. The Government were the AnhUv4dA 
Solankis (946-1240). 

7 Marino Sonuto (1300-1320) quoted in Tule's Marco Polo. II. 383. 

" According to Marco Polo (1290) the curing of hides and the manufacture of leather 
were two of the most important of GujarAt industries. Every vear a number vi 
ships went to Arabia laden with the skins of goats, of oxen, of buffaloes, of wild oxen, 
of unicorns, and other animals. The leather was used for MUidals, and was cleverly 
worked into red and blue sleeping mats, exquisitttlv inlaid with figures oT birds ami 

roidered with gold and silver wire. YuhTs Marco Polo, U. 

beasts, and skilfully embroidc 

» Yule s Maroo Polo. U. 333. 





Among lis merchants were many foreign Musalm^s and a large 
community of P&rsisj whose interests were carefully watched by the 
Solanki longs of Anhilvada.^ Many of the seamen were Hindus^ 
Kajpats and Kolis by caste^ to whom an entire quarter of Anhilv&da 
waa devoted.' Though Cambay is said* to have been free from 
pirates^ the Arabian Sea was still oTerrun by Cutch and Sonm&th 
corsairs ' the most atrocious robbers in exi8tence\' 

Elxceptlbn Batuta's (1845) statement that the dty was prosperous, 
and the knowledge that, at the beginning of this century, the old 
trade route between Asia and Europe by way of the Bed Sea was 
reopened^ nothing regarding the trade of Cambay in the fourteenth 
oe&tuiy has been traced. • 

The chief articles of Cambay trade mentioned by travellers of the 
fifteenth century are sardonyx^ spikenard^ lac, indigo, myrobalans, 
silka, and paper> During this period, the Musalm&n rulers of 
Gujarat paid much attention to naval matters, and on five occasions 
Cambay shared in the work of equipping fleets. One of these 
expeditions, in 1430, was political, directed against Ahmad Sh&h 
Bahmani (1422-1435), the ruler of Thdna and the central Konkan. 
The object of the remaining four was the suppression of piracy.* 

Shortly after the beginning of the sixteenth century, the control 
of the sea trade of Cambay passed from the king of Gujardt to the 
Portuguese. Perhaps because much more information is available, 
the sixteenth century is generally considered the time of Cambay's 
chief prosperity. But it seems doubtful if the trade of Cambay was 
ever again so great as it was during the reign of Mahmud Begada 
(1459-1513).* In spite of the successes of the early years (1526- 
1530) of Bah&dur^s reign, the sixteenth century was, on the 
whole, a time of decline in Gujar&t ; and though the Portuguese 
may have increased the demand for Cambay products, and, to 
some extent, have improved navigation, they, for several years 
(1529-1534), spared no effort to injure the harbours and shipping 
of Gujarat. Even when (1533) they became the acknowledged 
rulers of the Cambay seas, it was their interest to reduce 

« See the story of Sidhrdj (1094-1143) in SUiot*8 History, II. 164. 

* Ris Mali, I. 318. The Kolis of the north of Gajftrit are said to have come from 
the lands sear the Indus and to have been called Meds. (lUs l£.idi, I. 103). 

> Yale's Marco Polo, I L 328, 930, 333. 

« See Major's India in the XVth Century, II. 6- 13 and 20 ; III. 8 and IV. 9. Among 
the«6 articles, paper is noticed by Nicolo Conti (142u- 1444) as being used in Cambay 
and nowhere else in India. Indigo is mentioned by Nicolo, by Athanasius Nikotin 
(144$8-1474), and by Hieronimo tl499). 

* These expeditions against pirates, all of them undertaken by Mahmud Begad* 
(14o9-lol3),were, 1475« against the Mahibirs ; 1480, against Jigat and Bet ; 1482. 
against Balailr ; 1494, against a revolted officer of the Deccan €k)yemment who had 
captured some Gujarit trading ships. Active measures would seem to have been 
nxncb required, as, accordizig to Athanasius Nikotin (1468-1474), the sea was iofested 

Chapter II. 


Fifteenth « 


Persia^ Tartary, Turkey, and Syria, and a multitude of iiUiabited islands with silk 
and cotton stuffs. Badger's Yarthema, 111, 


t^Mobtv to » iaeal port, aai draw the foretgn trade to tlieir | 
dtlM Din, Cbmal, utd Go«. With tfa« dedino of Portagnwe p 
lfa« Iwie iNitwtH'R Cauiit«y ftnd tks B^ S«* revived, anil b 
tb« Bngll'h (i (>0t)] cams to Gajaiit, it was again of oooE 

Of the mart* connected witb Cambay at the beginning c 
■ixtofluth MDtiiry, there were, of inlaiiil towns, in Gii_ 
AhinniiutHMl, I'ritun, und CbAmpAiicr;andin Upper India^DeDi 
lillhur. Of HiMt.fMjrtu, there ware Gogha and Din in tiujoT&t, Bid 
Niiiil, und Kalikat iind Cochin on Mie &lnl»bdr coivst : to the west n 
(IniMiB ii^I.Iki i'rrniau (fulf; Hhuher, Aden, and Jaddji oo llie An 
(^lUtl, am) Ma^aduxa, Mt^inda, and Mombaza in east Afriea:* 
the oast wore UoylonjCliitfjvf^ong, Martaban.Tenasserim.and i 
Fitirly in the century, under PortugueBe iuBiience Diu, Chsnl, i 
Gna iKwaini) the chief Incliati places of trade with Caiobay ; Ol 
rttniaiu«d tliu hiiad-<|iiarters of the trade to Persia;' 
tmUlii with the Hed Mea wa« for a time nearly destroyed: 1 
whxn it ii^ain nmved, Mokha not Aden, was tho chief station. I 
doalin^M with i<aHt Afrioi, ^Llling: almost entirelv into Poftin 
liandn, wnre roanaged from Cbaul in the Konun. In tk> f 
Bat^oxiK to Boinc oxtt^nt took tho place of Chittagoae, hak 
uttor IMl ill the ;H>wer of the Portuguese, renuned tkc i 
thai grt>nt trado. 

In lhi> iH'friuninp of the sixteeotlt ceiittuy,tlie C^ratan- « ^ 
Of KtTiBiiAija. tint agntt's, ramcHans, and aygtaie^ kacrwa am t 
■lontm ; t>f VMRjitiLS pso&rcra, rice sunt to Sisd. Ab T 
MalfttAr, AnktMa, Mid Africa ; mUlet lo MahAfa- B&d IfiJM 
hi MwlaMr, Arabia, and Africa ; pulse and i 
cothm to Malabar and Arabia ; ginger and peypt * to I 

«M>k«iaMh»ht*B*MtaW<l.aMAtiA4n«t- , 

I I ill I 111! iili lilii liiia ITTI !>■ riiiMil ■■ 

nvtliiTMOW JM. 1MB vAiik^MM «w> MM _ _ 

^«riM iMt« « K«t. a. am. "^ 

MMk V te4 «» aA» h9<a<. ap««fc *• Of. .COM4 K«^ 4» 2hl 
' T ^' ^ I C " ^ -T*y^i.. 

»twii > 1F wiirfi ii 1 m» ri iwa^ a« 
<>i ■mi I M Ji am. w* w^i. *- '- - — 




tnrhith (con vol. torbethom) to Malab&r; of pbspabed tegetablb 
PRODUCTS, opinnij though held inferior to the opium of Aden, went 
west to Persia, south to Malabar, and east to Pegu and Malacca ; ^ 
and indigo,' though of less yalue than Agra indigo, was one of the 
chiei exports to the Persian Gulf and the Bed Sea, and afterwards 
to the Portuguese ports of the Konkan ; of animals,' horses were 
sent to the Konkan and Malab&r ; of manupactubbd abticlxs, agate 
ornaments were sent to Malabo, Arabia, the Bed Sea, and east 
Afnca^ and to all countries where Cambay merchants traded, were 
sent ootton thread, cotton cloth,^ coarse camlets,^ thick carpets, 
inlaid work-boxes and bedsteads,^ lac ' and lacquered w&re, silk,^ 
uid erticles of ivory, ' well known in commerce like inlaid works of 
gold \* 

The land imports were diamonds from the Deccan, wheat and 
barley from M^wa, spices from Sind,*® indigo and spices from L&hor, 
and silk, horses, myrobalans, and spices from C&bul. The sea imports 
were : Of xinbbals, copper, lead, quicksilver, vermillion, and alum 

Chapter IL 


Iwipwts* ^ 

* Cambftv opiom is (1554) the best to send to Malacca and the Malabo coast. Hon. 
Ined. V. I. 13. 

' Isipioa. ' A great quantity of indigo ' (Cesar Frederic : Haklayfs Voyages, 11. 
&43). The best indi^ probably came by land from Lihor and Agra. But mnch was 
grown in Onjarit, cmeny at Harkhej and NadiAd. Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II. 64^ 

' AviMAiA ' A wonderful quantity of horses ' (Stanley's Barbosa, 55). Oxen and 
cMnel* werfib famous ; but no mention is made of their being exported. Qladwin'a 
Ain-i.Akbari, U. 64. 

^ Conov CLOTH was the staple export, Varthema (Badser's Edition, 107) (1506) saya 
' erety year 40 or 60 vessels are laden with ootton and-silk stuffs' ; Barbosa (65) speaks 
of * many doths of white ootton, fine and coarse' ; and Frederic (1585) of * an iimnite 
qnaDtity of doth made of bombast of i^ sorts, white, stamped, and painted.' (Hakluyt's 
voyagM, II. 343). The Portuguese brought Malabir pepper and Malacca spices to 
exchange for Cambay cloth (Hon. Ined. (1523- 1554) Y. L 13, and V. IL 79). They 
(1536^ ^ed Cambay 'the garment of the world,' for it yielded doth enough to coyer 
th« whole east and a Jarge part of the people of the west. Don Jo&o de Castro, Prim. 
Hot des. Indies, 113-116. 

' Cahlbt is a plain stuff of goat's hair, of wool, or half %ool half cotton. 

* WoODWOBK. Great artists with the turning lathe, says Barbosa (66). One of their 
* works of art * was a bedstead, wrought with gold and mother-of-pearl, very beautiful, 
given by tho kins of Mdinda in Africa to Vasco de Gama in 1502. Gama's Voyages, 
III. 80^ 

' Lac is donbtfuL It was at this time cbiefly grown in Pegu (Barbosa, 184). But 
■Bay also, as in the seventeenth century, have come from the hills of east Guiar&t. 

* Silk is doubtful It was grown m Bengal (Gladwin's Ain-i-Akbari, II. 9). But 
cttoe chiefly fiom CAbul and Chinas The trade in silk stuffs was almost as great as in 
ocrtton doth. 

* Iyory. Barbosa, 65. Compare Frederic (Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344). * An infinite 
anmber of artificers that made bracelets of elephant's teeth.' One of the chief chanffea 
in Cambay trade during the sixteenth century was the decay in the leather manufitc- 
^<ue, Barbosa, though he notices (52) the embroidered shoes of very^ffood leather worn 
by the Hindus of Gujarit, the stout leather leggings of the Muhammadan soldieiy (66), 
tad the stamped kid skins with which the Cazi^ay carriages were lined (65), nowhere 
*P«aks of leather as one of the manufactures of GujarAt, In Frederic's list sandak 
•?p«ar among the imports, while Manddslo (1638) expressly mentions the shoes as 
»«gof led Spanish feather (Harris, II. 122), and somewhat later (1651) Tavemier 
n^^KM shoes made of Maroqum or Turkey leather. (Harris, II. 357). „ , -, ^. 

^ SniD 8PI0M. The chief Sind spice was cosTUS, hUh arputchock, also called Radix 

dttlets or Lignum dnlce. This went to China where it#iras much burned as inoense. 

IhsPtortuffuese ship that goes (1585) every year from Malacca to Chixia, is oalled 




from Adeu,' Goa, and Cbani; (fold, uocotned fr«Tn AMm 1 
Abyasinia, and lotb coined aud uncoined from ?il 
silver from the Bed Soa and Persian Gulf; i 
tin from SiAm; and salt and solphvu" from the Fi : 
was a large trade in prerioua Hlonea. Rubies c;itii 
Ceylon, topazes and cat'a-oyes from Ceylon, and turc]Uuiat^,t!i 
and lapia-laznli from Persia. Of oraims, pbuits, and 5 
DYKS, rice, cardamoms, betel-leaves, areca nata, and ouooai 
from Malabdr; opinni, betel-leaf,* madder, ginger, anil ) 
Arabia ; * and raiains, dat«e, the root ruinas for dyeing, ; 
and rhubarb* from Persia. Of PKfiroMKa and eeicis ; clorei < 
from the Molnccaa, nutifieg and mace from Pegn ajid B4uds> ^ 
Baudatwood from. Tipor,. camphor from Borneo and 
benjamin or benzoin from Si&m, Malacca, and Samatra, c 
Malab&r, cinnamon from Ceylon and Java, e^lewood or ligi 
from Cochin-China, pepper from Malab&r, Ceylon, Bengal, 
and Jdva, and ginger from Quilon. Of ANIMALS, horses i 
brought from Persia and Arabia, and elephants from CeyliM 
Malabar. Of animal products, coral came from the Red Sea, p 
from the Persian Guif and Ceylon, ivory from Africa, tortoi* 
and cowries from the Maldives, pigeon's dung used aa & d 
Africa, lac from Pegu and Martaban, mnsb from Ava, andaz 
from Africa, Sokotra, and the Maldive Islands. Of kamtfac 
AETICLE8, velvets, brocades, and woollen cloth came from t 
Sea, fine muslins from Bengal and the Sonkan, and porc«laJ 
Martaban and China.' 

These details describe Cambay trade in the early pari i 
sixteenth century. Of the state of things towards its close (1 
Cffisar Frederic hafileftthe following summary: Barks came in ll 
with allsortsof spices, with silk of China, with sandaSs, witholq ' 
teeth, velvets of Vercini, great quantity of panviun from 
with gold pieces and money, and divers sorts of other merchi 
Barka went out laden with an infinite quantity of clotii i 

' Moat of thete vticlea reacted AdeD front Europe by Suez uidJwlil^ ttM 
trade that wm most affected by the Dew Cape of Good Hope rciuta. TlinM^ 
greater part ot the Hiiteenth century, the chief imporl of tbeee artiole* ui6» . 
itiB by Goa and Chaul But, (« noticed above, towards its dose, the tn4« I 
Oujarfit and the Red Sea bnd conaiderably revived. 

' Betel-leap is doubtful. Frederic (Hakliiyf« Voyages. It. 343>«. 
quaotity of famtiisi which cometh from Mei^ca.' This may he fxti wUolii tp tHk 
Batata's time (1342) wae reared in Arabia aod much nteemed by the |«fip1« of tndik 
(Lee'B IbnBatuta, 59). After its Deaeioti to the Portngueee (I&34) great inanthiMd 
betel-IeaE went from Basseiu to I'ambay. Mod. loed JI. 166. 

' Galls were (1914) brought from thn Levant thMiig)i Meooi :._ 

from Cambay distributed to China and JAva where tbey werewoith m a 
Barbosa, 191- ' 

* This mask and rhabarb came by land from Tartaiy. Other tnpplie* i 
by tea from Cbiiia, * 

° In the Biiteenlh century European velvet, scarlet oloth, in ' " 
of Venetian make, would acem to have been more prized :■ 
kind madeio the east. Thus tbd GujarAt weavsra are praieeil :i 
II. R3| for imitating the silk manafacturea of Turkey aod I' 
imported from the Red Sea were eateemed over the whole of t . 
and 188). Terry (1616-1618) layi expressly, the Indian vcltct", h.i 
are not so rich as Ihoae of Italy,^ Kerr, IX, 393. 



nbost of alt sorts, white, stninped, and paint«d, with Brent qunntit; 
, with ginger and myrobalans dried and conserved, 
E in pftste, great store of sugar, great quantity of cotton, 
B of Opium, aBsafoetida, puchio, and many other drugs, Dia 
i great carnelians, granates, agates, and bloodstones.* 
nercbants were of two classes, residents and strangera. Of 
BTeaidents some were Muaalmans and some were Hindus. Of the 
bldo trading houses some had branches, or correspondents, in 
XtrtB both Indian and foreign. Among Indian ports, mention 
t colonies of Cambay merchants in Dabhol,' Cochin, and 
b in Kftlikat where they were much honoured, lived in good 
ft separate streets, and followed thrfr own customs.' At this 
'ait Hindus do not seem to have seated east of Cochin. 
f were found at Ormuz, and, in greah numbers, at Meliods 
bftBa in east Africa.* Many resident Musalmnn traders 
eigners, descendants of the Arab and Persian merchants 
fl by the early Arab traTellers.* Of the stranger merchants, 
ter number were, in the early part of the century, 
B from Western Asia,' and later on, Portuguese and other 



, * FrBdBric (1563-1565) : Hikluyfs Voyiges, II. 3«. 

f IMblini (aorth latitude 17' 34 ewt longitude 73° 16) ia Ratnigiri wm, lo tb« 
% and l&th centuries, s great MuuilinAD plvie of trade. 

*""-'<». 140. Early European tnivellers differed much in their estinifltB of Hindu 
. •Marco Pota. (1390) and JordanuB, (1323) describe the Oniar&ti Hinda 
n of K&tilut u the best merchanta in the world, and the moat trullifol. (Ytile'a 
pBela, 11.299,and Yule'aJordauas, 23). This Bereea with Frederic's deun^ptioa 
Act treat atranger merf bants placed in the Hinda brokers of Cambay 
■Toyaffei, n. 343}, and with Laval (Voyages, II. 214-220) who says, though 
^'^le, they are (1^10) Dpither cheats nor easily cheated. On the other 
la (1CI4) fonnd the Hindas of Gujarit, ' great aeurer* and falaifieri of 
... iMsnrea.and merchamlise and coin, and liaraand cheats' (6!) ;and Peyton 

, L 230) (1615) callstheSnrat broken 'aabtle, and, unless well looked aft«r, 

y to daeeire both the buyer and the seller'; and DeCoutto(lCOO, Dec. IV. Lib. 1. 
)k TIL) tboDgbt that, from the rsligious oare they took to cheat Christians, tha 
Kit Vtmia must be descended from the lost tribea of larael. 
^Onnvt. Abd-er-Itazzak (1442) mentjons idolaters in great numbers (Major'a 
h UntDiy. L 7), and Newberry (1683) found GentUes there. (Haklujt'a Voyages, 
ITS). Vaaco de (iama (1498) found many Oentile merchant Emm Cambay inMelinda 
■ Hambaaa (Kerr's Voyages, 11, 337, and Correa's Three Voyagea of De Qams, 1S7, 
'"-* Ooinp«re Barboaa, 13). 
"•— * p. 184. 

'« (abont 1490) fonnd at Cambay some Moorish merchants of Alexandria 

M lUajor. IV. 9). -So manv Tarks, says Varthema (1008), resided 

It piu that it was known as D in- bandar -ru mi or tha Turk's Din, as di«in> 

ir Diul Sind, whose westward trade was almost entirely with the 

Badger's Varthema, 02. 

c (about lfi66) gives an account of the ratal ions between the 

n nwrchants and the claas of Hindu traden, who. under the name of broken, 

lajad BO important a part in the establishment of European trade aetllementa 

lia. 'On arriving at Cambay the merahaut chooses his agent from among the 

I, Oentilia and men of authority, every one of them with from flfteen to twenty 

Idtf, Leaving a list of his goods in the broker's handa, and taking on land the 

" — la he brought wilh him in the ship, for household provision all merchanti 

to India must bring with them, the merchant drives to an empty 

1 the city where bedsteads, tables, chain, and empty jan of wat«r 

Ml made ready by the broiler o^inst tV arrival of snioe stranger. 

I k> Uw merchant rests, tbe broker is clearing the gooda and bringing them to the 

i-it Hm merchant not knowing auythin^ thereof, neither onstom nor charge. 

~ *'^1 broker tells tbe merchant the ruling rates both of the goods he has to 

ay wiah to buy. asking whether he will sell at ouce or w.-vit. 

I ■ sai-2fi 




Towards the close of the sixteenth centary Surat rose to be a 
dangeroQfl nvmi, and^ in the early part of the seventeenth century^ the 
escafalishment of the Datch and English head-quarters at Surat gave 
a sereare blow to Cambay trade.^ The Dutch and English opened 
factories in Cambay. But, though during *the greater part of the 
t^eventeenth centary its cotton and silk manufactures maintained 
their position among the most valued exports of Western India, 
the general trade became more and more limited.^ The more 
txaportant articles were, of exports, silk and cotton stuffs of all 
kinds» and of imports, money, dates, and other merchandise.' Besides 
the home trade to Diu and Goa, Cambay goods went wesji to the 
Persian Gulf and to Mocha, and east to AcUn in Sumatra. 

At tiie beginning o£ the eighteenth century, Cambay, though 
Bobordinate to Suraty ^i^aa in products aad manu&ctures^ inferior to 
few Indian towns. -The staples of its trade were camelians and 
a^^teaiy grain, cotton, silk, and embroidery, the best in India, 
perhaps m the world.^ Half a century later, among the Cambay 
exports, were, salt like coarse sand with a special virtue for the weak, 
cameliaa, and ivory articles, and cloths like those of Persia, Arabia, 
Al>j08inia, Constantinople, and Europe.' ToNvards the close of the 
oentory, great quantities of coarse coloured cotton cloth were still 
manofoctared in the city and exported for the African markets. 
But the weavers were few and poor, and, except the English broker, 
there was no merchant of eminence.^ In 1 787 the only exports were 
camelians, « salt, and tobacco. Indigo was grown but none was 
exported as the makers mixed it so that no one would buy it.' 

Chapter II. 



> Of C«mbfty (1601 • 1611), before the bulk of the trade passed to Surat, Pyrard de 
LatsI writea : Next to Gk>a no Indian city has so rich a trade as Cambay. Three or four 
txmcfl a year great fleets, from 200 to 300 sail, called the kafila of Cambay, come to GkML 
Ita anival causes great rejoicing like the arrival ^ tiia Indian fleet in Portugal llxe 
chief articles that came from Cambay were, incUgo^ l^utifully worked 4>recious stones, 
crop crystal, iron, copper, alum, wheat 'the ^est in tiie world', rice, many drugs, 
bntter» oil for eatmg, perfuming and anointing the body, black and white soap, sugar, 
pepper, wax, honey, much opium, cloth covering men and women from head to feet 
trook the Gape of Good Hope to China, worked cloth, painted cloth, silk, beautifully 
workied coverlets and canopies, painted and lacquered oedsteads and other household 
cooda, bed tapes, cotton hunting hammocks, carpets like Persian but not so fine or 
dear, inlaid work of mother-o^pearl, ivorv, gold, silver, and precious stones all of 
oreat skill, tortoiseshell boxes, and no end of gold, silver, iron and wood work. 
VavBfm (Goa, 1862), II. 214 - 220. 

' Tno chief local cause of the tnuiBfer of trade from Cambay to Surat was the 
nitins of the head of the gulf. In the beginning of the sixteenth' century (1608) large 
ships would seem to have been able to pass to Cambay. (Varthema, 105). Later on 
this becaaie possible only to snuiU vessels, and towards the close of the centuir (1585) 
to smaQ veasels only at spring tides. (Frederic in Hakluyt*s Voyages, II. 344). In 
the besinnxog of the seyenteenth century (1608) there was a topping trade for all aorta 
of doth and rich drugs, (Finch in Harris, I. 89). Fift^ years later ships of burden h^ 
ta He a good distance from the shore. Small vessels might, at high water, anchor dojie. 
by the city, but at low water they lay dry. (Opilby's Atlas, V. 212). About the 
same tiao^ Tavemier r 1642 • 1666) sa;fs the trade is almost lost because the sea^ tluit 
OQoe oams so dose to the town that uttle vesMls could anchor by it, is now naif a 
kagae distant from it, and near the coast is so shallow that great sl^ps can oom^jio, 
Deat«r than three or four leagues. Harris, IL 353. 

» >Cande]slo (1638), 101-108 ; Baldeus (1660) in ChuroUU, IfL 606. 

* Hamilton*a New Account, I. 145. 

* Bird's Mir4t-i-Ahmadi, 104, 105. Tieffenthaler (1750) ijaentjons only salt atuX 

* Fetlwa' Oriental Memoirs, II. 19, and III. 70. « 7 Hovd's Tours, 49, 50. 







1839. wa 


Of Cambay tarade in the present century the earliest aTaalaUe 
figoreaarefor 1840. The following statement shows thaexporis 
and imports for 1840, 1875, and 1878 : 

Cambay Trade, 1840, 2S75, and 2S78. 










1 Xuocm 
























CtarttKlbrfttv ... 














8104 .. 

• »• 




• •• 














S88BI 144^ 



OMtoa ^ 





• •• 


• *• 















4601 1831 



Oottoa Upe. twUt, 














Ihied frnit* 




• •• 



• •• 






Uym, morlnda. 

aordngii mJIoitw, 

tefiMifol sod Indigo 













VaVIB ..• (•• »•• 

• •• 






• «« 






Oncsfy ... .«. 













IT0I7 Ud tOltolM- 

mn, kaehaUa ... 











• •♦ 

^ . 

JfoAiula flower 







• M 








• •• 







• •» 




li€tel ••« •«« 











il f 













^^A •■• 999 ••• 













Oil*nedt «.« M. 



• •• 









Plooo ipoods ••• «.. 



• •• 




• •• 






Mlw ••• ••• ••• 










«•• 1 



NIK •*« ••• •«. 




• •• 








BOsp ■»( ••■ ••• 


• »• 











BIODO ■•• M« ••• 













SOgAc •■• *•• ••• 




• •• 
















■ •• 



















VODMOO ••• ... 













vvVW^^B VW^^PB^MV 










• •• 












M. 8(VM7 

The figures show an inorease in the imports from £34^03 in 
1889-40 to £37,832 in 1874-75 or 8*39 per cent, and to £131,729 in 
1877-78 or 277'41 per cent. Most of the great inorease in 1878 is 
special, due to the large quantity of grain imported to meet the f ailore 
of crops in north G-njardt and K&thi&w&Ta The exports increased 
from £33,713 in 1839-40 to £77,816 in 1874-75 or 130*81 percent, 
and to £90,017 in 1877-78 or 167*01 per cent. The increase in 
1877-78 is owing to large tobacco exports amounting to abont 
six-sevenths of tne whole export trade. Compared wiui the 1 875 
figures there is in 1878 a &J1 in many leading exports maiDly due to 
the &ilure of local crops. 

The chief imports are : unhusked rice ddngar horn the Konkan, 
cleaned rice chokha and wheat from Bombay, peas vaidna from 
Bilimora in Surat, and bavto Fanicum frumentaceum from Balsar, 
piece goods, clarified butter, molasses chiefly from Balsfr and 
Bilimora, dlk, timber chiefly from Bals&r, BiUmora, and Damazx, 
sugar chiefly from Bombay, cocoanute chiefly from Bombay and 
the Eonkan, dried fruit from Bombay and VeraTal in K&Snj&wit, 
metal from Bombay, and oamelians from Broach. During the 
thirty-eight years ending 1878, the import of grain fell from 




£3277 to £1360 in 1875^ and^ from special circumstancefij rose 
to it46,968 m 1878; molasses rose from £5221 to £14,021 in 1875^ 
and to £11,459 in 1878; piece goods fell from £1565 to £712 in 
1875^ and again rose to £18,123 ; silk fell from £284 to £5 in 1875^ 
and again rose to £4886; sugar rose frOm £2070 to £3542 in 
187^ and £3957 in 1878; and metal fell from £1960 to £1130 in 
1875, bat has again risen to £2802. On the otiier hand there is 
a fall in the import of cotton yam from £3397 to £1293 in 1875 and 
£77 m 1878 ; of dried fruit from £1570 to £307; of cocoannts from 
£3106 to £3087; and of camelians from £1785 to £1440. In 
1840 salt Talned at £122 was imported. This import has ceased* 
Of fireah imports are, clarified butter worth ^11,882 ; mahuda flower, 
£510; tobaccoj £880; soap, £47; cottonseed, £124 in 1875 and 
£152 in 1878; and matches, £350 in 1876 and £1019 in 1878. 

The chief exports are : tobacco, sent south as far as EoUba and 
chiefly to Daman and Bombay, west to K&thi&wdr, and north to 
Cutch; clarified butter, camelians, and wooden bracelets to Bombay ; 
graiiij pulse, and Indian millet to Bilimora and Bombay; and 
piece goods, especially black cloth. During the last thirty-eight 
years, the figures show a rise in the export of tobacco from £11,105 
to £76,287 ; of clarified butter from £359 to £570 ; of camelians 
from £369 to £519 ; and of wooden bracelets from £24 to £46. On 
ihe other hand there is a fall in the exports of piece goods from 
£15^827 to £191 in 1878 ; and of grain from £448 to £13. In 1840 
soap worth £2835, mahiida flower worth £488, stone worth £168, 
ana saJt worth £75 were exported ; of these there has been no 
export either in 1875 or in 1878. The export of grocery, valued at 
£517 in 1840 and at £543 in 1878 ; of dyes, valued at £501 in 1840 
and at £74 in 1878 ; and of cotton-yam, valued at £90 in 1840 
and at £6 in 1875, had ceased in 1878. Of fresh exports are cotton 
worth £11 in 1875 and £2310 in 1878, timber worth £12, and metal 
worth £7. 

In 1878 the shipping of the Oambay port amounted in all to 566 
vessels of a totsl burden of about 10,000 tons. The details are : 

Cambay SMpinng, t877-78. 














BomUy .M 
XoakAA M. 







« 610 












Tdtal ... 







These vessels are all coasting oraft, chiefly baields. Boats of six 
tons and mider can make the port of Cambay at all ordinary high 
tides, and vessels of from seven to fifty tons at springs. Slups of 
more than fifty tons never visit Cambay. 

Chapter II. 




IBoadMty Guetfeaer. 



► • 


Chapter IL The trade with Gujarat and Central India that formerly passed 

Xani^ictiires. through Cambay has^ since the opening of the Bomheg^ and 

Ahmedabad railway (1863), almost entirely left its former pout*' 
^ ^^ For several years Gambay ti^e was entirely local, gathering exporta 
and spreading imports within a radios of about forty miles. • Th« 
special grain demand, caused in 1878 by the north Gujarat scarritv. 
showed how readily a great sea trade might again spring up. Oykt 
4600 tons of grain were imported, and, chiefly because on the retaru 
voyage they were able to offer specially low rates, the boats gaine«J 
an unusual share of the tobacco and cotton exports. 


The fame of Cambay manufactures has long passed away. There 
remain only agate ornaments and cotton cloth. 

The^ working i n preciou s stones is the most interesting of Cambay 
industries. The term^'TJ^Sffl^ Stones ' includes two classes ot 
gems; agates* found in different parts of Gujarat within a radius </ 
about 120 miles of Cambay; miscellaneous foreign stones brought to 
Cambay to be worked by its lapidaries. Of the first class the most 
important is the agate, known from its fleshy colour, as camelian. 
In its natural state^ of a dull cloudy brown or yellow, the camelian L» 
in Gujar&ti called ghdr and when worked up dkik. Camelians are 
found within Bdjpipla limits, on the left bank of the Narbada, about 
fourteen miles above Broach. The mines are on the sloping side 
of a small sandistone hill known as the B&wa Ghori or B&wa Abas 
hill, perhaps Ptolemy's (150) Agate Mountain.' The borings show 
a surface bed of gravel with red and yellow ochre below ; tmder 
these fuller's earth and red ochre ; then a thin seam of iron-bearing 
rock ; and last the carnelian day.^ The mine shafts are about four 
feet in diameter, and on an average about thirty feet deep. At the 
foot of each shaft, galleries five feet high and four feet wide, 
branch off on all sides. These passages, seldom more than a hundred 

1 This account is compiled from Rov6*b Toun (1787), Bom. Gov. SeL XVI. 49-51 ; 
MUbum'8 Or. Com. (1813), L 278 ; Captain FaUjame8(1832), Tram. Bom, Gcog. Soc^ 
II. 76, 77 : and Mr. Summers (1848), Bom. Gov. SeL IV. 15. 

' The agate is a quarts stone usually containing from seventy to ninety^ z 
per cent of silica, with various proportions of alumina coloured by oxide of ixtm or 
mansaneee. It is generally found in round nodules or in veins in tn^ rocks. The 
number of agate bslls it contains often gives a rock the character of amygdaloid, and 
vrhen such a rock is decomposed, ike agates drop out and are found m tho beds of 
streams. The chief varieties of agates are ; (1) dUcedony with the colours in pamdlel 
bars ; (2) camelianjor red calcedony ; (8) Mokha stones ; (4) moss agates ; (5) blood- 
stone ; (6) plasma, a grass-green stone probably acaloedoqy coloured by chlorite; iskd 
(7) chrysoprase, an apple-green stone coloured by ^zide of nickel. The English word 
a^te is generally derived from the Greek axprift, said to be the name of a stream in 
Sicily once famous for agates. A more probable origin is the Aiabic aBk a river bed. 
In very early times (180 a.o.) agates were brought mm Arabia to Rome (Vinoent^ IL 

* From the details of the Broach, BwntqagOt agate trade nyen in the Periphts (2I7| 
(McCrindle, 126), it seems probable that Ptolemy's Agate flill was further inland in 
tho Deccan or Central Provinces whence the best agates still come. (See below, p. 205). 

* The formation containing camelian, stretching over aboat four miles, is a deep bed 
of red gravel, very like London graveL In it caloed<my pebbles of various form 
and size are irregularly imbedded. (Dr. Lush, 1896. Jour. As* Soo. Beog. V. 8, 76()). 
In 1842 ^K Orlebar found that, from the decay of the trade, the mines had been 

given up, and the holes filled in, so that he could not examine the strata. Joor. 
om. As. Soc L 195, 




jards long, in many cases join the galleries of other mines. Every 
uiiae has a band of thirteen men, each with a small iron pickaxe, a 
{ow bamboo baskets, and a rope. They work in tarns, and, before 
he is relieved, each man mnst fill a certi^ namber of baskets. 
Tbe l^kei is drawn up by a mde roller or pnlley supported by four 
uprights. At the mine mouth t]ie stones are chipped, and the likely 
ones carried to Batanpur, the village of gems, and there made over to 
r he contractor or his agent. The average outturn of two men working 
from eight to ten hours, is from ten to forty pounds weight of stones. 

The contractor divides the stones into two classes, thosg which 
should and those which should not be bal^d. Three stones are 
left unbaked : an onyx called mora or bdwaghori, the cat'S'^eye called 
eheskamdar or dola, and a yellow half*clear pebble called rori or 
Uufania, Of these the mora or bdwaghori onyx ^ is of two kinds, 
one dark with white veins, the other greyish white with dark veins. 
Thaee stones are found in different shapes, and seldom more than 
one pound in weight. Except these three varieties, all Batanpur 
pebbles are baked to bring out their colour. During the hot 
season, generally in March and April, the stones are spread in the 
«uji in an open field. Then in May, a trench, two feet deep by 
three wide, is dug round the field. The pebbles are gathered into 
earthen pots, which, with their mouths down and a hole broken 
in their bottoms, are set in a row in the trench. Bound the pots 
^oat and cowdung cakes are piled, and the whole is kept burning 
from Bxmset* to sunrise. Then the pots are taken out, the stones 
exajuined, and the good ones stowed in bags. About the end of 
!&(ay the bags are carted to the Narbada, and floated to Broach. 
Here they are shipped in large vessels for Cambay, and are offered 
for salo to the camelian dealers. The right of working the B^jpipla 
miues is every year put up to auction. It would of lato seem to 
have become more valuable as the average for the last four years 
(1873-1876) has been £323 (Bs. 3230) compared with £189 (Bs. 1890) 
tn tho twenty previous years. The contractors are generally Baroda 
and Cambay merchants, Y&ni^ and Bohords by caste. 

By exposure to sun and fire, amoQg browns the light shades 
brighten into white, and the darker deepen into chestnut. Of 
yellows, maize gains a rosy tint, orange is intensified into red, and 
an tntermediato shade of yellow becomes pinkish purple. Pebbles 
in which cloudy browns and ybllows were at first mixed are now 
marked by clear bands of white and red. The hue of the red 
camelian varies from the palest flesh to the deepest blood red. 
The best are a deep clear and even red, free from cracks, flaws, or 
veins. The larger and thicker the stone, the more it is esteemed. 
White camehans are scarce. When large, thick, even coloured, 
and free from flaws, they are valuable. Yellow and variegated 
stones are worth little. 

Four agates, the common, the moss, the Kapadvanj, and the 
veined, rank next to the B&jpipla camelians. ^ The Common Agate 
is of two kinds, a white half-clear stone called dola or chsaltt^nddr. 

Cfhapter II. 

C»mbay Stonet. 


> The true <ir Snlim&ni onyx comes to Ciunbay from Jabalpur. 

I Uf a pocadni 

r « duk gnxmd wilh 

«■ Acfc *«^ «■> ^|M hMfc grand. 

iM^AtrOmimrmmemAiatUetm: the jasper < 
^ ^maakm wuie, ■ variegated pebbL< kui-wn as 
Hl^J_ A* lif w lainTi nr ■nmT utinr tfa>? obi^iJiuu '^r 
UmmoB^pi'^ 0( Omb thA fint* fonr nr 
TV mt ate fimfnt atanea tooogbt from Bombay. 
Bdiativpe, or Btoodstone ocrntM from tbu rilla^ c 
Horri, abont twienty miles north of lUjkot, Pound l. 
tbe foot of Bfaig' hill, in massire layera of from half a 
[cjTty poaa3ii, it Ih gatJierad ia tbo aamu way as Iha i 
wf>rkod op it takes f Iiigfa polish, vaiyiug in . 
, ekAdntdiira green variety with rod strMJca or Bp.._ 

[ whose green bass u rnoro equally mixH i _ 
The Chocolate Stone, nJ(Ai>i, cornea rmm IVnkim^ 

nd j 




'•^and on the surface^ or a few feet underground, in masses of from 

no to eig'ht pounds, it is too soft and earthy to take a high polish. 

d'lhnariam is a liver brown, marbled with yellowish marks of shells 

rid animal cxilse. Dug in blocks of considerable size at Dhokov^da 

n th^ Ran of Cntch about sixty miles north of Deesa, it is too 

iAt to take a high polish. Cambay Crystal, phatak, comes from 

riinlcara in Morvi, where it is found in masses of from one to twenty 

H Kinds. As clear as glass it takes a high polish. The best 

i,*ambay Grystal comes from Madras, Ceylon, and China. Lapis-lazuli, 

.>r Azure otone^ rdjdvarat, is deep blue with a sprinkling of silveiy 

or golden spots. A foreign stone coming to CamlMiy through 

Bombay, it is found in rounded balls in Persian and Bukh4ran river 

b^^ds. It ia too soft and earthy to take a high polish. Jet, or 

Black 8tone, idla phatar, is also foreign coming through Bombay 

from the liilla of Eiassora and Aden, where it is found in large 

niocks. Like glass in fracture, it is not very heavy^ and takes a 

tiigh polish^ The Cambay jet trade has almost entirely ceased. 

The Cambay Blue Stone is not the true piroja, but a composition 

imported from China in flat pieces of not more than half a pound in 

^e\gV\t. Like blue glass in appearance, though soft it takes a 

1:00 d polish. 

The rough atone generally passes through three processes : 

''^wing, chiselling, and polishing. When a stone is to be sawn it is 

brought to a strong frame of two wooden uprights, joined at the 

f p'ot by a cross board, and, at the top, by a strong rope doubled and 

tiifhteued by a stick. The stone is then laid on the cross board, 

and fixed firmly to it by a cement of coarse bees' wax and cloth 

'bras. The saw, a slight toothless iron plate in a light wooden 

frttme, ia then brought up, and, according to the size of the stone, 

H worked by one or two men. To smooth its freshly-cut faces, a 

mixture of ground emery, fine sand, and water, is kept dropping 

latu the cleft in which the saw works. To chisel it into shape the 

<^v>uc lA taken to a slanting iron spike, khondia, driven into the ground 

f u! only the head is left above the surface. Laying against the edge 

«•( this spike the part of the stone to be broken off, the workman 

stnkea with a horn-headed hammer till all roughness has been 

riiinoved. The article is now handed over to the polisher. He 

takes it to a platform sixteen inches long by six broad and three 

tiiiok. In this platform are two strong wooden uprights, and 

l»etween the uprights a wooden roller, eight inches long and three in 

diameter, fastened into a head at one end. This roller works on an iron 

"^pindle or axle. On the one end, the axle is screwed and fitted with a 

Qut to which certain plates or discs can be made fast. These grinding 

^^t polishing plates are made of emery mixed with seed lac. The 

emery, karanj, of greyish black, is carefully powdered and 

glistening. The preparation of emery varies in fineness according 

^^ the nature of the work. For rough work the proportion is 

three parts of ground emery to one of lac ; for medium work the 

pn)portion is two and a half pounds of finely powdered emery to 

"Qe of lac ; and, for the finest work, lac and camelian dust, vari, 

^^ nsed in equal quantities. Besides th& coihposition plates, a 

B 561—26 

Chapter II. 

Cambay Stoues. 


Blue Stone, 




[Bombay Guettee 



Chapter IL 

Camb^y Stones. 


Course of 

copper disc is occasionally used for polisHiig very hard stone, sue 
as Ceylon cat's-eyes and other precious stones, and for the soft 
sort of pebbles, a plate of teak or other closegrained wood is use 
Fastening in its plac^ on the roller the disc best suited to t 
stone to be polished, the workman, squatting on his hams, steadi 
the machine with his foot. A bow, with its string passed rou 
the wooden roller, is held in his right hand, and by moving the b 
backwards and forwards, the roller and with it the polishing pi 
is whirled round, while the article to be polished is held iu t 
workman's left hand, and, as it revolves, is pressed against the out 
face of &he polishing disc. 

Besides these three *^regular processes, certain articles requi 

special treatment. After beads have been chiselled into shape, 

smooth their surface, a number are fixed in a pair of wooden j 

bamboo clamps, and rubbed' on a coarse and hard smoothing stoi 

called dholia, ^ Next they are grasped in a grooved clamp, at 

rubbed along a wooden polishing board called pathndr. T] 

surface of this board is cut into grooves, and roughened hy 

composition of emery and seed lac. To give beads their fiui 

brilliancy, from one to several thousands of them, are, along wii 

emery dust and fine carnelian powder, thrown into a strong leatli 

bag about two feet long and from ten to twelve inches across. TJ 

mouth of the bag is tied, and a flat leather thong is passed round i 

centre. Seated at opposite ends of a room, two men, each hvjldi 

one end of this leather thong, drag the bag backwards and forwar 

This rolling lasts from ten to fifteen days, and during the wh 

time the bag is kept moistened with water. When the polishi 

is complete, the beads are handed over to have holes bored. T 

is done by a diamond-tipped steel drill, and as the drill wor 

water is dropped into the hole through a thin narrow reed or mtti 

tube. Cut beads are polished on the wheel as well as rubb^ 

on the smoothing stone, and knife-handles are prepared in t 

same way as cut beads. In making cups, saucers, and other hoi!-. 

articles, the outside is first chiselled into shape and ground <>n t 

smoothing stone. To hollow the inside, the diamond-tipped dr 

is worked to the depth of the fourth of an inch all over the si»:i' 

till the surface is honeycombed with drill holes. The proimn- 

places round these holes are then chipped away till a holI">v 

the desired depth has been formed.*" The inside is then poli^^Kj 

on a convex mould, of the same composition as the polishing pi a' 

and like them fastened to the polishing wheel. Miniature caww 

are bored by diamond-tipped drills. A smallheaded drill is ^^1 

worked, and then the number of diamonds on the head is graduul 

increased from two to a circle of twelve. Flat ornaments, surli 

paper-cutters, paper-weights and oniamental slabs, are cut i^l 

layers of the required thickness by the toothless saw. 

Cambay agate ornaments belong to three classes : those suit* 
for the Chinese, the Arab, and the European markets.^ For ^\ 

^ In 1787, seal shaped stones went to Europe and Arabia, pearl shaped fiton('» 
big as a pistol ball, to China, and octagons to the Guinea Coast and Mozamb^n^ 
Hove's Tours : Bom. G«v. Sfl. XVI. 49. 




Cbinese market^ carnelian oraaments only are in demand. Of 
diose there are two kinds^ flat stones named mugldigul, and beads 
uiUed dol. The flat stones, oval, square, and like watch seals, are 
\om in China as armlets and dress ornaments. Plain polished 
rouuii beads are made into necklaces of fifty stones each. For the 
Arab markets, the stones most in demand are Ranpur agates, 
k.i f anpur carnelians, cat^s-eyes, and bloodstone.^ These are wrought 
iiit<j both plain and ornamental ring stones, necklaces, wristlets, and 
aruilets. Of neckla<;es there are those made of cut beads, pduddr 
ilA ; of diamond-cut beads, gokhruddr dol; of almond-shaped beads, 
hnlimi dol ; and of spearhead-shaped beads, chamakli doL^ Again 
:Lere are necklaces of three stones called mddalia or tdvit, and of 
plain round beads used as rosaries as well as necklaces.^ Of armlets 
%ud wristlets there are those of two stones, mota mddalia worn 
tr her on the arm or wrist; wristlets of seven round flat stones, pdtia; 
rristlets of seveml flat stones, porichi ; armlets of one stone cut 
into different fandful devices, bdju; and single stones in the shape 
^f large flat seals, nimgol. Rings, anguthi, and stones for setting 
»s riufj^s, naglna, are also made of carnelian and cat's-eye. For the 
t'inr^)\)can markets, the ornaments most in demand are models of 
Gannon with carriage and trappings, slabs for boxes or square tables, 
c'jrw and saucers, chessmen, flower vases, pen racks, card and letter 
r.K ks, watch stands, inkstands, knife-handles, rulers, paper-cutters, 
\ nholders, necklaces, bracelets, brooches, paper weights, crochet 
r^ eilles, silk- winders, marbles, brace and shirt studs, seals, and rough 
-!"nes polished on one side. Within the last thirty years (1851) 
Cult oi the trade with Arabia lay through Veraval in south-west 
Kathiawar. At present (1878), except a very small supply for the 
■^uid and Cabul markets taken by the horse-dealers and other 
^ tL^haus who visit Canibay, the whole produce is bought by Bombay 
■jHTchauts, chiefly of the Bohora caste, and by them sent from. 
h..iubay to China, Arabia, and Europe. 

According to the latest details, the trade in Cambay stones at 
If 'sent supports about six hundred families of skilled workmen, 
ITU I from five hundred to six hundred unskilled labourers. The 
.'/villod workmen are all Kanbis, the labourers Musalmans and 
UmHs. The whole body of skilled workmen includes four distinct 
.'iv^-ies, each engaged on a separate process. Compared with the 
1 - '><J returns, the figures for 1878 show q, fall, from two to one hundred 
. the number of polishers on thorough stone, dolids. On the other, 
h'iinl the workers on the lapidaries' wheel, ghdsid^, have remained. 
r-udy at three hundred, the drillers, vindhdrs, at one hundred, and 
the polishers on the wooden frame, patimdrs, at fifty.* 

^ Jet ornaments were formerly (1S51) exported to Arabia ; of late years the trade has 

^ The demand for necklaces of oblong fiat beads, kdtli, is said to have ceased. 
■ * Within the last thirty years about 167 families of agate workers have abandoned 
|iif:ir craft. Of these, seven have gone to Ahmedabad ;1en to Baroda ; twenty-five 
lo Bombay ; and 125 have become cultivators in Cambay. Those in Ahmedabad 
k&ve taken to silk- weaving ; those in Baroda to tobacco-selling, polishing precious stones, 
«4i I weaving ; those in Bombay to stone-polishing and glass-mending. The Bombay 
^-.triers sUll keep up their connection with Cambay, agoing there for marriage and 

Chapter IL 

Cambay Stones. 

Course of 


[fiombay Oaxetteer. 



Chapter II. 

Cambay Stones. 

Trade Guilds. 

Each process is carried on in a distinct workshop. At the head 
of each workshop, hdrkhdnaj is a well-to-do Kanbi known as the 
kdrkhdnAvdla, or head of the factory. This headman, though 
generally not above working with his own hands, has under hiiu. 
besides a varying number of labourers, from two to ten skillet i 
workers. The skilled workers, all grown men, as women and 
children do not help, receive monthly wages each according to thi- 
work he has done ; the unskilled labourers, many of them boys, are 
paid by the day or as their services are wanted. From the richest of 
the workshop heads, the highest class of agate workers, the agate 
dealers, akikids^ are recruited. The akikia, who must be a man of 
some capital, buys the gtones as they come rough into the Cambay 
market. In his factory the rough stones are sawn and chiselled, 
and then, according to the nature of the stone and the use to which 
it is to be put, he hands it over to the headman of one of tbt' 
polishing factories. When the work is completed, the Cambay 
dealer disposes of the finished articles to the agate merchants of 
Bombay, or sends them through Bombay, to Calcutta, China, or 
Jadda. According to the returns, the number of agate dealers. 
akikids, in Cambay has, during the last twenty-five years, fallen 
from one hundred to fifty. 

In. each branch of the craft the heads of factories form a distinct 
guild .or panchdyat. There is the guild of polishers on stone, 
doliu pandidyat ; of polishers on wood, patimdr panchdyat ; ot 
workers on the lapidaries' wheel, ghdsia panchdyat ; and of drillers. 
vindhdr panchdyat. Above them is the dealers' guild, akikla 
panchdyat, in whose factories the work of sawing and chiselliiiir 
is carried on. Over each of these guilds a headman, cho»Bzi by 
the votes of the members, presides. There is no comhination 
among the workers in the different factories, and there is no record 
of any dispute between the workers and their employers. Any 
skilled worker who raises himself to be head of a factoiy, mav 
become a member of the guild of the branch of the craft to which 
he belongs. On joining a guild the new comer is expected to g^re 
a feast to the members, the expense varying from £17 I0«. to £^»' 
(Rs. 175 - 800). He is at the same time required to pay the Nawib 
a fee of from £1 10s, to £10 (Rs. 15-100).^ From time to time the 
members of a guild hold a feast meeting the charges out of tiiu 
common funds. In any factory, if«>one of the skilled workers 
wishes to have a son taught the craft, or, if a new hand is atULiou^ 
to join, he gives a dinner to the head of the workshop and to the other 
skilled workers. Except in making arrangements for the unpaid 
service due to the Nawdb, the trade funds would seem to be applied 

death ceremoniea. They have also, both pablicly and in their honsee, ahn&e* 
representing the tomb of the founder of their craft. (These and some of the particulara 
about the trade unions have been obtiuned from one of the KanUs settled iit 

^ Some years ago the details were, to join the doUa guild, £19 (£17 iOi. to 
dinners and £1 lOs. for the I{aw&b) ; to join the j/Ad^ria guild, £37 (£S5 in dinners and 
£2 for the Naw^b) ; to join the poHmdr guild, £15 (£12 109. in dinners and £2 lOs 
for the Naw&b) ; and to join the <ikUna ^ild, £90 (£80 in dumera and £10 for tbi 
NawAb). At present (1876) a fee is paid to the NawAb only on joining the atd,*^ 




to no purpose but that of entertaining the members. When a guild 
feast is held^ if one of its members chances to be sick^ his share 
of the dinner is sent him. With this exception, the practice of using 
trade funds to support the sick or those out of work, or to provide 
for widows and orphans, is unknown. 

On paying the Nawab a fee, and agreeing to meet the customary 
clmrges including a yearly subscription of £1 4^. (Rs. 12), any member 
of oneofthoundor-guilds may become a dealer, akikia. About four 
years ago, the heavy cost of joining the akikia guild caused a dispute. 
Certain of the poUshers, ghcunds, claimed the right to deal in stones 
without becoming members of the akikia guild. The reguljj dealers 
were too strong for them, and, failing to get any business, they were 
forced to leave Cambay. With sonje families of drillers they retired 
to Ahmedabad. . But, finding themselves no better ofE there, they 
returned to Cambay. 

llie guilds are useful in arranging for the service dfte to the Naw&b. 
When the Nawib wahts a lapidary, he tells the dealers* guild what 
work he wishes done. The chief of the dealers sends to the master 
of one workshop in each branch of the craft, telling him what is 
wanted, and asking him if he will undertake the duty. If he agrees, 
and there is generally in each class one master- worker who 
undertakes the Naw&b^s orders, he receives from £5 to £6 (Rs. 50- 
CO) from the guild funds. Among guild rules, one forbids 
master^workers engaging the services of workmen belonging to 
another fiaCtory. Another lays down certain days, amounting in all 
to about two months in the year, to be kept as holidays. Breaches 
of the rules are punished by fines varying from 2«. 6(2. to hs. 
iRs. U-2i). 

Some authorities hold that the murrhine cups so highly prized 
by the Romans, were the moss agate cups still made in Cambay.^ 
Others hold that, under the name Sardonyx Mons, Ptolemy (150) 
referred to the Rajpipla mines. But Ptolemy's Sardonyx lulls are 
far inland, and when the author of the Periplus (247) visited Gujar&t, 
ngates and onyx stones came to Broach from a distance, from IJjain 
in Malwa and from Plithfina (Paithan) in the Deccan.^ 

Chapter II. 

Cambay Stones. 
Trade ffuilds. 


' Vincent (Commerce of the Ancients, II. 407, 412) thinks murrha was porce- 
lain ; Riddle's LatiD Dictionary calls* it fluor spar ; Liddel and Scott incline to agate. 
The Emperor Nero paid £58,125 (300 talents) for a murrhine cup. (Vincent, II. 
727). According to Pliny (77 a.d.) Indian agates had many wonderful quidities. 
Th»v were good for scorpion bites^ had the appearance of rivers, woods, beasts of 
borden, and forms like ivy. The sight of them was good for the eyes, and held in the 
monUi ^ey allayed thirst. Bostock's Pliny, VI. 440. Herodotus (484 B.c.) speaks 
of the aara ana onyx being brought from In^a to be used as finger rings. Svery one 
in Babylon wore agate rings (Lassen's Ind. Alt. II. 562). Laasen traces a reference 
to the Cambay agate trade in Vaidnrya, that is an onyx, an old Sanskrit name for 
we«t India from the Karbada to Gokama. Ind. Alt. L 180. 

^ Uiain in Milwa (north latitude 23** 10' east longitude 74** 47'). PlithAna» 
probably Paithan on the GodAvari (nortii latitude 19"* 29' east longitude 75° 28'). A 
trace (a thu Deccan manufacture of agates is presezjed by the Russian traveller 
Atbanasina Nikotin (1468-1474), who says, at Kumla, apparently near Gulbargah, 
the ola'it isproduced and worked and exported to all parts of the world. (Major's India 
in the XVth Century, III. 30). Keobold (Jour. R. A. Soc. IX. 37) mentions that 
eameUans, Mocha stone,aDd Moss agate are found in the Krishna, God&vari, and Bhima. 

Bombay Gitttteer, 

. : I -.T^'-.. iL •mrcllrrs . f the msti 
:..T-": - .: iiz. .ira".e rrade st 

: 'JiL.rii.- r :r. :lir nonces of th 

L : zz-.:ti :v c : nimerce -«iii 

■ ■•■". r- r...ik-? 'J 2.! J a casual 

: ■-. '7 ■.:;:=..: C:in:VQy. Earfj 

_■- "'.:: •=-•:■ '-'..s i: have risen 

-". " • --•■.£- : :-»■.*• tL.untaim, 

"..-7 : abwl 

.-.•...':_- 'ii-r. ?..x..r'iinsrtoi 

- 'i rr. -iz A ■ vi^—ian merchant 
: iz -.j-T :'■: • rj j.r XandcMlin 
-. " :- T:.'-i ' ~ M-?.-*.min5, bar the 

'■-:■- y.-j T-.iTr/ died at 
.- ~ . s.:. ^n : ::.'• ■:£ Bawa Ghor 
; :.: :.T r Xa?: Liia, After some 
- " ' ■ . :li-' : .:-"--:•? w.-.rkers left 
It - v.. -■_ 1 fr.iu Br . 3..?i went to 
.- ... 1 'vt:-: vji^: African and 
"T1-. ' r Tir ■•?% .!-M-»^ mentions 
■_ -r ■ 7- .~. :i~i reJ beadsof 
f :■—,:..' A: Ciiubay i\se% 
-■■': - -•. L :- : r:t\ aerate, and 
" : !-^ . : ..:■>" ^ 'v::a^the lathe 

- ■ " ." : " '. i-:-. iiir-J cimning 

'■..'•.: :>. A' xhislime 

- ' . -. Ti:::r At a J- 

• : Tk'A Uilriml 

. .- - ". ■■.:.iv.rJi ihe 

_■-!.: . ji-.?o, who 

. ... :.- A-V- 

T . . .•.•!■ .I'll •■ 

.. : ■ . I .. 11 

. • ■ •■.^-.•.:* st.'J 
-. ■ .%.:■«. y^-^ 

'-■ ". :" -: ■-: tiit^ 


. ■* •■■•iT ol 

> -. ■ . ■•: -..!.• ■ : K-« 

. - -: .■•:.."-. Av:iii'ur:2£ 

• ■ :■ :.i >:t.c-. 

. . •..••'.■ti 

• ..• ... W^a^'.a-c t*^*:C« 




are said to have increased the demand.^ Two other notices of its 
agate trade occur in sixteenth century accounts of Cambay. One 
in 1 554 speaks of a profusion of carnelians, bdbdghor. The other, 
about twenty years Jater, mentions great ^ones like to cameliaps, 
^raaateSy agates, diaspry, calcedony, hematists, and some kinds of 
natural diamonds.^ In the beginning of the seventeenth century 
(161 1), in Goa all precious stone workers were from Cambay and had 
separate streets and shops.^ Forty years later (1651) Tavemier 
speaks of Cambay as the place where the agate cups are hollowed, 
and, during the eighteenth century, there is more than one notice of 
the agate trade as one of the most important of Cambay industries.* 
For a few years, during the present centtiry, details are available 
sho\^Tiig the estimated value of the outturn of the agate factories. 
Those for 1805 give an export of manufactured camelians, estimated 
at £6223 (Rs. 62,230); those for 1843 give £9490 (Rs. 94,900); 
and the returns for the five years ending 1878 an average of about 
£7000 (Rs. 70,000).^ 

Chapter II. 


* Stanley *s Barbosaj 65-67. Limadura is Nimodra, a village close to the Rijpipla 
aca%e miiLes. Barbosa Kivea the following details of the preparation of the agates. 
MUr being due up in large blocks, and exposed to fire to bring out the colour, the 
o&meliAna are handed over to great artists who work them into rings, buttons, 
knifo-handles, and beads. Here, too, chalcedony beads which, he adds, they call 
hfi^a'jhor, M'ere worn touching the skin, aa they were thought to keep the wearer 

- Siili AliP Kapudhan (1554),. Jour. As. See. Beng. V. 2, 463. Caesar Frederic 
0585), Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 343. 
' Pyrard de Laval : Voyages, II. 214, 220, 

* Tavemier in Harris, II. 353, ' Here they shape those fair agates that come from 

India, into cups, knife hafts, beads and other sorts of workmanship. These agates 

^Lfe fetched out of the quarries by a village named Nimo<lra sixteen miles from Cambay, 

m pieces as big as a man's fist.' Besides Laval and Tavemier, other travellers of the 

seventeenth century notice the Cambay agate trade. Finch (1608) mentions the 

mine o! aeates near Broach (Harris, I. 90) ; Herbert (1626) notices agates as one of the 

chief articbs offered for sale at Sw^li (Harris, I. 41 1 ) ; Mandelslo (163S) speaks of them 

ad * so famous m Europe' (Harris, II. 113) ; Ogilby (1670, Atlas, V. 210) says, six days 

from Cambay ia a mountain which produces camelians and chalcedony, and a league 

frnm i^roach is another chalcedony mine ; and Ovington(1690) cites them as one of the 

chief articlea of export at Surat. (Voyages, 218). Of eighteenth century travellers, 

Hamilton (1700-1720) mentions, among articles made at Cambay, stones for signets and 

r:ngB somo of them worth double their weight in gold, cabinets of stone, in some cases 

fourteen or fifteen inches long and eight or nine deep. Worth from £30 to £40, lx>wls 

;iiid spoons of several sizes, handles of swords, daggers, and knives, buttons and stones 

D^ set in snuff boxes of great value^ (New Account, I. 140, 145). Half a century later 

(tTdOl. TiciTirn thaler says that the white Katanpur agate, baked red at the mines, was 

if Bniachaod Cambay, worked into vases, little plates, basins, and other pieces, and 

" {ti in Surat and thence taken to Europe. He also notices Kapadvanj agates worked 

.'it Caml^ay intti diftcreut figures %nd made into vases, plates, and saucers. (Res. Hist. 

-t (•«og. #l€ rinde, I. 390, 392). About the same time, the author of the Mirdt-i-Ahmadi 

;T4S- 1762) mentions rings like those of Yeman, necklaces, cups, handles for knives, 
uhl daggen (Bird, 104). Towards the close of the same century, Forbes (1783) found 
t'.e 4^te nuinufacture a valuable part of Cambay trade. (Or. Mem. II. 20). 

* 1 tieee figures would seem to show that, during the present century, the agate 
tr^-ie bos not declined, a result at variance with the fact that the numbers engaged in 
i}*! trade have considerably fallen off. It is to be noticed that the beginning of the 
/vrtcify was a period of depression, as, in addition to the regular duty of £53 16«. 3d, 
iKi cent, ft 6X>ecial war cess of £17 Ss, M, was for som^ yeai-s imposed, making a total 

riargeoo manufactured agate stones of £71 5s. per cent. The trade fluctuates so 
£:«f4ly from year to year, that, without returns for a series of years, no certain results 
f^o be obtained. Ihe variations during the eight years ending 1878 were : 1871, 
f.*. 75,OS0 : 1872, Rs. 78,490; 1873, Ks. 98,840; 1874, Rs. 84,370; 1876, 
F... 90,790 : 1876, Ra. 53.160 ; 1877, Rs. 69,170; and 1%78, Rs. 50,970. Figures taken 

[Bombay Oaietteor 



Chapter 11. 





A certain quantity of the once famous black cloth, kdla kapda, 
is still made for export to ZanziMr in Africa, and to Mokha, Jadda, 
and other Bed Sea ports. Of black cloth there are three kinds, 
known in the trade a^ haddmi, garbhi, and mim judi, costiniT 
from 6«. to £1 4«. (Rs. 3-12) the piece of five yards long*aniJ 
one and a half wide. There is also a blue cloth called gulkhdr. 
Several kinds of sheets, chddaf, are made in pieces about two 
and a quarter yards long by one broad, and varying in price from 
4is. to I69. (Bs. 2-8). Scarfs, lungis (sometimes called namtdnus), 
are also made. The pieces, of the same size as ckddars, are sold 
at prices varying according to quality. Those worked with silk and 
tinsel fetch £1 (Bs. 10).* The only Cambay cloth still in request 
is that used for dhotis and sddia. This is woven almost entirely 
by Hindus of the Kanbi and S&lvi castes. The prices vary 
according to quality and breadth. 

Cambay carp'ets had once a great name. Among the articles 
mentioned in the proclamation of 1630, ' for restraining the excess 
of private trade to the East Indies', are 'rich carpets of Cambay/ 
Later on, a chief part of the Senior Factor's duty at Cambay was to 
buy carpets 'valuable in Europe'; and, in another place, Cambay 
carpets are spoken of as equal to any of Turkey or Persia. Though 
this trade has greatly fallen off, there are still four carpet factories, 
each paying the Nawab a yearly tax of £1 10«. (Bs. 15).^ 

Some Muhammadan women still earn a little by eml)roidering 
children's caps, but the weaving of brocade and cloth of gold haa 

Till lately (1880) the Cambay salt works contributed about one-sixth 
of the state revenue.* They lay inland, beyond the city walls, about 
two and a half miles from the head of the gulf. The pans, covering 
a space about two miles long, and on an average a quarter of a 
mile broad, were surrounded by a row of earthen mounds, gradually 
formed by the earth scraped from the pans. Formerly, at sprint^ 
tides, the sea water came up to this embankment, and by suitable 
cuttings as much water as was needed was easily obtained. 
Latterly, owing to the gradual silting of the gulf, the sprino> 
tides failed to reach the embankment, and, to got water, 

from the Honourable East India Company's yearly sales show that, at the be^nnm^ 
of the century, the fluctuations were even greater ; 1804, Rs. 49,140; 1805, Rs. a^.9(H» , 
1806, Rs. 17,470; 1807, Rs. 1,11,870; 1808, Rs. 54,240. Milbum's Oriental Cummerv-t-. 
I. 279. 

^ Tavemier (1651) speaks of silk, and silk and siWer and gold, carpets made for tlie 
most part in Gujarat. (Harris, U. 373). The dyes used in carpet-making are safflowvr. 
htmmba^ Carthamus tinctorius, Indian madder, Borangi^ and indigo, imported from 
M&lwa and Gujar&t. The cotton thread is washed in cold water, and then dipped 
several times in boiling castor-oil. It is next soaked in water in which madder 
powder has been steeped. The cost of dyeing red is £1 4<. (Rs. 12} for each 40pound« 
of thread, and the cost of indigo dyeing about 16«. (Rs. 8] for 40 pounds. Weavers 
are paid by piece-work at the rate of 2«. (Re. 1) for 16 square feet (4 square gat) ; and 
the carpets sell for 1«. 3d. to 2«. (10- 16 annas) every 2 square feet* 

' Besides the common salt, In the eighteenth century, the medicinal salt called 
9anch4il is said to have been made at Cambay, by boiling a gtMS called Tnorttwi m 
the manner usually followed in procuring the oxide of lead known as mnttidrxhuj 
(Mir&t-i-Ahmadi, 1748-1762, 105). SancKal or bit lalnin is generally said to b« made of 
mmur, an impure muriate of soda, and emblic myrobalans. Balfoar*s Cycloprvdla, 




trenches had to be dug from a quarter to one mile long. Since 
1878^ on receiving a yearly payment of £4000 (Rs. 40,000), the 
Naw6b has closed his salt works. He is still allowed, for the use of 
his court, to produce up to 500 Indian mavs of salt a year.^ 


Money-lending is chiefly in the hands of Vanias and Shrdvaks 
with a few BrShmans and Kanbis. For merchants the yearly rate 
of interest is usually from six to twelve per cent, and for cultivators 
it is nearly the same, with a further premium of one or two per 
cent. If ornaments are pledged lower rato^ are taken. 

When the Nawab is in want of money he obtains funds from the 
town bankers, who, if the loan is for only a short time, do not as a 
rule insist upon interest. If the loan is not paid for a long time, a 
low rate is charged, in no case more than nine per cent. The custom 
of presenting the lender with a sum of money or some articles of 
value at the time of repaying the loan, makes up to the banker for 
the low rates of interest. Large sums, raised on the occasion of a 
marriage or funeral in the Nawdb^s family, are generally repaid by 
assigning the revenues of certain villages. 

The Nawdb has a mint at which both silver and copper are coined. 
The silver coins are rupees, half rupees, and quarter rupees ; the 
ropper coins pice, half pice, and quarter pice. Both the silver and 
copper currency are of the rudest workmanship. The Cambay 
rupee is |^ of the Imperial coin, the present (1880) rate of exchange 
being twenty-five per cent in favour of the British currency. 

A comparison of the available price returns shows a most marked 
rise in the value of field produce. The 1878 prices were, by local 
failure of crops, forced up almost to famine pitch. But, though 
I87t5 was a year of plenty, prices ruled very much higher than in 
18 J6. 

Prices (Poundnfor two ShiUhiga). 










Bice » .. 
















Cotton (cleaned) 

8 to 10 



Tobacco .f. 




Chapter II. 

Muney Lending. 



» Gov. Res. 273, 13th Jan. 1880. Since 1802, the British Government have b 
half share in the profits of the Cambav salt works. , Before the days (1837) of 
excise the revenue was thus divided. The produce of each pan was piled into tw^ 
heaps, one tlie property of the makers, and the other, 4ialf the Nawab's and h 
British Govemment*8. The maJkers took away their share, and the reat wm 
British and Cambay officers. When the Imperial salt duty was firp^ 
after some objection, a$;reed to introduce into his territory the rr 
rieiglibtroriDg British districts, g 

B 561—27 




Cambat history is throughout little more than the record of the 
main e yenjte connected wifli its nhief tow n. It divides itself into 
three parta An early perio d lasting till U304) the final Musalmdn 
conquest of AnhilyMa;^ a middle period , about f olir hundred and 
thirty years (13O4JLZ20)f when Cam^y formed part of the Musalmdn 
kingdom and province of Gujar&t^ and a modem perio d^ from 1730, 
the record of Cambay as a distinct state. 

According to Dr, Biihler the ancient Sanskrit name of Cambay is 
Slambhatirth, 'the pillar shrine \ The modern Gujardti Khambh^yat, 
or Khambhit, is a corruption of ShamhluUirih^ atambh and skambh 
both meaning ^ pillar '. According to the phonetic laws of the Prikrit 
languages, initial sh is always changed to kh; rth becomes by 
assimilation tth,^ and medial t between vowels may be dropped. 
Thus the older Prakrit form was Khambhditthay whence, through the 
loss' of the final syllable and the change of i to ya, the Gujar&ti 
Kfiambho/yat, and, by a further contraction of the last two syllables, 
Khambhdt have been derived. What is meant by atambh, the first 
part of the name, is somewhat doubtful. The local legend that, in 
olden times, a copper pillar stood not far from the town gate, 
probablv grew out of the following passage in the Kumarika 

After Kumar's victory over Tarakasur, the grateful gods, 
admiring Guh with folded hands, spoke to him: 'We wish 
to tell thee something, listen. Of a truth it is reported since 
olden times, as a well known custom of conquerors, that those 
who overcome their foes, p]ace on the field of battle a sign of 
rheir victory. Hence a most excellent pillar, stambha, to celebrate 
thy victory (over Tdrakasur), we wish to fix ; thou shouldest permit 
U9 to do that, and the third excellent ling which Visvakarma 
wrought, do, thou, a son of Shiv, place in front of the pillar.' When 

Chapter III. 

The Name. 

' Anhilpur, Anhilv^a, or Nehrvdia the modem Pitan, north latitude 23P 4S' 
^ast toDffitude 72° 2', on the south bank of the Sarasvati river, 65 miles north -east of 

^ Compare the Jain titthayarsctirthankar. Dr. Biihler. 

^ Ctmiyakre BharukachcKfui=^Bharuch(Jiha==BhaHlch^ Dr. Buhler. 

* Rurairesh Mahitmya, Adhv&ya XXX. This KumArika Khand, a very bulky 
legend, mahdlmya, proteases to oe part of the Skand-Pur^n, and toeive the origin 
And history of too Kumdrika-Kshetra in general and of Stambha-tir& in particular. 
It has no historical value and has been written by persons who knew very little of 
Sunakrit. It may be from 400 to 500 years old. Dr. Biihler. 

[Bombaj GaMttcfr 



Chapter m. 


the gods had thus spoken^ highminded Skand gave his consent 
Then the crowds of the gods^ chief of wliom is Sakra, placed on tbp 
field of battle an excellent, brilliant pillar of pnre gold. Around ii 
they raised an altar of earth, adorned with all precions snbstanoe^ 
Joyfully the Apsar£s danced there. The mothers, full of gla(ljie<», 
sang songs of auspicious omen for Komdr. Indra and others 
danced there, and Vishnu himself played (the dram). From the sh 
fell showers of flowers, and the drums of the gods resounded. Wlien 
thus the pillar, called that of victory, which gladdened the wortii, 
had been erected, the son of three-eyed Shiv established the [Inj 
of the) divine Stambheshvar in company with the rejoicing god\ 
Brahma, Hari, Har, an^ Indra, and with crowds of sagv^s. To tli:> 
west of that, highminded Guh, with the point of his spear, dog a 
well. There Ganga rises from the ground. The man, son ot 
Pandu, who there perfonns funeral rites, pitriiarpan, on the eighth 
day of the dark^half of Mdgh (February), and bathes in that well, 
will surely obtain the reward attending the performance of a 
funeral ceremony, shrdddh, at Gaya. If he then worships the divine 
Stambheshvar with perfames and flowers, he will obtain the reward 
of a Vdjpeya sacrifice, and rejoice in Rudra's seat.' 

Dr. BUhler adds, ' I am not inclined to attach much weight t^ 
the reason by which the legend explains the fact that Shiy was 
worshipped at Cambay as Stambheshvar or 'lord of the pillar 
But it seems to me that the fact itself, which is also mentioned in 
other passages of the Kumarika Khand (III, 40), furnisheB a simple 
explanation of the name of the town. I believe that Siambh ffi««^^ 
be taken as one of the many names of Shiv, and that Stamlhiii^'^ 
means etymological ly ' the shrine of pillar-shaped Shiv *. Tliougo 
am not in a position to prove that Shiv received elsewhere the surname 
Stanibh, there are two circumstances which afPord countenance tc 
my conjecture. First, the usual symbol of Shiv, the ling, is ^^^^ 
older temples, such as those of Valla, nothing but a simple uex^- 
gonal or round pillar, and might not inappropriately be caWfi" •* 
atambh. Second, there is another very common name of Shn, 
sthdnu, the etymological import of which is likewise 'a post or p"l»^* 
These two points, coupled with the fact that Shiv was, and is, ^^^* 
shipped in Cambay as * lord of the pillar', incline me to translate 
the ancient name of the town as ' the shrine of pillar-shaped ^"'^! 
or Shiv Stambheshvar'. The other names of the town, Stambhavaii 
and Trambavati are, in my opinion, merely modern attempt* ^^' 
make a Sanskrit word out of the Prakrit form.^ Neither nAvn^ 
occurs in Jain or Br&hman writings of aqy antiauity. The Kuw^' 
rika Mahdtmya professes also to fix the date oi the foundation »^i 
the tirth. It informs us, in the third Adhydya, that the sage 
Narad received from a king of Saurashtra or Sorath, csU^ 

^ These names are not real Sanekrit The long a in Stambhdvati is inapprop'^^*'^^ 
and is due to the desire of its inventor to preserve the long vowel which occur» ||i 
Khambhit. Trambivati is a ihonster con8i»ting of the Gujar^ti trdtnbun 'copp^ ' !' 
which the Sanskrit affix ' vol ' has been added. It has probably been manttfActitnr*' 
by a lapihtm cnpul^ that required a support for the copiwr walls or copp^f P' "^ 
attributed by gome legeud? to the ancient town. Dr. Burner. 


CAMBAY. 213 

UlLarmavarina, a considerable present in money and a piece of land Chapter III. 

at the nioutb of the Mahi extending over seven gavyutis, or^ taking 

*be gavffuii at four thousand hasias, about twenty squ&ire miles. 

')*he Riahi earned this magnificent grant by the explanation of a * 

verag, whfch king Dharmavarma had heard recited by a Khavdni, 

• a voice wlxich did not proceed from a body,' and which had baffled 

ull native and foreign Pandits. In order to people his newly- 

aoniiired territory, N4rad went to Katapagr&m, a locality stated 

to be eitaated in Northern India near Keddmath, and where a 

lirgo colony of particularly learned and saintly Brahmans dwelt. 

lie persuaded a number of them to emigrate to his kshetra on the • 

Mahisagar, and miraculously carried then^through the aar on the * 

top of his staff.** 

The local story of Trambavati^ connects the city with the Gard- Legends. 

«1babins or Gardhabas, a dynasty supposed to have ruled in Western 

I udia in the early centuries of the Christian era/^ According to 

this legend, Gadhesing, a son of the god Indra, and one of the 

Ciandharvas or heavenly choristers, displeasing his father, was 

condemned, during the hours of day, to wear the form of an 

:n9. Wandering in this shape, he visited the country between the 

Mahi and the Sabarmati, and, falling in love with the daughter 

ni the chief, sought her in marriage. The chief agreed on one 

• audition, that, in a single night, the suitor should fence the city 

with a wall of brass. By morning the wall was finished, and ever 

after the ^pital was known as Trambdvati, or the abode of brass. 

I'Vom the marriage of the Gandharva with the chiefs daughter was 

born Vikram, the third king of that name, who ruled at Ujain in • 

Malwa about the middle of the fifth century A.D.* 

' Rum. VI. 46. This is, no doubt, a reminiscence of the settlement of Brahmans 
at C^unbav daring the reign of Mulrdj of AnhilvAda (942-997) of which an account 
\!i given below, p. 214. Tne drawback to the story in the MahiUmya is that kinff 
I >harmavRrraa of Sorath is not mentioned elsewhere. During the last two thousand 
yoara, Soratb has rarely been under independent princes. It was first (.315- 178 b.c.) 
a. -lependency of the Maurya kingdom, ruled by a governor living at Gimdr. Next it 
»»elongeJ to the Kshatrapas, or Sdkas (about 150 a.d.), and, between the second and 
• li^Uth centuries, first to the Guptas and then to the Valabhi kin^s. Only during the 
ogbth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries had Sorath kings of its own, who, accord- 
ing to the Jains, were Abhirs, and, according to their own account, Yildavs. Next, 
m the twelfth century, the province passed to the Chiilukyas of Anhilv&da, and, 
la«<tly, about the close of the thirtevith century, again to the YAdavs. Dr. Buhler. 

* Under the Valabhi kings (319-658) mention is made of a city at the mouth of the 
Mahi called Gajni. This, a place of consequence and one of the chief ports of the 
Umg^lom, is said to have been destroyed at the time of the final sack of Valabhi, an 
t*\ tot still undetermined, thoughjt probably took place during the seventh century. 
Ka^MiHa, L21. 

* \Yilson*8 Ariana Antiqua, 410. , . 

* Wilford (A«. Res. IX. 147-155 ; Prinsep'a Ant. I. 342) was inclined to trace in 
•'•13 Icj^end a reference to the visit (420-440) paid to India by Bahram V. of Persia 
• illeil I'ior or the wild-ass. This prince is supposed to have come to India to ^in allies 
«n hJR struggles with the Skythian tribe of Euthalites or White Huns, and is said to 
Itwc coimcctcd himself bv mamage with the house of the king of Kanauj, or, aa related 
'T. another version, with a chief whose territories lay near the mouth of the Mahi. 
^''corrljng to the latter account, Bahram Gor, when iiv India, founded a city near the 
iji'.Ul «»f hiH father-in-law. This town was called Gadhendrapuri, and from its name 

*r>i| pi>^ition, 'one day*« march north of Broach,' the lecrnd may perhaps have some 
•nnr ,ti.»o with the mined city of on the south bank of the Mahi. 

{Bombajr GatvtMr, 


Another le^nd telle of the fftll ot Trambavati and the (nnndinff 
of KhambiTati. lUja Abhi Kumir of Trambivati, wnrne<l '■> ""i'' 
that his town wuuld be biii-if>d in a etoru uf dasl and v.^i 
the idol and its pedestal^left his tvwn, and pat to ees. 
TOM, and thetuwn was overthrown, but by the pillar's help •■'■ ■> ■ 
ship came safe to land. Setting op tho idol he began lo build t, atj, ' 
and, after the pillar of the god, called it Khanibfivati.' 

The first historical references to Cambay are by the early Uni 
writers. At the be(finning of the tenth century, tho Arab tn 
\l^gydj <Q1:11 desfribea Cambay as standing on a deep hay tl 
tCa^liatof the Nile, the Tigris, dt the Euphratow, and with mtt 
c-entral a tide that when tt was low the sand was dry, and, evtm 
the channel, only a little water was left. The shores of t' 
were covered with towns, villages, farms, tilled lielda, trt 
cocoanat gai'dijjis full of peacocks, paroquets, and other ] 
birds.* The city^ famous for its sandals, was ^vemed by apj * 
named Bania, who niled in the name of the Balbara of 1 
and was full of care for Masalman traders and other stran^en.*! 

About the middle of the tenth century (0^2) the Cju 
conquered Anhilv&da. They spread their power over Bn; 
lauds at the mouth of the Mahi, aud the town of Cambay y 
their ports. Shortly before the close of bis reign (997), Bid 
tho founder of the dynasty, addod to the import.anoo of C 
by settling there a Brahman colony. One compivuy of Bri 
brought by the king from Upper India, refused to stay ih Od 
longingto return to the sacred banks of the Ganges. On coBfD 
the holy books, it was found that the spot where the Mnhi eBM 
the ocean was inferior in sanctity to no place upon earth. Hei* v 
agreed to settle, and tho lands known as the Kutndrika Kaht ' " 
field of Dovi, stretching for eight miles round a temple i 
that goddess, were assigned to them.' On tho site of this I 
stands the old Rnglish factory." Not long after (102*), l 


iot's Higtory, VI. 354. Colonel Tod jWestcrn ludi*. 247) relatH tl 

A imder ■ Bligbtly different form, A prince, fiiuliog the annent dly ni 

isidenco, probably from the ailtins of tbo head of the giilE, d*ti — 

I site, ^juain^ a piMa-r [nlhanMi nugo kliaiiib) to the goddew, ji.., 

■M-alioro, he wrote on it a snmt of the ancient town, with ei^hty-foiir villagN^fl 

retourcea were to be applied to the muntonuioe oE*Devi'E shrine. ' 

' Prftirieed'Or, I,2S3-254 Reinaud's Memoir Stir rind«, 221. All 

and Itoi Haiik&l (1193) also mention Gnmbay. Elliot's History, 1. 37, 30. 

' PrairioB d'Or, L 253-254. Misudi's Bolhara of Mankir is now gtnonlhM] 
to have been the lUthod ruler of MAlkh<>t intheNhlm'a dommioiu (OMfali 
17° enat longitude 77°). Hia territory atrelL'hud along the west coul h iMMn 

* Foi'bes' Ria M&iii.. 1. 40. ' Forbes' Ru MdU, L 

• Bom. Gov. SeL. New Series, XXVL 76, note. Thii settloBual C 
in ' the field of Devi ' would seem to itivp )>«en sccompuiicd, by tba ^ 

city from its former «it«, three miles iuliuid. In it* present t'^ *"' 

gulf. The legends oF the transfer srp, at loMt so far as i 

lupporteii by later aocouiits. 'Two European writer* in , 

( Do U Vat le, 1 623, and Ogilby, M70| notice, • league fn.m Carohiff. U 
town ' thti aiLctAnt rnval iieat ami i-fiiAf nifv nf Rnmtti ' Till* b«i ' 

royal aeat and chief city of Soroth." Thi* b 

uheca (Letters, 103) and Ogilby, Agra (Atlas, V, 2IS), 3o,tMLfl 
17'l8-lTeJ)(Vol, in.), write.: Tb-vsnylJiitinw ' 





liestmctioii of Soninathj Cambay became the chief Gujarat port, 

aud, with the growing greatness of Anhilvada rapidly rose in wealth 

nnd prosperity. By the middle of the twelfth century it was a 

well known naval station, fertile, and with ^ood trade, well supplied 

wirlu water and protected by a fine fortress.^ About the same 

rime montion is made of Pdrai. an d Musalm dn riots in Cambay. 

i^ne of the Musalmdns, whose lac tion was worsted, made his way to 

Anhilvada, and meeting the king, Sidhrdj Jaysing (1094-1143), 

hunting near his capital, complained to him that the Parsis and 

Hindus had attacked the MusalmdnSj killed eighty of them, and 

destroyed their mosque and minaret. To satisfy himself of the 

truth of the charge^ the king set off secretljionacamel^ ana, moving 

about Cambay under a disguise, heard enough to convince him that 

t he Musalmans had been badly used. On his return to Anhilv&da 

he sununoned two leading men from each class oft^e people of 

Cambay, Brdhmans, Fire-worshippers, and othei^'^(Jains), and 

ordered them to be punished. At the same time he made over to 

the Mufialm&ns money enough to rebuild their mosque and towers. 

About the end of the twelfth century, Jaysing's mosques were 

destroyed when the Bdla army invaded Anhilvada. They were again 

rebuilt by a certain Syed Sharaf Tamin, who made four towers 

>vith golden cupolas.*^ 

During the reign of Bhimdev I I. in the year 1241, Vastupal, the 
famous Jain minister of Bhim's steward Lavanpra sdd a nd of his son 
Kana Vir dhavaL was for some time governor of Cambay.^ He 
founded the religious institutions of the Jains, the Poshatas, and 
libraries of Cambay. This is distinctly stated by his friend the 
f-'urohit Someshvar, in the Kirti Kaumudi (IV. 30 seqq.), and is 
confirmed by the fact that the oldest MSS. of the Jain Bhandars 
date from the first half of the thirteenth century. He also built 
Jain temples, probably those whose stones were afterwards (1308) 
used to build the Jdma Mosque. 

Onder the Vaghplaa , the last of the Anhilvdda dynasties, Cambay 
continued to increase in importance. At the close of the thirteenth 
century the Musalman invaders knew of it as the first city in Hind. 
Nor were they disappointed. The writers are full of the beauty of the 
neighbourhood and the wealth of the city. The air was pure, the 
^•ater clear, and the country f harming both in scenery and buildings. 

Chapter XIII. 

The Pirsis, 

The Jaiu8, 
1241 • 1242. 

The V^ghel^, 

WM a ^reat city where the village pf Nagrah now is, three miles (1 } kos) from Cambay. 
This city was called Tamb&nagn, and its walls were of copper, and in support of this 
It is said that once, digging for a well, the workers found a copper brick (Major J. 
W. V(^ataon). With regara to the date of the transfer, it seems worthy of note, that 
while Ibn Haukal (943 - 96S), who wrote before Sidhr4j*s grant, places the town of 
Kambaya six miles (one parasang) inland (Elliot's History, I. 39), Edrisi (1163), who 
wrote alter tiie ^jant, places it only three miles from the sea (Jaubert's Edrisi, 171). 
Nagrah 'm mentioned by Briggs (1838) as a hamlet five miles north-west of the city. 
Cities of Gajar&shtra, 166. • 

» Janbert's Edrisi (1153), 172, and Elliot's History, 1.^84. 

* Mohammad Ufi (1211- 1236) in Elliot's History, II. 162- 164. where Bdla is sup. 
poaed to mean MAlwa. 

3 Kirti Ratmiudi. III. and Gim&r and Abu inscriptions. Dr. Biihler. Their dates 
show that the present Jain temples have been built since Vastup&rs time. 

[Bombay QazetUo 

Chapter III. 

Early Delhi 




The plunder was abundant and rich, gold, silver, precions st 
clothes both silk and cotton, stamped, embroidered, and coloured 
These praises are borne out by Marco Polo w ho, about the y. : 
1290, described Cambay ^s the chief city of a large country rdiI ti 
centre of a great trade.- 

Cambay's four hundred and thirty years under the Musalmati ml r 
of Gujardt include three periods. A hundred years {1300 - 1 H^ 
of active trade, but of much insecurity and disorder; slightly m - 
than a century and a quarter (1400-1530) of great wealth ^iuu 
importance; and two hundred years (1530-1780) of dechne, grown . 
disorder, ^axid failing "wealth. 

About 1301, o nly a few years after Marco Polo's (1290) n^j^ 
Cambay was captured by the troops of the Emperor Alftdldi^ii^ j^'''^^' 
(1295 .1315>kJ The city was plundered, the temples broken dowu. 
and the people^ slain without pity.' * A local governor was chost . 
and the city soon recovered. Ibn Batata, who visited Gujarat ■ n 
his way to China ( 1345) , found Cambay a very fine city, remark 
able for the elegance and strength of its mosques and hm'-^ 
built by foreign merchants, the chief part of its population.* ^^ 
1346, soon after Ibn Batuta's visit Gujarat rose in rebel lion again>: 
Muhammad Tughlik (1325-1351), and, in suppressing the revolt, 
Cambay was plundered by the Emperor's troops (1347). 1° ^ 
sec ond rebellion (1349), the city was sacked by the insurgents aii'i 
afterwards besieged by the Emperor. • 

1 Elliot's History, IH. 43, 163. „ ^ . , 

2 Yule's Marco Polo, II. 332. Polo's contemporary Marino Santito caUs Cjjh w\ 
one of the two chief ports of India (Ditto). Muhammad Ufi's story (p. 215) of the Mhw 
m&n and Sidhr&j Jaysing shows that, about the beginning of the twelfth ccntnry. ^^ 
P&rsis were one of the most important classes in Cambay. Captain Robertfton l» • • 
in his account of Cambay (Bom. Gov. Sel., New Series, XXVI,), supplies some of w 
of the Cambay Pdrsis as well as of the improvements in the city introduced ^\ 
Kaliinrii. Captain Robertson gives no dates, and nothing further has been u^ ' 
regarding the period to which his narrative refers. Some of the Persia, who, 'JJ^ ^j '^ 
arrival in India (636), had remained in the south of Gujarat, were attracted to • 
settlement (942-997) in Kumdrika KtJiHra at the mouth of the Mahi. The first con»^' 

refuge ,.^y. 

a short time, by trading in pearls, he made a lArge fortune. Bringing a '^"""^'thc 
band of Rajputs and KoTis, he, in the night, attacked the Pdrsis, put many ^ ' 
sword, and set fire to their houses. The rest took to flight, and not a PArsi wm Jo ^^ 
seen in Kumdrika Kshetra. Kali4nr&i then formed the design of building * ^^^1^ 
the ruins of the P&rsi town. By restoring order, bhilding reservoirs, unpronH ^^ 
defences, and favouring trade, Kaliimrdi brought many weal^y men to ^^^,^j 
Cambay. So successful was his management tliat he received the voluntary bom^g^ * 
eighty-four villages, the Cambay Cfiordsi, 

* If this ii Sarat and not Sonth, KAliAor&rs dftt« can hardly have been before tbe 

fourteenth century. . ■ 

'The chief Cambay mosque, the Jiima Mosque, built from the remaina of J^' 
temples bears the date 1308. . 

* fcliot*s History, III. 43. An^count of the booty found in Cambay is given un^n 
the head "Trade**. » 

^ About this time there was in Cambay a Musalmiin of considerable power /ut<^ ""^' * 
named Shaikh Ali Haid&ri, who made manv predictions for merchants and seat^f|"l!'' 
men, and they in return made him many offerings, Lee*8 Ibn Batuta, 146, 164 • ^ ^"^ ^ 
Marco Polo, II. 333. 




At the close of the fourteenth century (1391)^ on his being Chapter III. 
appointed to supersede Rasti Khfa j Cambay sent a deputati on to History. 

Nago r in Jodhpur to wait on the new governor Zafar Kh an and 
^ek his favour and protection. On Zafar ^hdn's' death (1411) a ^^'^^^'jf!^^ 
partj of nobleSj leaguing to oppose Ahma d J. ( 1411 - 1443)^ took 
i.'ambay. Failing to collect a force sufficient for the defence of 
the city they retired on Broach. Here they met with no better 
success, andj shortly after, by the submission of its leaders, the 
ivvoJt came to an end. Ahmad's active care for the trade and 
naval strength of his kingdom greatly enriched Cambay. At the 
closo of his reign it was a very noble city, twelve miles roiyid.^ Z • 

During the next eighty years of strong and successful rule, 
especially under Mahmud Begada (1459 - 151 3), who, even more than 
Ahmad L, fostered its navy and trade, Cambay reache(| its greatest 
gfloTy. In 1514 its houses were of stone and wliitewjiiS^ handsome, 
and very lofty. The streets and squares were large and the country 
ricli, fertile, and full of provisions. There were many craftsmen 
and mechanics, subtle workers after the fashion of Flanders : weavers 
of ootton, plain and dyed, fine and coarse ; weavers of silk and velvet ; • 

makers of delicate articles in ivory ; skilled embroiderers, silver- 
smiths, and workers in coral and precious stones. Its people, well 
fed and well dressed, led easy lives, spending much of their time in 
pleasure and amusement. Drawn in oxen and horse carriages lined 
irith rich silk and stamped kid skin mattresses, cushions, and pillows, ^ 

with bands of musicians playing instruments and singing songs, 
festive parties were continually passing through the streets on their • 
way to the rich gardens and orchards outside of the city walls.* 

From the beginning of the sixteenth cpntury the trade of Cambay 
suffered at the hands of the^.P^xt^J^p^ese. Many of its former marts 
on the coasts of Africa and Arabia were, destroyed and much of the 
traffic with the south coast of India and the islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago was lost. Later on, with the defeat of its navy 
(1528-29), the plunder of its ports (1530-31), and the loss of Diu 
(1536), the chief profits of the great commerce of Gujarat passed 
from local merchants to strangers. In 1535 the Emperor Humayun, 
in bis pursuit of Bahadur, arriving at Cambay too late by only a 
few hours, rested for some days. During his stay, his camp was 
robbed by a body of Kolis, %nd in revenge the city was pillaged. 
Three years later it was, with little resistance and the loss of only 
twenty-two wounded, ta^von by the Portuguese captain Don Joao da 
Castro. Most of the Moor* were killed and the city was.plundered 
and burnt. So great was the booty that the ships could not hold it. 
Cambay was then the richest city on the west coast. From supply- 
ing cloth to the whole of the east and great part of the west it was 
called by the Indians the garment of the world.* 




' Nicolo de Conti ( 1420-1444) in Major's India in the XVth Century, XL 5, 20. 

' Stanley's JMrbosa, 60. Barbosa's travels probably laAedfrom about 1501 to 1517. 
Re viaited CanlBay'only a short time after the death of Mahmud Begada (1513), 57. 
Diu waa then the port of Cambay and the chief emporium of trade. 

*Prim. Rot des lodes, 116, Vita de Jo&o Castro, 42-45, and Die. Hist, Expl. 
11848). 20. , 

n 561—28 




Chaptor XIII. 




In the general disorder of tlie next forty yean Oambdy 
from^^^oe'^nEimej handed £rom one to the other of thJe 
almost independent nobles. In the partition of Gnja r^t^ during tL^ 
minority o f Ah mad IT. (1554 - 156 1), Uambay, withPlfctan, Chorasi, 
Dholka, GogEaTand'JJuancLJtiuKa, were assigned toSjSdMnbaiak. 
Shortly after (1560), on his defeat and death, tBeSyeTs^lates 
were seized by the regent ItimddHbij^ Again, in 1571, in con- 
sequence of his victory OTOr^fimSra^Lh&n, Cambay fell into the 
hands of Ghmge|j^^})an, son of Im&d-nl-Mnlk Bnmi, and was by 
him grante^toms^mother. This gift was the cause of Chaiigt:s 
Kh&n's death. BijUKhin, an Abyssinian commander, claiming a 
previous promiseod^TSmbay, slew Changez Khan (1572)^ and 
Cambay again became part of Itim&d Khto ^s possessions* 

In 1573, Cambay, then yielding a yearly revenue of £40,000 
(Rs. 4,00,008ij^a88ed under the Emperor Akbar. Visiting the dt y, 
and amusing himself by sailing on the gulf,^XE]^ brought weaven 
and other skilled workmen, and founded two sul^iarbs, caUing one 
after himself and the other Sikandar or Shakkarpura.' Though, b; 
lowering trade and transit dues, Akbar increased the prosperity of the 
province, Cambay was, from time to time, unsettled by the move* 
ments of insurgent bands, and was thrice attacked and pillaged. 
In 1573, Akbar's cousin and rival, Mirza Muhmmad Husain,' 
-advancing suddenly from Kh4ndesh^ surprised Broach and Cambay. 
Ten years later (1583), during the rebellion of Muzafar, the last of 
the Ahmedabad kings, Said-ud-daulat, the servant of ona Kahanrai 
^of Cambay, collected ^oops, seized Cambay, and held the city for 
-some time (1583-84).^ Again in 1606, Muzafar's son Bahadur, 
' proclaiming liberty and laws of good fellowship/ sacked and held 
Cambay for fourteen days.' 

In 1583 the English made their first attempt to open a trade 
with India. Three merchants, Fitch, Lee des, and N ewberry, with 
letters from Queen Elizabeth to ^bar *King of Cambay', started 
for Gujarat by way of the Persian Gulf. Reaching Ormuz in aaf et j 
their efforts to trade were at first successful. But they were soon 
seized by the Portuguese, imprisoned, and carried to Goa. Escaping 
from Goa, Fitch traded in India for*some time, but none of them 
carried out the original scheme of visiting Cambay.* 

About the same time (1585) the Venetian traveller Cags ar 
Frederic found Cambay a fair city, ol such trade as he coulTnot 
have believed possible if he had not seen it.^ Daring one of his 

. J _ 

1 Bird's Mir&t i-Ahmndi, II. 312. In the Ain i.Akb«ri (1590) (Okdwm, L 238). tb* 
Tevenue is returned at about £50,000 {ddtM 2,01,47,986). 

« Roberteon in Bom, Gov. SeL (New Series), XXVI. 55. 

' This was one of the Mirzis whose revolt irorti 1671 to 1573 earned Akbar ao mnch 

« Bird's Mirdti-Ahmadi, 366. 

» Finch (1608-1612) in Ken^s Voyages, VIII. 275, 302. 

< Fitch in Hakluyt's Voyages. IL 375 - 402. Thanks chiefly to the fame of Mahmud 
Begada, Ehiropean writers ki*the sixteenth century used Cambay in the aenae of India. 

7 Cesar Frederic was in Cambajr twelve yean after Akbar*s conquest, that is. in 
1585. Hakluyt's Voyages, II. 344. ' No other notice of the famine to which ht rtUvt 
baa been traced, unless it was in 1590, when, at the dege of Junlgad, tbeOnjarit 
troops were mu^ diatresaed«for want of grain. 




visits, the city waa m so great calamity and scaroenesB tliat the 
Gentfle people broaght their sons and daughters, and asked the 
Portngaese to buy them, offering them for ten to thirteen shillings 
a piece.* 

Elcept the first few years, Cambay was, during the whole of 
the seyenteenth century, free from pillage or disturbance. Its 
manuSctures maintained much of their importance, but the honour 
of being the chief Musalm4n port of Gujar&t was gradually passing 
to its Tonnger rival Surat, The old trade route through Cambay 
and Ahmedabad north by mount Albu was, for the time, closed by 
the disturbed state of Marw ar and Bajputana j Deccan warsTkept the 
Imperial head-quarters in the south of Hindustan, in Kh&ndesh, and 
in the Deccan; and the increase in their size, and the growing 
shoalness of the head of the gulf, made the mouth of the T&pti a 
safer anchorage for European ships. In 1608 Can^M^ had still a 
toppii^ trade for all sorts of cloth and rich drugs. ^Often near the 
city were as many as two hundred small Portuguese grabs and 
frigates.* The Dutch established themselves in_1617, and in 1623 
had a large and thriving factory.' The English, m 1613, gained 
leave to start a factory, and in 1616 were strong enough £b have the 
Portuguese dismissed from the town.* 

Shortly after the beginning of the seventeenth century (1611), the 
English traveller Fiach describes Cambay as compassed by a strong 
brick^ wally with high and handsome houses forming straight paved 
streets, each with a gate at either end. De la Yalle, who was in 
Cambay in 1623, though he says little of the trade of the city or 
of the wealth of its people, gives the impression of considerable 
prosperity. The suburbs, stretching far beyond the town, were 
adorned by reservoirs, especially by one beautifully built with a 
flight of marble steps. There was a hospital with rooms, where 
men and women suffering from incurable diseases were lodged,' 
and wards for aged and infirm animals. Ogilby's account, about 
fifty years later (1670), is interesting, though in some details 
incorrect. The ci^, twice as big as Sursit, was surrounded by a 




1 HAkIayt'6 Voyages, 11. 344. 

« Finch (1608-1612) in Kerr's VoyMes, VIH. 308. 

* De U Valle'B Letters, 64-68. According to some accounts the Dutch had a 
Uctory at Cambay as early as 1604, but Stavorinus (IIL 107) gives 1617. They 
would seem to have closed their factory before 1670. 

« Sir T. Roe in Kerr's Voysges, I,X. 315. 

' This is probably correct, as Forbes (Oriental Memoirs, II. 18, 19) speaks of it as a 
brick walL Mandelalo (1638) talks of a handsome wall of cut stone (Travels, 101 • 108), 
Ogilby (1670, Atlas* V. 213) of a double stone wall, andBaldseus (about 1680, GhurchiU, 
ir'L 506) of • triple wall. Thevenot (about 1666, Voyages, V. 36), a more careful 
c-bsenrer, gives some furtiier details. The town walls were beautifully built of brick 
about four yards hij^ and with towers at intervals. The Governor had a castle, large 
bat not beautiful. The houses were built of sunburnt bricks. Outside of the town 
were many fine public gardens and a marble tomb built bv a king of Gujarit to the 
memoiv of a governor of Cambay. Mandelslo (1638) asd fialdseus (1680) both speak 
of Cambay as twice the size of Surat 

* De U Valle's Letters, 68. This part of the instructionB contained in the second 
of Asoka's edicts is not at present carried out in any of the aniaoal hoBpitala in 

[Bombay Qu/el^mT. 



Chapter III. 

The Moghals, 


The English, 

double stone wall* with twelve gates. In the middle were thr€*e 
great market places and fifteen pleasant orchards with fonr 
pools supplying water all the year round. The streets were straij^ht 
and broad and locked e^ery night by a great pair of gates. Thi* 
houses, partly brick partly freestone, were very moist and very cool. 
In England they would be accounted mean, yet they were the 
in the country, covered with tiles, and having gutters for the rain 
water. Outside of the walls were great suburbs the chief ornament 
of the city. Though many ships came from all places, the haven 
was of no consequence, only a bare road. Ships of burden were 
forced t(j lie a good distance from the shore. Small vessels could 
anchor at high water close before the city, but at low water they 
lay dry. The tides at Cambay were exceeding swift. The 
flood rushed so furiously that no horse could outrun it, and rys^ 
to its full ttnght in a quarter of an hour.^ About the same tho?, 
Tavernier (164&-J666) states that a bank of silt, about a mile 
and-a-half broad, had formed between the town walls and the water, 
and that great ships could come no nearer than from nine to twelve 
miles.^ Towards the close of the century (1695) the Italian traveller 
Gemelli Careri, though he says it had lost much of its splendour and 
magnificence, found Cambay a large and rich city.» 

Early in the eighteenth century Cambay had further declined. It 
was (1720) still a place of good trade, contributing much to the 
wealth and grandeur of Surat, the chief centre of commerce. But 
it ' was harassed by the Pdtaners, mostly horsemen and bold fellows 
who borrowed round sums from the city by way of compulsion.'* 
The Rajputs and Kolis plundered even to the gates, and sometime^ 
surprised the city itself, for which neglect the governors' heads 
answered. In 1716 they were very bold and presumptuous, bo 
that a stop was put to the trade of Ahmedabad and Cambay. 
The Governor of Surat * raised an army of 20,000 men to chastise 
and restrain them. But they laid so many ambuscades that in two 
months the army was reduced to less than half, and the rest were 
obliged to get home with sorrowful hearts to Surat.® 

The English were the only Europeans who kept a factory at 
Cambay after the close of the seventeenth century.^ The history of 
the English at Cambay, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, 

1 Atlas, V. 213. « Tavernier in Harris, II. 363 

2 Gemelli Careri in Churchill, IV. 188. According to tliis traveller the caxxae uf 
Cambay *8 decline was two-fold, the disorders that had overtaken the ci^ since tlic- 
Portuguese ceased to govern it, and the silting of the gulf. Gemelli is mistaken about 
the Portuguese. They never held Cambay. 

* These are probably the Kdthis, called Pitaners, from the city of Dev or Muo^t 
Fdtan (north latitude 2(f 55' east longitude l(f 2V) on the south-west coast of th«- 
peninsula. P&tan, on the south point of Verikval harbour, had withio its wolU th^- 
famous temple of Somn&th. 

» This was Haidar RuU KhAn who afterwards was (1721-1V22) Slst Viceroy, In 
1716 when appointed both toC^ambay and Surat, he chose Surat for himself, and sent 
a deputy to Cambay. 

' Hamilton's New Account of Hindustan, 1. 145. 

^ It seems doubtful whether the English had a factory between 16(K) aad 1700. 
See Macpherson's Commerce, ^63. 




runs in mofit respects parallel with the history of their larger 

estAbliahment at Surat. At both places there were the same 

aonojancea and obatmctions. Both were subject to the oppression 

of Moghal governors, and were harassed on land by lawless 

Masatlms, and at sea by no less lawless Kolis and Rajputs. In 1 720 

Mr. Wyard, the Resident, suffered much from the extortions 

of the Muhammadan governor, and in 1725 the whole city was 

threatened with destruction by two rival Maratha armies, under 

Pilaji Oaikw^r and Kantaji K^dam. At PiMji's approach the country 

people flocked in alarm to Cambay. Following them, he demanded 

£^0^000 (Rs. 5,00,000), and when payment was refused he set 

fire to the suburbs. Soon after Kanti6ji came, claiming sole 

power to levy contributions, and offering Pilaji £2000 (Rs. 20,000) 

if he would leave. Refusing to leave, Pilaji was attacked and 

defeated. Then Kantaji demanded a contributii^ of £11,000 

(Rd. 1,10,000), of which the English share was to be^ESOO (Rs. 5000). 

Mr. Daniel Innes, the Resident, remonstrated, pleading the privileges 

of trade and the exemption from all payments conceded to the 

English by Sh&hn Raja. At this ' the armed villains laughed ' . But, 

after receiving the first instalment of £50 (Rs. 500), they were forced 

to leave and nothing more was paid. The followers of Hamid Khan, 

the Mnsalmin governor of Ahmedabad, next appeared before Cambay, 

levying £3500 (Rs. 35,000) on the town, and demanding £100 

(Rs. 1000) from the Resident. ' The first time they went back with a 

putroff/ ^Brites Mr. Innes, ' and the next with a flat denial, and I have 

not heard from them since, further than that the governor and the 

geejnm^ fellow here has advised them to desist. They are but two 

hundred men, and I am under no manner of apprehension'. The 

governor then locked and sealed the English warehouses. This 

meaaoie Mr. Innes counteracted by menaces and two cases of spirits, 

'more effectual than money in subduing Musalman greed*. The 

seals were removed, and the eccentric Resident, a month later, 

replies to the congratulations of his superiors with this counter-hint, 

' I shall have regard to your hint of the governor being dry : though 

I have quenched his thirst at my own charge too often for my 

pocket'.* After Ahmad Khan's followers left, a new deputy was 

appointed on promise of sending £9000 (Rs. 90,000) to Ahmedabad. 

This sum had to be wrung from the people of Cambay, and no 

sooner did the unhappy merchants and shopkeepers hear of his 

approach than they hid themselves, or made their escape to the 

neighbouring villages. For six days not a man was seen in Cambay, 

though the governor threatened, unless the people came back, to give 

over the dty to pillage. 

The power of the Moghal Viceroys declined so gradually that it 
is difficult to say in what year Cambay was established as a distinct 
atate. Its independence seems to date from about 1730, when Mirza 
Jafir Najam-ud -daul&h was appointed |)aymaster to the troops, 
reporter on Grujarat, and governor of Cambay. This Mirza Jafir was 

Chapter III. 

The M»ghal8, 

The English, 

The Naw4li4» 

' Creenim. for ghanim robber, used of the Maratha agent. 
» Sural Diaries, 1720-1726, in Bom. Quar? Rev. III. 73-75. 

[Bombay OaMtfeMr, 



Chapter lU. 

The NMTibs, 

Mina J&fir 


a Persian of the N ajam-i-Sfaii famil y, a descendant of one of the 
aeven^ SisterB of Sh^h Ismail Safcivi ( 1 500)> ^^ing of Persia. Coming 
to Gujarat a poor man, the Viceroy Mub4riz«aloMalk (1723-1730), in 
1725, with the title of Najam-ad-daal4h, placed him in command of 
Petl&dj about sixteen miles north of Cambay. Soon after he received 
iS^IBSriage the d aughter of Momin Khan Dehlamii minia ter of 
G ujarat and agent fSfTSmBSyanSTSufaT'^''^ 

In 1 730. Chimn aji A ppa, the brother ol Peshwa Bajirao I., 
demanded rromTTambay a contribution of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000), 
exacted nearly £20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000) from PetUd, and ruthlessly 
plundered^Dholka. The trade and city of Cambay were threatened 
with ruin. What the Mardthis left the Musalmdns tried to extract. 
Another Mar&tha visit was (1 733)- followed by a second Mufialmin 
levy so oppressive that bankers and merchants closed their shops and 
left the city.^Swo years later (1735) the Mardth&s demanded half 
of the custon)3 revenue, threatening, in case of refusal, to lay waste 
the city with fire and sword.* 

For two years after his father-in-laVs death (1730), MiRa 
J4fir Najam-ud-daulah remained in charge of Petlad. In 1 7S0> in 
consequence of some misunderstanding with the Vicero y, he r etired 
t o Delh i. Well received at court he returned in the same year (1/30) 
to Gujarat with the Mahdraja At)hay8ing> the new Vic eroy, Htrea 
Jdfir did the Mah&raja good service, inducing Mubans-ul-Molk the 
late Viceroy to retire from Gujar&t without a struggle. In reward, 
he was made paymaster of the troops, reporter on Gujardt and 
governor of Cambay, and the management of the lands near Cambay 
was entrusted to his cousin Fida-ud-din Kh4n. For a time Mirza 
Jdfir held Petl&d in farm. But disputing with the Viceroy, he was 
forced to give it up. In 1733, in consequence of Mula Muhammad 
Ali^s disturbances,^ Mirza Jafir was ordered to take charge of Sorat, 
But his agent foiling to take it, the city remained in the hands of 
Tegbakht Khan. 'At Cambay Mirza Jafir was nearly ind^ ende nt. In 

^ This Momin Khiln Dehlami, a deecendant of the Dehkmite kinn of Feraia 
(932) is said, like his son-in-law Mirza J&fir, to have owed his advance to we patno&aflc^ 
of Mub&nz-ul-Mulk Sarbuland Kh4n. Through the influence of that nobfomaoL, ne 
was, in 1714, appointed from Delhi to be agent for Surat and Cambay, aild at the aaine 
« , « . ^ Jiadi4d. 

" Iha 

time was put in chaive of the districts of Baro da, Broach, Dhollu k PgdfUi an^ H ad 
Placing deputies in tne other districts, 'Momin 'Kh^ Dehl^i reservearorhnSelf 

he was in a position of so much power that, in the disorders caused by the lurikti^ 
inroads, he is said to have aimed at independence. On the removal of Ajttsmff (1721), 
Momin Kh&n again lost his command. But, in 1722, Asaph Jib Ni2Am»al*MtiUk (SSkid 
Viceroy, 1722) for a third time chose him governor of Surat. In the following ftta 
(1723) Momin Khin attempted, but without success, to resist Pil&ji QAikwIir in an 
attack on Surat In spite of this reverse he was soon after, by the appointment of 
Mub4riz-ul-MuIk (53rd Viceroy, .1723.1730), chosen minister, diwdn. About 17^ 
Momin Kh4n gave. Mirza *Jifir his daughter in marriage. For two years more Momio 
KhAn Dehliom continued to adf as minister, and apparently as agent at Cunhay and 
Surat. He died in 1728 (Robertson, 58, gives lv2$), and was buried in Cambay. 
where, in 1812, his tombstone was still to be seen. 

3 Letters from the Resident at Cambay, 1730- 1786. 

3 Details are given in the Surfct Statistical Account. Bombay Gazetteer^ II. tlO, 11 1 




1 732, wben the Viceroy left^ be treated Batansing the deputy Viceroy 
with little respect^ and in 1734^ when ordered to relieve Baroda^ he 
withdrew, and left the city to fall into the 64ikw&r^s hands (1 734) . In 
the &)lIowiiig year (1 735) the Viceroy suspected Mirza Jdfir of secretly 
helping Sohr^b Khan to gain Viramgam*; and, so strong was the 
ill-feeling between them^ that Mirza J6fir^ afraid of assassination, 
withdrew to Cambay. Soon after (1636), engaging a Mar&tha force 
oeor Cambay, he was defeated and compelled to retire within the 
walls, where he remained in spite of Batansing's orders to help him 
against the Mar&thas. Ratansing, in return^ made over Petlad, 
Arhar-Mdtarj and Nadi&d to Sher Khdn, one of the B&bi family. 
Mirza Jafir was nmking ready to resist thia transfer^ whetfj with the 
title of Najam-ud-daulah Momin Kh&n Bah&dur Firoz Jang, he 
was (1737) appointed Viceroy. Opposed by Ratansing and the 
Jhaloris, Momin Kh&n was forced to seek the help of t&e Mardthfis. 
Snmmoning Bangoji^ he promised that, if they wire successful, he 
woald make over to the Marathds one-half of the Gujarat revenue, 
except the receipts from Ahmedabad and Cambay. Very shortly 
after (1737) Abhaysing was again chosen Viceroy. At the same 
time Momin Kh&n was told that the appointment of Abhaysing was 
nominal, and that the Emperor wished Momin Kh4n to persevere in 
expelling Abhaysing and his adherents. Momin Kh&n, accordingly, 
appointing his son-in- law Najam Khdn^^ ^governor of Cambay, 
advanced against Ahmedabad, and, with the aid of his Mar&tha allies, 
after a iiege of nine months, captured the city.^ During most 
of the five following years Momin Khdn*8 heewi-quarters were in 
Ahmedabad. But in 1741, he visited Cambay, and took what steps 
be conld to prevent its decline. In JJ^ti^Iomin Kh^n^died. 

As a temporary measure, he was succeeded in the government of 
Gojar^ by Fida-ud-din Khan his reputed brother, and Muftdkhir 
Khan his son. In the following year (1743-44) Muftakhir was 
formally ap pointe d Viceroy. Failing to hold his own against Jawdn 
Mard Kb&n and other members of the Babi family, he was forced 
to retire to Cambay. Here, along with Fida-ud-din Kh&n, Najam 
Khin, and Rangoji, plans were discussed for an attack on Ahmedabad. 
In return for his alliance, Rangoji, on the G^ikwar's behalf, demanded 
one-half of the Cambay revenues in addition to those of the rest of 
Gujarit granted by Momin Khan in 1737. Muftakhir Kh4n and his 
party at first refused ; but Rangoji, bringing an army close to the 
city, made them agree, and advance him a further sum of £8000 
(Rs. 80,000).' These schemes against the B^bi coming to nothing. 

Chapter III. 

'This Kaj«m Khin wm Zimal Abedin Najam Khin, » descendant of the 
Kajam-i-S&nJ family. He ffovemed Cambay for about eleven years, and in 1748 was 
poisoned by his brother-inTaw MuftAkhir Khin (Momin Khin II.) 

* Maritba help was dearly bought. Kangoji in the first instance promised to 
aid Momin KhAn on condition of receiving one* half of the revenues of Gujarit^ 
except the cities of Ahmedabad and Camfiiy. Afterwardt; Ratansing made more 
teiDpting offera, and^ to bind JSangoji to his cause, Momii? Khiln was forceid, in addition to 
bis original concessions, to make over to the Mardthis the whole district of Viramgim. 

' According to the account given in the Surat Diaries, Rangoji sat down before 
Cambsy with twenty thousand men, and from this time, although obliged to take less, 
the MftrAthif claimed half the revenue of the city. On the occasion of the Maritha 

The liawdbs, 

Najam Khdn, 



IBombaj Gaiettaor, 



Chapter III. 

The Nt^&bs, 

EngUth Factory, 


MuMkhir Kb&n for five yearg remained in Cambay. From time to 
time he tried to enforce his right to be Viceroy, but his attempts 
failing, he instead determined to gain possession of Cambay, Willi 
this object he procured the death of his brother-in-law Najam Khan, 
who, since 1737, had managed the city. • 

In these troubles the English factory suffered many exactions. 
In 1737, Momin Khin, pressed by the Mar&thas for the price of their 
alliance, extracted from Cambay a sum of £15,000 (Rs» 1,50,000^. 
Attempting on one occasion to wring a contribution from Mr. Hodges, 
the English Resident, he was at first bought o£E by the present of a 
fowling pi&ce. He then wanted to buy silk, iron, and sugar to the value 
of £3000 or £4000 (Rs. 30,000 - 40,000), This too the Resident 
managed to evade. But he was not always so successful, and had 
from time to iime to pay large sums.^ In 1 735, the Company suffered 
from a contest {between Daniel Innes and Hugh Bidwell, who had 
been appointed to succeed Innes as Resident. Raising a mob^ Innes 
tried to force Bidwell from the factory. Failing in this, he induced 
the Nawab to bring charges of incompetency against him, and, in 
consequence, Bidwell was removed and Munro sent in his place. 
The change did not benefit Innes, who was forced to retire to Surat, 
In 1741 the Nawdb forbade the exportation of indigo, and seized 
some property belonging to Lambton, the chief of Surat, who had 
disregarded his order. This act was declared an infringement of 
the English Company's privileges, and some grabs were ordered to 
seize Cambay boats. On this the Naw6b speedily came to terms. 
The same process of capturing boats was, in 1748, with simil^ir 
results, adopted by Sewel the next Resident.' 

Though trade was gradually deserting Cambay, the eleven years 
(1737-1748) of Najam KhAn's management seem to have been fairly 
prosperous. The Viceroy was interested in Cambay ; and, as noticed 
above, in 1741 paid it a special visit with the object of inquiring 
into the causes of its decay. During the years (1743- J 748) thai 
followed Momin Khan's death, though the Cambay revenues were 
from time to time .burdened by Maratha demands, the city was 
never attacked, nor - its neighbourhood laid waste. The suburbs 
founded by Akbar were still inhabited, and the other nine quarters 
beyond the walls continued to support skilful and well-to-do crafts- 
men. At the same time the revenues h&d fallen off, and, in spite of 
the levy of fresh taxes,^ the total receipts were not more thau 

advance, the Nawib insisted that some of the bastiona should be defended by Ui« 
English Residents He succeeded in mustering a native officer and five peoos, but 
the courage of the little party was not tried. The invaders, unprepared to batter 
stone walk, satisfied their revenge by cutting off th^ ears and nosfes ot all ^Iasalm4aft 
on whom they could lay hands. Surat Diaries, 1743-1746, in Bombay Quartt*rl> 
Review, IV. 2,31. 

» Bom. Quar. Rev. IV»i233. « Surat Diariefl. 1741 .1743. 

^ Najam Kh^n was the firsi ruler of Cambay who taxed min. Every cart-Kuu! 
was charged 6d, {4 as.) For some time the cultivators succeeded in avoiding the weictii 
of this cess by increasing the cart-load from I2S0 lbs. (32 niftn«) to 2400 poumh 
(32-60 mans). When Najam Khdn found this out^ he changed the tax to oiic ot 
3 pice on every 5 mafts. Robei^oUi 65. 




£40,000 (Rs. 4,00,000). At the close of 1750 (December) the 
Jesuit Father TieSenthaler found Cambay governed partly by a 
Mardtha D&msqi, partly by a Moghal. The Moghal paid the 
Emperor no tribute because he could keep from the Mar&thds 
and, the savage Kolis hardly enough for himself and his garrison. 
The city, though much fallen from it& former state, was very 
large^ girt with bastioned walls more than a Grerman mile round. 
It^ streets were narrow and dirty, its market place small and 
mean, and many of its high but dingy brick and cement houses 
were rained, and others threatening to fall. The only objects of 
interest were two mosques, one of cut stone very beautiftil; the 
Governor's house; and the English factory* To the nortn joined to 
the city walls was a fortified suburb about 500 yards rcfcind with a 
broad gate. This was ruined and almost without an inhabitant. Most 
of the people were Hindus; the rest, except 200 ^^rsis, were 
i^lusalm&is. The English brought various warea from Bombay 
and sent away cotton goods. These goods, woven in considerable 
quantities inthe villages round, were of a special make much in demand 
in other countries, even in Europe. The only other industry was 
the manufacture of salt. Only small one-masted craft could come to 
Cambay, and even they, except in the rains and at very high springs 
when they could reach the walls, had to stop half a mile from the 
city. Seven years earlier the tide dashed in with such speed 
that a horseman at full gallop could hardly outrun it. Now (1 750) 
the tide set against the east, shore of the gulf, but at Cambay 
came so afowly and quietly as to give no great shock to vessels at 

On hearing of Najam Kh^^n^s death , the Delhi (Jovernment 
confirmed MuftAkhir Khto m th e cbiefs hip of Cambay, dignifying 
him with the title of ^ur-nd -dm Muhammad Kh^n JSiomin Khto 
BahiLdur, and with the rank oT a noble of 6000. ^FTJa-uS-din Khan^ 
when he heard of the death of Najam Kh^n, on "'pretence of 
condoling with the family marched to Cambay, but he was refused 
admittanca and forc ed to re tire. Succeeding without opposition, 
one of Momin Khan II/s first acts was to poison his half sister 
Nur JahAn or Kh&nnm Begam the widow oi the late governor.* 
In 1752, when news reached Gujarat of the division of the province 
between the Peshwa and the Oaikw&r, Momin Kh4n, who was 
always quarrelling with the Gaikwdr's agent, begged the Peshwa 
to include Cambay in his share. The Peshwa agreed, and, in the 
coarse of the year (1 752), Momin Khdn paid Pdndurang Pandit the 
Peshwa's deputy £700 (Rs. 7000), together with a present of four 
small cannon. In the following year (1753, April) Raghunathrdv, 
the Peahwa^s brother, advancing within ten miles of Cambay, forced 
Momin Khdn to raise his yearly payment to £1000 (Bs. 10,000). 

I Hes. Hist, et Q«og. de rinde, L 381 - 383. In Tieffenthal^*B opinion this chiutge 
was doe to the rising of the baoks at the head of the galf» io the filling of the bed. 
and the removal of a groin of sand that used to stop the nuMith and pile ap the tidal 
watery till they forced their way in and rushed as along a ditch. In his sketch (408) 
the whole top of the guU is entered as covered at the flood and dry at the ebb. 

* Robertson, 65. 

B 561—29 

Chapter III. 

The '^Aw&ha, 


[Bombay OftiittMr. 


The 2^ 

Mardtha Attack, 




Even tWs was tiot enough-to protect Cambay from Mardtlxa demandi. 
Paring the rainy season many parts of the Cambay wall fell down. 
Hearing this Shripatrav, before the rains were over, made ready * 
detachment of troops anjjl sent forwurd a messenger to examine the 
state of Cambay. That Momin Khan might not suspect his olgect, 
Shripatrav had a Taluable carriage built. Fitting it with gold ^ 
silver hangings, he gave out that it was meant as a present tor 
Kaghunathiav, the Peshwa's brother, and, to escort it through Gujara: 
he left Ahmedabad with a body of horse and a party of five hundred 
Mavalis.* After a few days march, at Petlad, about sixteen imJes 
north-east of Cambay, Shripatrav halted and prepared to attack th# 
city. HeV Vri jlal, Momin Khan^s steward, on hLj way from Bombay, 
hearing th^t Shripatrav was at Petlad, went to pay his respects. 
Suspecting Shripatrav's designs,. Vrijlal sent his master an 
express to Ite on his guard against surprise. Momin Khan made 
every effort to fepair the walls. Nor were his preparations thrm 
away. On the first favourable evening Shripatrav moved from Petlad. 
He counted on being at Cambay by midnight. But the guide lost ka 
way, and he did not reach the city till shortly before daybreak. On 
Bearing the town, the besiegers met with a second disappointmetit. 
Where they expected a breach, they found a new and strong fortifi- 
cation. One part of the wall seemed undefended, and this the MsTald 
scaled. But again fortune declared for the garrison : troops unseen bj 
the besiegers were at hand and drove back the assailants. By this 
time Momin Khan was on the spot with reinforcements, and a tbrc 
attempt was repulsed with heavy loss. Next day the fighting wtt 
renewed, but again ended in favour of the besieged- After a ^^ 
of fruitless effort Shripatrav changed his tactics. Letting loose tJJ 
men, he plundered and laid waste the Cambay villages. This dencc 
succeeded, and Momin Khan, anxious at any cost to be rid of the 
Marathas, agreed to pay £700 (Rs. 7000). The Marathas withdrew, 
but such had been their violence and greed that the eleven suburbs 
were almost entirely deserted. Momin Khto was brought to the 
greatest straits. For the next year the district round Cambay 
yielded him almost nothing. All but £6000 (Rs. 60,000) had beeo 
carried off by Shripatrav, and, of what was left, the whole was 
given to the Peshwa, half as his ordinary share, and the rest as^ 
special present on condition that no Maratha should in future collie: 
the revenue at Cambay. At the same time Momin Khan seeing tnsc 
he could not trust the • friendship of the Marathas, deterniineJt.* 
increase* the strength of his army. With this object he wm forced 
to resort to many acts of extortion. And though, for the time, ws 
measures brought him in large sums o^ money, they did his state 
a lasting injury, forcing from it many wesdthy and peaceabw 

Soon after this, the Peshwa made a second attempt on Cambay. 
Bhagvantrav, his agent, sent without troops, was well receiveit 
But Momin Khan Jcnew why Bhagvantrav had come, and, on P^^^ 
hold of a letter from Bhagvantrav to Salim Jamadar at Ahmedabad 


— -... — 

^ — . 

,«» people <rf the west Deoean, mdoaJt weet. Shiytf't ^2f|? 

iroope were, probably, the moet daring of the MarAtha tribes. Gruit Poff, (Bool ^*»^* 





iovitiiig Iiim to attack Cambay, he sttrroundecl Bh^k^vantrAv's 
k^osa ani made him prisonar. An attempt of the Maratha 
eifri»3ii3 of the neighbourias; tovrns of Jambusar^ Viramgam, and 
I>jaaiiiiika to foroa the surranier of Bhag^anbraF failed; and it 
was , finally agreed that Bhagvantrav should be released^ and 
that the relations between Momin Khan and the Peshwa should 
remain unchanged. In the following year (1 754) Bhagrantray made 
an^^ther attempt on Cambay. After several doubtful engagements 
pa&oj was concladed on condition that Momin Khan should pay 
LiOOO (Rs. 10,000). The chief events of the next two years 
(1755 •1757) of Momin Khan's rule, the most successful period of 
his life, belong to the general history o^ Gujarat. He^ collected 
tribute from Kathiawar, captured Gogha, recovered ^medabad 
from the Marathas, defended Ahmedabad, and was finally forced 
to restore it to the Marathas in April 1757. The cenditions of 
sorrenler were, on the whole, favourable. He kegt Cambay, and 
was paid by the Peshwa a sum of £10,000 (Bs. 1,00,000). On the 
other, hand, he was forced to pay the Marathas a yearly tribute of 
£1000 (Rs. 10,000) and to giv.e up all claims on the town of Gogha. 
Oq his retam from Ahmedabad, Momin Khan was at first harassed 
by his troops for arrears of pay. But ou the timely arrival of 
his steward Vrijlal, with the Peshwa's contribution of £10,000 
(Rs. I,00j000)^ the demands of the army were satisfied. 

Shortly after this (1 757), Momin Khdn is said to have instigated the 
murder of Jus steward Vrijlal. He attempted to evade the Peshwa's 
tribute, and in hopes that his failure might be overlooked, he made 
arrangements for paying a visit to Poona. But Sadashiv Bamchandra^ 
the Peshwa's deputy, refused to allow him to leave until he had 
made good his arrears. Advancing against the city he continued 
to beaiege it till Momin Khan handed him a sum of £2000 
(Rs. iO,OJ0). Shortly after, Momin Khan set out for Snrat, and 
was there received by Mr. Spencer, the chief of the English factory. 
From Snrat he sailed for Bombay, where the Governor, Mr. Botirchier, 
treated him with much courtesy. After a short stay, he went on to 
Poona, reaching the end of his journey in 1759. At Poona he waa 
received with attention. The Peshwa's cousin, SadashivraVj 
mBt him at the gate of the fort and conducted him to BaUjirav, 
who, embracing his visitor, seated him in the place of honour 
next his own, and, after a fqw days, paid him the compliment of a 
return visit, Momin Khan, from his, long intercourse with the 
Marathds, knew well how to please them, and distributing presents 
with a free hand, gained great respect. After a two months stay 
h© returned to Bombay, receiving from the Peshwa the present of 
an elephant and other valuable gifts. Whatever were Momin 
Khan's views in undertaking this journey, it in no way changed his 
relations with the Peshwa. A fresh treaty was drawn up with 
conditions the same as those previously in force. During his 
stay in Bombay, Momin Khan wrote the Court of directors a friendly 
and respectful letter. The Court sent a vary gracious reply, and 
their letter was preserved as a record to be spoken of to every 
English Resident^ or to any Native power with whom Momin EMik 

Chapter m 


Th6 Hiwibs. 
1730- 188a 

Uomim Kkdn 11. 
goet t0 Poona, 
1759. _ 

\Bombaj Oasetleer, 



Chapter in. 

The l^wibe, 
1730 - 1880. 


^omin Khdn*§ 
1760 '1766. 

KdihU and KoUi, 

had dealings. From Bombay Momin Kh£n travelled overland Ut 
Surat, reaching Cambay before the dose of 1759. After Iils 
return, Momin KMn was at pains to gain as a friend Gaiiesh Apaji, 
the Peshwa's representative, and so successful were his advanc>-s 
that it was arranged that the Peshwa's agent should be witIidr;^wQ 
from Cambay, and that all Mar4tha claims should be satisfied by thj 
yearly payment of £8400 (Rs. 84,000). 

In 1761, the Delhi Court, taking advantage of the oonfnaion 
fell on the Mar^thas after their defeat at Pinipat (1 761, January 7tb\ 
directed the chief Musalm^n nobles to join together in driving thevi 
out of Grujar^t. Momin Eli&n and the Governor of Broacli unite'l 
their forcljs and succeeded in regaining Jambusar. With this fheir 
success en^d. Damaji G-aikwir advanced to the aid of Sada^ibiv 
B&mchandra, the Peshwa^s deputy, and together they defeated] 
Momin Kh^, laying waste his territory. Suing for peace^ MomiTi 
Kh&n was forc^ to pay the Peshwa half of his revenue, to admit 
a Mar^tha agent into Cambay, and to make good the difference 
between £8400 (Rs. 84,000), the amount of tribute paid daring thi; 
two preceding years, and the half of his revenues. 

Prom 1760 to 1766, though Momin Kh4n kept on good terms 
with the Mar^thds, his exactions and oppressions half emptied 
the city. In 1 766, his minister, Aga Bashid Beg, hit on a plan f«»r 
obtaining the Br^hmans* hidden treasures. Asked to meet in one plari' 
to read prayers and perform incantations for Momin Khan's health, 
Br&hmans came, and, at the close of the day, receiyed %d. (4 a*.^ 
each. This went on for six days. On the seventh the courtyard wai 
surrounded, the Brahmans seized, and, to force them to discover tht-ir 
treasures, red hot nails were thrust into their hands. With much 
torture a sum of £20,000 (Bs. 2,00,000) was gathered in two days. 
This cruelty caused lasting injury to Cambay. Many learni'J 
Brahmans and men of position fled for safety to the English in 
Surat. Aga Bashid Beg did not long enjoy his master's favour. 
Suspected of keeping to himself part of the plunder, he lost his office 
fbnd was cast into prison. Afterwards set free, be was, two yew*> 
later, in attempting to escape to Surat, stopped by the Nawab^ acJ 

At this time (1 766) Cambay was so harassed by E&thi and R^'i 
forays, that Momin Kh£n agreed to pay them a yearly sum of i4" 
(Bs. 4000), and, provided they did notf plunder his villages, allowtJ 
them to pass unchallenged through his lands. After D^m^ji's deat': 
(1768, August),^ Momin Khdn continued on good terms with \\: 
Gdikwar. At the same time he satisfied fhe Marathds with a smaller 
share of his revenues than formerly. From about 1766 the Peshwji*> 
share came to be spoken of as one-fourth, cJiothy instead of one-buK. 
About this time (1771), for a sum of £7500 (Bs. 75,000), Mivwb 
Khan bought from the British the fort of TaWja lately won by tb.u- 
from a band of Koli pirates. The fort was held by the Nawab foi 

ji, a CTeat chemist, had often tried to find the philosopher'a stone, »fi'i »* 
breathing the sickly steam of some poisonous drugs that he met his de*tJ 

> Ddm4 
was from 
in the town of'P4tan. Bom.'Gov. Sel. XXVI,'^77. 




aboat two years^ and was then, under leave from the British 
Croremment, made over to Bhi,vnagar.^ 

In 1772, Momin Khin, ashamed of his excesses or afraid of his 
talents, caused the death of his son Khdn/ahan, a youth of twenty- 
twg years.' Mirza Teman, his accomplice in the murder of the 
princse, was promoted to be deputy governor, and had great influence 
in Momin Khan's councils. In spite of the crime which gained 
him office, Mirza Teman proved a good governor, and during his 
ten years of power the people of Canibay had some respite from the 
oppression that marked the rest of Momin Khan's reign. In 1782 
Mirza Teman was thrown into prison, but was afterwards released and 
dismissed. Prosperity had now utterly .forsaken CanAay. The 
cx>untry round was badly tilled, the people poor and degraded, the 
villages half empty. The grandeur of the city was mingled with 
poverty and desolation, the streets were empty, falftng mosques 
and mouldering palaces were the only remain^ of its ancient 
magnificence. The weavers were few and poor, and, except the 
English broker, there was not a merchant of eminence. The 
revenues had equally decayed. Once the duty from tamarinds alone 
yielded a yearly revenue of £2000 (Rs. 20,000) ; now, when he had 
met the Maratha claims, there was left to the Nawab not more than 
£20,000 (Rs. 2,00,000). From this he kept up a small establish- 
mont, maintaining two thousand Sindians and Arab in&ntry and 
five hundred cavalry.^ 

During the ten years of Mirza Teman*s power the Nawdb of 
Cambay played an important part in Gujardt politics. Ddmdji, 
dying in 1768, left four sons, Say^ji, Govindr^v, Mdnajiriv, and 
Fatehsing. Sayaii being of weak intellect the second son Govindr^v 
claimed to succeed, and this claim was, in 1768, recognized by the 
l^ei»hwa. This arrangement continued till, in 1772, Fatehsing 
induced the Peshwa to recognize Saydji's claim, and to appoint 
Fatehsing to be Say^ji's deputy. Then followed the intrigues at 
Poona that ended in the murder of Nardydnr^v, and the succession 
of his uncle Raghunathriv or Raghoba. Siding with Govindrdv, 
the new Peshwa despatched him to Gujar&t with orders to remove 
Fatehsing from Baroda. Momin Khan, who had formerly supported 
Fatehsing, thus became opposed to the interests of Raghun^thrav, 
and when, in the next turn of affairs, Raghun&thr&v reached 
Cambay a suppliant for help, Momin Eh&n refused to admit him, 
and Raghunathrdv was forced to move on to Bhdvnagar and from 
there to Bombay. 

Two year later (1774) Raghun&thr&v returned to Cambay, 
Backed by an English detachment he was anxious to be revenged for 
Momin Elhdn's rudeness. ' Strip him of his city ' was his prayer to 

Chapter IIL 

The Naw&bs, 
173a. 1880. 

Momin Khan 

murders hU Son, 


Oda-vdr Affatrs, 
1768 - 1782. 

English Expedition 

against FcUehsingt 


' Tliia fort lies on the east ooast of Kdthi&w&r, a little north of Gopn&th point. It 
b iDcntioned in the Ain-i-Akbari (1500), (Gladwin, 11. 69), and in Ogilby's Atlas 
(1670» V. 208) as one of the KAthidwdr ports. The conditions were that the 
Naw4b should hold the fort as one of the Company s servaifta, that when necessary 
be should allow tlie Company's troops to use it, and, iftiless allowed by the Company, 
should permit no one else to hold it. Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 301, 302. 

* Summers 2, and Robertson 83. 

' Oriental Memoirs, II. 16, 21, and III. 69, 79. 





(1783), afbdr ruling for tliirfcy-flva years, Momin Klxin died. In spita 
ofhUraloar^ milicar/ skill, aaita^t, Moiuin Khaa^s rale was roinoas 
t J Ci Jibs/. HU haa// aii ill-jadgjd idvias forced from tha city the 
wjatth aal s'^ilLed indisbry wjiich mighk, under better management, 
hi^3 oatiiv^ed the chaige in the coarse of Vade and the unchecked 
disorder of the rest of the proTinca.* 

F^or months before his death Momin Khan chose as his successor 
Mohammad Kuli, the son of Najam Khan^ whom he had poisoned in 
1 7*3. raisTSajam Khin hid baen married bo Nur Jahan, or Khanum 
Bagam, an illegitimate daughter of Momin Khaa I., and so a half- 
sister of Momin Khan II. By her Najam Khan had no issue. Bat 
BQ intimacy with the wife of one of his dqpr-keepers resisted in the 
birth of a son. Hearing of the child, Khanum Begam prought him 
from B Tillage some distance oEP, and, changing his name from Mia 
Mann to Muhammad Kali, saw that he was wefl cared for. 
Besides this connection Mahammad Kuli was soni;^ii-law to Momin 
Khan II. by marr/iug Jogni Khanum, his daughter by a slave girl. 
Muhammad's succession was not unopposed. Taking advantage of 
the power which Momin Khan II. had allowed to drift into her hands^ 
Kntbi Khanum, gaining a strong Moghal party, proclaimed Mirza 
Jani, the son she hud borne to Momin Khan it. Muhammad Kuli 
gained the day, and Kutbi Khannm with her sister Jamila Begam 
and a large number of Moghals were driven from Cambay. 

After ruling for six uneventful years (1783-1789) Muhammad 
Kuli diei in 1789. He hid only one dispute with the neighbouring 
powers. An offender of the name of Tapidas, flying from a Baroda 
village, took shelter in Cambay. Asked to give him up, Muhammad 
refused and allowed him to escape. Fatehsing advanced to CamUay, 
and finding Tapidas fled, forced Muhammad to pay a fine of £1500 
(Rs. lo^OOJ). With this exception the six years of Mnhammad's rul« 
Was a time of quiet and good government. He left three sons^ Fateh 
Ali^ Bande Ali^ and Yawar Ali, the eldest of whom succeeded in 1789. 

About the same time, at Baroda, Mandjirav succeeded his brother 
Patehsing. One of Manaji's first acts was to demand back the six 
Tillages granted by Fatehsing, to pay for the garrison against the 
Eathi inroads. Faie^JUi refused, and it was final y arranged that 
the Baroda state should be allowed to withhold the yearly money 
payment of £1000 (Bs. 10,* ^OO) on accc^unt of the Kathis, 
and that the six villages should continue to belong to Cambay. 
Fateh Ali's next act was to send a large present to Delhi. In 
return he received the title of Najam -nd-daulah Momt^- 
nl-mulk Momin Khan J3abadur Dllawar Jang, and the rank 
of a commander of six thousand as Nawab of Cambay. In the 
early y^ars of Fateh Ali's rule, Cambay was from time to time 
disturbed by Maratha demands. In 1 792 the six disputed villages 
were again annexed by Baroda, bat were a second time restored to 

* Momiii Kbin*! exmctions made CAinbay a hei^ of roau. Exoept the Rngliah 
faeioty snd the dwellmgs of the English orokers, there wite (1787) no house wortii 
looking at. The people had faUed to pay their taxes and the late Nawftb had ordered 
tiieff howet to be pwled down. Sren the large mos<rae had bean oenfiioatsd and 
aad« a wton hiWM. Hov^'a Toun : Bom, Gov. SoL XVL M 

Chapter IIL 

The Naw4b% 

Muhammad KuU^ 
lias '1789. 



'0 ' 


[Bemtey C 




OaMAty. Abmt 1799 Antkirus Bhin, tho pMlina's agout, ei 
tbe (.Viibav kti--r:':, ai'i "tjw Kniij-fat off only bjr the p^yi 
13- 1- HI l.-^'«>, BftbAji Apiji, j_ 

An-M o-ilIciE iht- ICattii^w^ trm 

tk- J ' , £rv>ui Faieli All a stun oC 1 

At tlu& tinw so k>w haA Cmabny taXleu that the Britub. f 
«sd (1797, Anif- 2lsi) * OPAtirv in puiut ut ntiltly nod la ta^ 
potttiTdjr barde&jooui'-' TW Bombay Bmrd vrere of opiBOBB ^ 
T^wj t hmy could be ctone through iwtive bmktn-s. B«foi« | 
Muno niolil ba acfeed on. ereau louk a tnrn wtiicli broui 
^ic^ fii^iiminiml tUo (toaer rvlaboos with Cnm>iiiT. Mnlti 
o( Kadi attuf««d lo tal» Banxla from bis cui;^' 
Buoibi^ UOTwnBMBt, ajpf>eal«d to for bolp 
Oidcwtrt mtA a detaAmgni of troojis, n-bicb ui 
Unor WaUar. ^nd in Ounbay ia I &}£ . i\. 
of BiunbaT, acrompwiied this fbix« aad held uiu>rvu'n-i, vmh | 
Apaji, tbv Oaikvir's raiuater. The arran^menis tlua I 
(ItilX!, M&rch and Jos?) did ont nftrr* (lie p"^it4rrii pf the C 
«tatt^. &«t br thf treaty of V ' 

DBMOaberSlst). all the Pmh*^ 
Brituh. Ib th« fullowiBg j\%i' 
raqaeat the Bombar QciTumuM ' 

Navib for four yw»*. tho y^w:i}. '-a^^^c'tig to p^ty jearly i 
equal to the aiaouot formerlr paid to the E'eshwa. This a 
bu aiuc« remaiBtfd in foivo^ 

In the MtowioB years, Bibiji Ap4iji, by pu" 
Eilhi fcway^ made the Ckmbay fi>rt« aion^ i' 
Sibaruati no kni^r Dccetisanr. Uuder tlH.>su rir 
Bipa Kishi. oHamandor ol tho Gaikwar's >!^ _ 
tecoiTed orders to aQn<>z the six viHo^-s irhos^ {>o^u&<u<.>q b 
often bven dispuii'd by thi' Gaikwir and Cambay. At thaf 
time B^iu Kashi (0(>k Utada fii>m many of the Canihay villa_^ 
the payment of eum^ of monoy. Fateh Ali complained i 
Ooveruor of Bombay, and MaJMr Wnlkt^r, the British R«sidJ 
Barcda, bad the bonda restored auder promise that iho F 
Goverumout woold put preesnre on Faleh Ali to pay the C " 
lavrfnl claims. 

In ISIS, in conseijuence of the increase of their power in C_ 
tho Hriti&h RcsidoDt at Cambay was withdrawn, and, in biag 
the cbi«f execaiive officer in the newly constituted disbi 
Knim was ap)X)iuted Agent. 

In October 1823 Futeh Ali Kfa&n died. A« he left lu n 
he wibs enoceedud by his brother Bande *>' ^*" wbo . 
eightoon years. Dyiug (IWl. 16th ld!ar^ wUhoat » t_. 
aucces^ou wunt to his brother Y^war Ali Kbfa i. T lnj^i j 
ffttMdi, waived hia right in feToor of tiiw' unn Hnj^ iq V ' 
"" -^ presant ruling Navfib, whose hereditary title is ~Na]am.nd< 

> Eut InJu P»p<w» 11795-180I». tTL 16. 

* Bom. Gov. Letter, Politiaa Dcpt. fia of 18W, Vol. a et 19M ; . 
TtMUw (187«). IV. 303-MH. 




Mumt&s.iil«mtilk Momin Kh&n Bah&dur Dilawar Jang. J&fir AH 
Kh&n, the Nawab'a eldest son, at present (1880) twenty.four years 
<^t{ age^ is quiet and well conducted. He is married to a relation of 
lits motlter'Sj the daughter of the Mulvi of •Masulipatam. There is 
uo ifiale issue. 

Since 1818^ the relations between the Cambay state and the 
Imperial Crovemment have remained unchanged. There are no 
tret&iy engagementSj and, except the payment of a yearly tribute^ the 
Nawab of Cambay is almost uncontrolled in the management of his 
state. Orer his own people he has the power of life and death. There 
ia no appeal from any of his awards ; and J^he Political A^ent^ the 
Golleotor of Kaira^ exercising no direct authority, is littl|^more than 
the recognised medium between the Nawab and the Government of 
Bombay. Under the oroolamation of 1857 the right of sjtf succession 
valid according to Muhammadan law, has been •/ecured to the 
Nawab, and he is entitled to a salute of eleven guns. The state has 
a military force of six field and two other guns, thirty-five artillery. 
men^ 250 cavalry, and 380 in&ntry and police. 

In 1838, three years before the accession of the present Naw&b, in 
spite of the long peace, the lands round Cambay were desolate, the 
city ruinous, and its trade dead. Since 1838 trade has to some 
extent revived. But the improvement is small. No efforts have been 
made to foster industry or commerce. The harbour has been left to 
iteelf, and no steps have been taken to clear the silt or make less 
dangerous the gulFs troublesome navigation. 

The following is the Cambay family tree : 

(L) Mixza J&fir Najam-ud- 
dsaUh, Momin Kbin I. 
(died 1743). 

Olia Begam, daughter of 
Mirza Abdul Uusain 
Deblami Momin Khdn, 
minister, cUufdn, of 
GujariLt (1723-1728). 

(II.) Muftikbir Kb&n, Nur-ud- 
din Muhammad Kb4n 
Momin Khin II. (died 1783). 



(III.) Mia Manu or Muhammad 
KuUy the iUegitimate 
BOD* of Zimal Abedin 
Najam Khin, governor 
of Cambay (17&- 1748) 
(died 1789). 

Jogni Kh&nnm, 



flV.) Fateh AU Khin Najam- 
nd-dauUUi Momtids-ul- 
malk Momin Khin IIL 
(died 1823). 

(V.) Bande All Kb&n 
Momin Khto IV. 
(died 184}). 

Ydwar All Khdn. 

(VI.) Husain YAwar KhAn 

* Momin Khan V. 

(present Chief). 

JiLfir AliRhAn 

( Heir* Apparent). 

The ordo^ of suceossion is indioited by Bom an numerals. 
B 561-.30 

Chapter III. 

The Nlw&ba, 

Conditiont « 
1838 'If^O, 

[Bombay Oasetteet, 




Chapter IV. The landB of Cambay are tilled either by peasants holdini: 

Administration. ^^^^^^ tvom %he state, or by the yearly tenants of the village head- 
men. The pea^nt-holding, khdtdbandi, system is in force in thr 
better class laiids capable of regfular tillage; the yearly tenant. 
ganotia, system is ordmarily adopted only in the poorer soils. 

Under the peasant->holding system land pays the state a fixed sum, 
and, though without the Nawab's leave he has no power to transfer 
the land, the holder cannot be ousted so long as he pays his rent. 
In ordinary cases the right of occupancy has no money value. But 
if the former holder has improved the land, the new comer payi< 
such sums as arbitrators or a committee of villagers may award. 
Under the yearly tenant, ganotia, system there is no fixity either 
of possession or of rent. This system is commonly in use only ifl 
• the poorer lands which, from year to year, the village headman lets 
out at low rates to any one willing to take them. 

No land is liable to bo sold in payment of the holder's private 
debts. And, though there is no special exemption in favour of tlio 
cultivator's property, the civil courts are expected to use discretioD 
in attaching field tools. 

Except in the coast, hard, villages, the land assessment is paid i» 
money. In the coast villages, after deducting the estimated cost ol 
production, the crop is divided into two equal parts, one for tlie 
state, the other for the cultivator. A few large landholders sublet 
their fields. But, except the poorer soils cultivated by yearly 
tenants, the land is generally tilled by the person in whose vzme 
it is held. * 

As the state has not yet been surveyed, the method of realizing 
the land revenue is somewhat rough and irregular. For first-class 
land capable of yielding sugarcane, opium, and tobacco^ founJ 
almost solely in Undel and Pachisgam, the rates sometimes rise t4) 
nearly £5 the acre (Rs. 35 the higha) . In other villages the assessment 
on the best lands varies from 148. to £2 IGs. the acre (Rs. 5 - 20 
the higha) ; on rice land from 5^. 6c2. to 17«. the acre (Rs. 2 -6 tbc 
higha) ; and on dry^cro^land from 5«. 6d. to 14^. the acre (Rs. 2*5 
the higha). These rates, though nominally fixed, are changed at the 
Naw4b's pleasure. Compared with the corresponding assessment in 
the neighbouring British lands these rates are high. On the other 
hand remissions are- c6nstantly claimed and granted, while tho 




record of the area nnder cnltivation is often so imperfect that many 
i farmer raises crops on double the area for which he pays. The 
:ol]ection of the revenue is nominally spread over a large part of the 
rear, and certain days, in November, December, February, and April, 
iro set apart for paying the different instalments. These rent days 
kro seldom kept, the time for collecting depending on the pleasure 
ft the manager, or on the needs of the state. 

Ponnerly the land revenue was farmed. Now, except in a few 
Tillages, the state share is collected by village accountants under 
:ho control of a central superintendent, ddroga, with whom are 
Lssociated two head*quarter clerks, a Hindu, and a Musalman. 
Arrears are strictly collected. A certain^'nuinber of men 8x4 billetted 
jn the defaulter, and, besides the cost of their keep, ho mas to pay 
1 daily money fine of from 3 J. to 28. (2 a^. -Ke. Hj. Should 
HTouger measures seem necessary, the old method of setting the 
ilobtor in the sun with a block of wood on his head is said to bo 
Rtili occasionally resorted to. When poverty, or loss by fire is 
proved, the revenue superintendent has power to grant special 
romissions. In villages whose revenues are farmed, if the people fail 
to pay their rents, the revenue superintendent aids the contractor 
iu recovering his demands. 

The Nawab pays little attention to the land revenue, and, as a 
rule, its management is loose rather than oppressive. In the villages 
assigned to the Nawab's sons there may be occasional oppression, 
but in these cases complaints do not reach the Nawalx On the- 
whole, the land assessment is by no means heavy, and its collection 
is not so irksome as to make the people move to the neighbouring 
Kaira villages. 

Except serious cases tried by the Nawab in person all ordinary 
criminal charges are heard in the city by the city magistrate, kofwdl,^ 
and in the districts by the rural magistrates, ddrogds. Cases calling 
for severe punishment are by them referred to the Nawdb, who also 
hears criminal appeals. The Munslii, who carries on correspondence 
with the Political Agent at Kaira, is the head of the political 

There are three civil courts : the original civil court, diwihd addlat ; 
the first appellate court, tajvizsanl ; and the highest appellate court, 
tUfcirh khina, where the Nawab, assisted by an assessor, hears 
Hnal appeals. In miscnllancous H|)peals and caste disputes the 
head of the merchants' guild, nagar srth, and one or two. chief 
merchants act as assessors. 'In cases of Hindu law a hereditary and 
):iid Shastri is attached to the court. Most debt cases are decided 
y arbitration. When brought into court the judge is guided by the 
f< >U(>wing rules. If the suit is filed within six years of the date of the 
loan, both principal and interest are awarded ; if the suit is filed after 
bix and ?nthin twelve years, only the principal can be claimed ; if 
between twelve and twenty years have passe*d^onl/ half the principal 


Chapter IV* 




^ The Nawiib^a second sou is now (18S0) cij;y magistrate. 

CBomliAy QmMAmr 



Chapter lY. 


can be recoyered ; if after twenty years^ only one-fonrth ; and no sail 
may be brought after thirty years from the time the claim began to 
run. A fee of 2^ per cent is taken on all money claims. The &ilnre 
of the defendant to pay the amount decreed is commonly punished 
by imprisonment. • 

There is a diyorce court presided over by a salaried and hereditary 
officer styled Kazi who is an assessor in all religions matters. As 
head of the registration department the Kim signs and seal"* 
all bonds affecting immoyable property. The proceeds of th«^' 
registration fees are equally diyiaed among toe Naw£b^ the 
Munshi^ dbd the Kdzi. Irwdiyorce cases^ the K&zi leries fees graduatod 
according \o the social standing of the person claiming relief. 
The foUoifnng statement shows what fees are charged and how 
the revenu^is distributed. In cases of certified poverty part of the 
fees is remittedT: 

Divorce Fut, 








Oil-wllen and bUiolumittai 

Watermen, uilors, and bakers. 


FiahemH^n ... ... .•• 

Barbers, dioemakera, and 
MniwlmAn Kolla 

MumlmAn DhedAs and tfuiialo 

DWCOj^dni «■■ «■« «•• «•> 

Rkvbkvs bow onrnuBvtito. 

- . 

£. f. d. 

8 S 

4 IS 

a IS 

5 8 





"2 . 



£. f . 


3 10 

Si t 10 





6| a 

6, 2 


1 la 

a; 1 




























L«L > 







Civil and criminal codes have lately been introduced| and tie 
procedure is supposed to be regulated by their provisions. The 
pi'actice is irregular and open to abuse. In the criminal 
courts neither summons nor warrants are issued^ and person* 
apprehended on the merest suspicion, are often kept until bail is 
given, evidence found, or release purchased. Civil justice is 
little less free from abuse. Complaints of bribery and extortion are 
general, and, so little are the court officers controlled, that decrees, 
passed by the Nawdb himself, are said sometimes to be set aside or 
left unexecuted. No appeal lies to the Political Agent. But a 
complaint, found by him to be reasonable, can be referred to the 
Nawab, and in such cases justice is usually done. 

As in other parts of -Gujarat, the village headman is called chief, 
mukhu The office is sometimes, though not always, hereditary ; auA 
the holder is rewarded by the grant of rent-free* land. He has no 
magisterial powera. The other village officers are the rdvam'a, sk 




R^jput^ Ko\i, or Musalman paid from 4$. to 6«. (Rs. 2 • 3) a months 
Yrbo helps in collecting the state demands, guards collections on 
their way to the treasury, aud does the ordinary work of a messenger j 
ajid the tracker, pagi, a Koli, paid in land and commonly held 
responsible for stolen property traced witfiin the limits of his Tillage, 
^'bo goes with the headman round the village at night, watches, and 
tiucks thieves. In large viUages there is a Koli or Musalmto 
messenger and pound-keeper, havdldar, paid in grain and by twenty 
per cent of the pound fees. In some places the villagers keep private 

In 1879 the gross state revenue was returned at £38,863 
(Rs. 8,88,630). This is derived fromp four chief s/urces, land 
a.s8essment, salt, land and sea customs, and miscellaneous cesses. 
The yearly tribute settled under the treaty of Baslein (1802) is 
JL2547 10«. (Rs. 25,475-5-1). The British Government has also a 
share in certain cesses, which in 1878 yielded £106 14«. (Rs. 1057). 
During the same year the British share in the salt excise amounted 
to £6171 I8s. (Bs. 61,719). 

The cash received from the different branches of revenue is 
lodged in treasuries in' the Naw&b's palace. The district land 
revenue is, under the care of a superintendent, kept in a separate 
treasury called the country office, pargaua kaclieri. From the land 
revenue all establishment, food, and clothing charges are met, 
and thj balance transferred to the Nawab's private treasury. The 
receipts from the coast villages, collections on account of land and 
sea customs, and the proceeds of the miscellaneous cesses are 
considered the NawaVs private revenue and are at once lodged 
under the care of the private treasurer, toahdkhdna ddroga.^ 

In former years the Cambay customs and transit duties were a 
heavy burden on trade. The duties were (1854), on cotton 4*31 
])ep cent, on camelians 7*50 per cent, on cotton goods 6*05 per cent, 
on grain 6*50 per cent, and on tobacco 10*98 per cent. These duties 
were greatly enhanced by unauthorized levies extorted from 
merchants at every tolUbar, ndka. In 1854 the attention of the 
Bombay Government was drawn to this taxation, which, besides 
injuring Cambay, was seriously affecting the traffic through the 
neighbouring districts. After much negotiation the Nawab agreed 
to fixed and modei'ate duties. The tolUbars were removed, and, 
instead, a single charge was levied. Of the proceeds of this tax, 
which varies from one-half to three per cent on the estimated value 
of the article, the British Government receives one-fourth, and the 
remaining three-fourths are handed over to the Naw&b. The terms 
of this agreement were revised in 1871, when it was provided that, 
to protect the roads, the Nawab should maintain from his share 
a fixed establishment of foot and mounted police. The yearly cost 
of the police force amounts to nearly £500 (Rs. 5000). Of the 
balance two-thirds are now spent on improvipg the city of Cambay, 
aud the remaining third on education. ^ 

Chapter IV. 



^ TotHidkhdna is literally the pre^nt depMrtment. 

[Bombay Ghooiteer, 






'Though Cambay is recognized as a British port^ only the 
British tariff of valuations, not the tariff of duty, ia in force. 
British rates are generally levied on importsj but on exports there is 
a uniform charge of five percent. The custom-house arrangements 
are equally in the hands of the Nawab and of the Bombay Govero- 
ment. Two sets of books are kept^ and the Nawib has power to 
object to any decision passed by the British Customs Officer. 

The Imperial share of the land and customs revenue is realized 
by a superintendent, mahdlkari, a clerk, and five messengers, 
maintained, under the Collector of Kaira, at a yearly cost of £141 
(Rs. 1440), with a guard of a head and six constables of the Kaira 
police. I • 

Besides rekt the land yields three minor items of revenne, the 
bdjri cess, th4 kotra cess, and grazing fees. The bdjri cess is a 
tax of 3«. 5^(2. (Cambay Bs. 2) on every cart-load of millet. The 
kotra cess is a tax of one per cent on eveiy holding paying a yearly 
rent of £8 ISs. (Cambay Bs. 100) and upwards. The object of this 
cess is to pay for the keep of the Nawab's horses. The grazing 
fee, paid by Rabaris and other cattle owners, is a charge varying 
from Is. 9d, to 6«. Hi. (Rs. 1-4) the head of cattle. The yearly 
collections amount to about £430 (Cambay Rs. 5000>» 

Of non-agricultural cesses there are two : the craft tax, mohaiarfa 
vero, and the profession tax, kasab vero. The tax on crafts yields about 
£170 88. (Cambay Rs. 20()0) a year. The profession tax is Wiod at 
the following rates : on each oil-press Ss. b^d. to Ss. 7|d.(Rs. 2 - 5) ; 
* on each cotton-carding machine, Ss. b^d. to 8^. 7|(2. (Rs. 2 - 5) ; on 
each shoemaker's shop, 3^. 5|(i. (Rs. 2) ; on each grocer's, 5«. 2ld, 
(Rs. 8); on each blacksmith's, 3«. b^d. to Ss. 7id. (Rs. 2 - 5) j on each 
carpenter's, Ss. 5Jd. to 8«. 7Jd. (Rs. 2 - 5) ; on each tailor's, 5*. 21ci. 
(Rs. 3) ; on each goldsmith's, bs. 2id. to £1 2«. e^d. (Bs. 3 - 18) ; and 
on each potter's wheel, 3^. bid. to bs. 2^d. (Rs. 2 -3). In the case 
of tanners the tax, 17«. S^d. (Rs. 10) and upwards according to the 
size of the village, is levied in one sum from the whole community, 
and from weavers of the Dhed caste a charge of 8s. 7Jd. (Rs. 5) is. 
made on each loom. In addition to these special cesses, there are 
one or two taxes peculiar to the city of Cambay. The chief of these 
is a house-tax, at present fixed at a uniform rate of Is, Id. (10 
annas). This tax, known as the Jcdfhia^pdl vcro, was originally 
levied to protect the people from Kathiawar robbers. A sjjecial 
additional fee is levied on houses in the better streets. There is 
also a market cess of 6| per cent on all articles sold. 

The post is under the charge of the Inspector of Post Offices, 
Gujarat Division. From Cambay a runner passes daily through 
Petl&d to Anand Railway Station in Kaira. 

According to the 1872 cellsus, of 38,134, the total Hindu male 
population, 3541 or 9*28 per. cent were able to read and write, or 
were being taught. Oi 3^371, the total Hindu female population, 
23 were able to read and write, or were beiqg taught. Of 
6095 Musalm&n males, 487 or 7*99 per cent were able to read 
and write, or were being taught. Of 5787 Musalman fomalcs ouly 




two 'were able to read and write. Within the last two or three 
years education has made much progress. Besides several private 
schools, there are now two schools under the charge of the Political 
A^fent, with an average attendance of same 280 children. These 
schools are supported from a grant of one-third of the Nawab*s inland 
cnstoms, a yearly subscription of £50 (Rs. 500) from the Nawab, and 
the school foes. Seven scholarships, at a cost of £700 (Rs. 7000), 
have lately been endowed by Mr. Yarjivandds Manekchand, a 
Caznbay merchant. To complete their studies the holders are sent 
to the Nadi&d High School. 

Chapter IV. 



IBombay Gatetteer. 

Xlhaptar ▼. 




CambaySoi't^h latitude 22° 21' and east longitude 72* 48', with 
Placet oflntereit * population of )>8,709 souls, is the seventh city in Gujar&t and the 

fifteenth in the Bombay Presidency. Rectangular in siiape it covers 
about four square miles. Portions of its old brick wall remaiB. 
Through the wall, besides two small openings for foot and horse 
travellers, there are eight gateways broad enough for carriages. 
Beginning from the north and passing east, the chief gates are, on 
the north two, the Fateh and Pit ; on the east three, the M4ndb, 
Chaka, and Gav&ra ; on the south two, the Furza and Makiu ; aix^ 
on the west the Gh&kamali g^te. Beyond the city wall, though the 
sites of the old suburbs can scarcely* be traced, there aaKtsome 
modem buildings and a few of the older remains in a state of good 
repair. Of these the chief are, on the north-east of the city beyond 
the Mandla gate, a reservoir also called M&ndla, a garden, and 
some fine buildings, said to have been raised in 18.02 in honour ol 
Mr. Duncau^ Governor of Bombay. On the north-west, beyond the 
Fateh gate, is another large reservoir, and a small house, said t'O 
have belonged to KaH&nr&i, the reputed founder of the present 
town. ' Kali4nr4i's memory is still preserved by the Yani&s of the 
city, who, on Dasera day (October), visit the garden and perform 
ceremonies in his honour. Near this are other gardens kept in 
order by the Naw&b, and at a short distance is the Idga or 
Musalman place of prayer. Here, twice a year, on the Bamzi^t^ 
and Bahn Ids, the Nawab, with a large retinue, comes to worship. 
On the south-east, beyond the Furza gate, is the English burying- 
ground surrounded by a well bmltwall. ^d,on the south, beyond 
the Mak&i gate, are some warehouses and stores. 

The chief buildings are the Naw&b's jfe.lace> his court, and the 
dwellings set apart for his household, all in fair order. There U 
also the large residence, orir^Inally the Dnglish Factory, and 
afterwards made into a sarlioarium for European officers. This 
property was, in 1835, sfi4d for £4000 (Rs. 40,000) to Karsetji 
Pastanji Modi, a Bombay P&rsi.^ At present part of the building 
is occupied by the l*esi^nt British Native officer, and the rest i^ 
used as a pablic rest-house. 

> Bntrga* Cities of Gujarislitra, 100. 

CAMBAY. 241 

Of the older remains, the chief is the Jama Mosque, built about Chapter V. 
the beginning of the fourteenth century/ from the stones of Hindu Places of Interest 
temples. It measures 200 feet by 210, and its inner court ^ ^ 

120«l>y 135. Except that it is somewhat smaller, its plan and . 
a.rr&iigements are almost the same as those of the Altamash Mosque 
at Ajmir. In other respects the two buildings are most unlike. 
The three Cambay arches are plain to baldness, and ^ow to suit the 
Jain pillars of the interior. The pillars, all taken from Hindu 
temples, though arranged with little care, form a picturesque whole. 
Oxie of the mosque's most remarkable features is the tomb of Imrdr ^ 

bin Ahmad Kajar&ni the founder. Wh^ly composed of Hindu ^ ^ 

ro&terials, it is two stories high, and was crowned wiirh a dome 
tw^enty-eight feet in diameter. The parts, taken apparently from 
different buildings, were so badly fitted, that^ after ^twiding some 
three centuries, it fell, and has since remained a i|pdn, singularly 
picturesque in form and exquisite in detail.' 

Another place of Musalman resort, where persons who have 

escaped shipwreck come to pay vows, is known as the Kh&ja 

Kheoer Mosque. Near the site of this mosque are the ruins of « 

an old light-house. Outside of the city walls, near the Ndrangshar 

reservoir, is the tomb of a saint known as the Balasir Pir held iu 

much veneration by Bohora Musalmans. Of Hindu remains there 

is a Jain temple of Parasnath. This is of two parts, one above 

XToundf^he other under ground with the date 1526 (S. 1582). 

There are also, in and near the city, nine reservoirs, of which 

the chief is called Ndrangshar. These works are said to have ^ 

been built at the charge of a dancing girl, named Nagina, who 

chose for each a ^ord beginning with N, the initial letter of her 

own name. Many wells near the city are of great age and much 

beauty. One object of some interest is the hospital for animals 

maintained by the Nawab, out of respect for the wishes of his 

Jain subjects. 

On the whole Cambay is poor and ill-cared for. Little money 
is available to improve the town or repair its buildings ; and, with 
dall trade and few industries, its craftsmen and traders have little 
to spend on their shops and houses. 

^ FergussoD giYes 1325, Mr. SuAmers (Bom. Got. Bel. IV.) 1308. 
' Fei^uMon's Architectnre, III. 637. 



s 561—31 \ 














^ y 



^ AND 





B A N S D A'. 

(Vaiisda)j a tributary state under the supervision of 
the Sarat Politicar Agent, in 20^ 44' north latitude and 73° 25' 

It is bounded on the north by the Gaikw&r's Andval sub-division, 
and the river Ambika, on the east by the Gaikw&r's Vidra 
sub>division and the Khdndesh Ddngs, on the south by the 
Dharampur state and Kalvdn sub-division of N&sik, and on the 
west by Dharampur and Ghikhli in Surat. 

It ia a hftlt of rou gh treo -covered couptry. full of small hills and 
valleys, lying between the Sura t plai n and the Sahyddri mountjains. 

Hii ig ^ in the Dang forests, the river Arabika flows through 
several Bdnsda villages. The Kaveri, from its source in 
Mankunia hill, flows, by tbe town of Bansda, towards Ghikhli and 
Balsar, where, at Vagarach, it joins the Ambika. There are few 
wells and ponds. From the large area of brushwood and forest, 
Tnach of the water is always charged with vegetable matter and 
unwholesome. After a season of scanty rainfall, even bad water is 
very scarce. To improve the supply, at a cost of about £30 (Rs. 300) 
two wells were sunk in 1877, one at Champaldhara, and the other 
at Vandarvela. In 1878, c€310 (Rs. 3100) were spent on six wells 
''^ud two ponds. A dam, hdndhdra, has, at a cost of £1 18 (Rs. 1 180), 
been built across the river near B&nsda. 

Though by clearing forests the climate has of late somewhat 
improved, it ia still, especially from the end of the rainy season to 
tile middle of the cold Aroather (October - January), unhealthy. 
Fevers and other diseases prevail throughout the year. The 
average rainfall for the l^t three years is estimated at sixty-four 
i&cbes. In the hot weather the temperature is much the same as 
in Ghikhli, the thermometer rangcng from 90^ to 105"". 

Of minerals a black hard stone L«sef ul for building is found in 
abundance. Of timber trees, there arexA^^k, sag, Tectona grandis ; 
bUckwood^ sisam, Dalbergia sissoo; hathdvcm, Adina cordifolia; 
^nachh, TJjainia dalbergioides ; addadi/f Tenainalia arjuna; bibo, 




"• Riven. 



* FVom materials annplied by RAo* BalMdnr Keaba^I^ Nathubh&i, Supexi&tendeat 
otBlQsda. , ^ 

IBonbijr 8uatt«fr, | 
244 STATR8. 

Fterocarpus marsupium ; kalavt, StepLegjTie panifolia^: ii.: nTia, 
kher, Acacia catecliu ; mhowa, niahudo, Basaia latifalia ;" 
Biigeuia jambul&DK ; Ita^au, Briedelia montana ; timru, 1 
moutoua; kanlt. Acacia kerek ; vajari ; and kangdnli. 
haladran aod addado arc of special, aud the rest of 
value. Though B&nsdu lies close to the Diugs its timber is t. 
aovalnable. Till the time of Riija Gulabsiiigji (I8C2 - 1 ^: 
some lauds were reserved in fi^-e or six villages, the fur' 
farmed outaad freely used by the cultivators. In lS77-7b i 
the destruction of valuable timber, teak, blockwood. 
lanaithh, iMtiiilvari, i'idntia^ bibo, siren, kanti, vdjari, ami 
were set apart as state trees and cau be cut Jiy cuItival■J^:^ liuj 
OB showing passes, and for houaebuildiiig ur field purposes. T*i 
rut dluimani^il'i'm, kani/diili, xarag, timri, diuitnodi, ft«vfii, inam^f; 
hodra, ftiVrtt, SmJ other firewood trees, no pass is reqain-d. In 
1877, 2-17 passes were issued, and about i200 (Ks. ^OiXJ] w.vriii 
of timber and bamboos were cut. Of late, the forest eatablislimyat 
baa been increased, and all forest lauds suited to the growib i/f 
vnbinble timber have been marked oB and are strictly pre^tr ■ 

Kscept that, from scanty pasturage, the cattle are sti'.J 
poorer, the domestic animals do not differ from tboiio t~ 
central Gujarat. The chief wild animals are the Tiger, ri i. , '■. 
tigris ; the Leopard, di-pdo, Felis Icopardus ; the Bear, rinch! : :■ ' 
labiatus ; the Hunting Leopard, chitah, Fells jabata; "— j^-' 
dukkar, Sus indicus ; the Fox, fmikdi, Vnlpes "■ 
Antelope, ttt/i'ir, Antelope bezoartica ; the Four-homed A\.-.- - 
bhekar, Tetraceroa quadricornia ; the Deer, chilal. Axis macii!: ■■■ ■ 

According to the 1872 census the population numbenii ;j C- 
souls, of whom 31,313 or £17-3 were Hindus, 620 or I'J j.i 
Musalmans, 210 or '065 per cent Partda, and 11 ■!'•.'■ 
The percentage of males on the total population was b2-': . i 
females 47-9. Of the 31,313 Hindus all but 1436 (m..l. 
females 665) belong to the tiWiparuj or black races- Alnii 
them are very poor living from hand to mouth, and spemi i 
earnings on spirits. The four c hief tribes are Konkm: , 
Cbodbrds, DhoudiaS j _anJ G^mtfe.. Of these t he Kock u ; 
th irteen clansV are tlie largest. "Living in the hilly ^^llBg^ 
south aud east and speaking a corrupt GujarAti, though i' 
cultivatorn they are very faithful aud honest. They !■ 
believers in gliosis and witchcraft. When any one is atlji. !. 
fever or other di^as^ a holy man, bha'jut.'is called iu and 
palm juice, tidi, and other spirituc'us drinks. He then m . 
offering to the fire, and shal^g bis head like one [j' . - 
utters some woman's name a^-wie cause of the aick mau'^ -; ■ 
The woman is supposed J^ne a witch and is ill-treat«d li 
sick man's friends sometimes so severely as to cause her death, i lu> 
PfirsiB, liquor-sellers' antj revenue contractors, enrich tbemselreB I 




Bt. the expense of the dark races. Of 87 inhabited villages ^, 6 had 
a population of less than 100 souls ; 20 from 100 to 200 ; 43 from 
.^00 to 500 ; 9 from 500 to 750 ; 5 from 750 to 1000 ; 3 from 1000 to 
1 500 ; and one from 2000 to 3000. The number of houses was 4050 
*>T eight persons to each house.^ 

There are some tracts of black land, but over the greater part of 
'he state the soil is light. Rich in the more level tracts to the north 
and west, it is, among the hills and valleys stony and poor. A few 
river bonk villages water their lands by Persian wheels. Of the 
wViole area only one-sixth is tilled. Of the rest about^ one-third 
IS arable waste and two-thirds are unfi£1or tillage, i^mong the 
early, kharif, crops are, rice^ ddngar Oryza sativa, guvdr Cyamopsis 
psoralioides, tal Sesamum indicum, ndgli (white and red) Eleusine 
coracana, kodra Paspalum scrobiculatum, Indiap'T/millet juvdr 
Sorghum vulgare, banti Panicum spicatum, maize malcdi Zea mays, 
tdl Dolichos lablab, adad Phaseolus mungo, and mag Phaseolus 
radtatus. The late, rabi, crops are castor-oil seed diveli Bicinus 
roromanis, gram chana Cicer arietinum, peas va/ana Pisum sativum, 
and idng Lathyrus sativus. Other crops are sugarcane serdi 
Sdccharam officinarum, kulthi Dolichos uniflorus, kharsani and 
^'hogar or varahL Of these, rice, adad, vatdna, and red and white 
.-id^li are grown in large quantities. Some of the soil is well suited 
U^r sugarcane, raising it with one-fourth less water than elsewhere. 
The JsfiSi^ rice bengdiiu is grown at the base of the hills in the beds 
( f 9vaM streams. It is planted after three-fourths of the usual 
raiofiiU is overj and is nourished by moisture that oozes up from 

Under the revenue contract, ijdra, system, which since 1876 is 
Vx'ing rapidly replaced by direct settlements with the land-holders, 
the condition of the cultivating class was far from good. So long 
aj the farmer paid the promised amount, the state did not 
ask how the rents were gathered, or what was left for the 
huBbandman. The contractors, chiefly P^rsis, the actual landlords, 
had all power in their hands. As revenue and police authorities 
they could do as they pleased. Only when driven by some 
special oppression did the people appeal to the chief. Besides 
rents the contractors levied many petty but harassing dues, 
haks, so that in many cases th% cultivator was forced to hand over all 
his produce, trusting to the contractor's forbearance and self-interest 




^ One village Bibib&ri on the borders of th? D&ngs is waste. Its ownership is in 
d2»|mte between Binsda and the Dtogs. 

^ This very large average household is aaid to bt. due to the habits of the aboriginal 
families who either sleep m the open air or huddle togej^er much more closely than 
higher dass Hindus. ^' 

Tliere are twenty -two varieties of rice, bengdUu,^ sukhveL eldiehi, go9dUu, sdliu, 
kcutcif ioma, iuUtu^ ddhhel, hebhad, kKadsi, nadagtu, ddngi, pdn, kcUvi, kamodif 
VfngdGm (inferior sort), ^'iriu, mdrvel, rdmsal, dmbdmohar, and kauchi. 

* The estimated cost and profit of tilling an acre of rioe-land of the better sort is : 
ploughing Sm. (Rt. 3)» seed os. (Rs. 4), sowing 4«. (Rs. 2), weeding 2«. Gd, (Re. IJ), 
cut&g2g. (Re. l),.rent 14«. (Rs. 7) ; total £1 16«. 6d. (Rs. IS as, 4). The outturn is 
^«timated at 12) cwta. (35 jnans) worth £3 18«. 9(f. or 4 net profit of £2 2s. 3d, 
iKa. 21 <M. 2). 

[Bombay Gazetteer 







to give back a part for his aapport Ab they were liqaor-sellers as 
well as revenue contractors, most of the crops, even of the better 
class of cultivators, found their way into the P&rsi middleman^ 
hands. And even for the well-to-do, the want of local markets ml 
the badness of roads prevented the profitable sale of their field 
produce. Besides their money and grain payments, they ha/i, 
village by village, to perform forced and unpaid state laboor^ velk. 
Gangs, occasionally from long distances had to come into Bansda 
and work for the chief, returning without any payment either in 
money or jgrain. They were also in constant fear that the rates 
should be r^dsed or their Mnd taken over by the contractor. Dorinc 
the last year of his lease, it was usual for the contractor to do his 
best to enrich himself, taking the tenants' corn and even their cattle. 
Left often fr^ February till harvest with a too scanty store of 
even the cheapest grain, the cultivators had to work as labourers 
and borrow grain from the contractors and Yanifis. 

In 1876, when the state came under British management, fori'^i 
unpaid labour was stopped. As the village leases fall io^ the 
lands are measured, a small fixed money rent is imposed, aad i 
settlement made direct with the cultivator. Though the change wa^ 
fiercely opposed by the contractors, and was not popular even with 
the land-holders, the condition of the people has, under the nc^ 
system, steadily improved. Some families have already, fcoagn*' 
extent, freed themselves from their bondage to the nri«Ml»a.Ti, 
and silver ornaments are worn where they were before unknowij. 
Of only two years of scarcity, 1835 and 1877, do local rw'^' 
remain. In 1835 the crops failed from want of rain, and, in 1^^ 
with 29 instead of about 60 inches, the rice crop was rained, fl'i 
remissions, amounting in all to about £427 (Rs. 4270), had if' ^' 

The money-lenders, Marvadis, Brahmans, and Pdrsis, sapply ^^^^ 
cultivators with grain, taking back at harvest time double th- 
quantity of grain given for seed, and one and a half times tfr 
quantity given for food. Neither land, cattle, nor field tools kid I 
sold to pay "private debts. When money is borrowed, the ratts •■ 
interest vary, according to the debtor's character and position, i^'^ 
nine to eighteen per cent. Almost all transactions, revenue recc^- 
and state payments, are made in rfroach currency. The *"' 
exception is, that to supply money for expenditure out of Banstb," 
revenue contractors have to make one-fourth of their total payin*/*' 
in British currency. The exaction of forced unpaid labour by t>' 
state and the revenue contractors has, as noticed above, b*'' 
stopped. The only skilled labourers in Bansda are carpenters, «^ 
are paid 9d. (6 anncLs) a day. Labourers, if paid in cash, get near; 
2d. (1 anna 4 pies) a day^and if in gr^n, four pounds, sers, of rict • " 
five, of Jcodra. Cartmen are either paid by the day, or at the raU' < • 
28. (Re. 1) for every twefve miles. 

The country is approached by land only, having neither porU r ' 
navigable rivers. There are two cleared roada« one of eightwi), ?^ ' 
the other of two, miles. * The two mile road between Bansda ft^^ 
the Dfings was opened in 1876. A third road, of about f^^^^ 





miles, ia being opened between B&nsda and Un&i. A bridge on 
tiie road b^nreen Bansda and Hanm&nb&ri at the cost of £81 
'H3. 810), a weir across tbe Bansda river, and two rest-hoasea were 
fiuilt in 1877-78* Until the state came nnder British management, 
there was no regular post. Now a 6elf«sapporting branch post 
olSce has been established at Bansda^ and an office built at a cost 
of £50 (B& 500). One of the Unes of communication between 
Khandesh and the coast passes through B&nsda. Formerly pack- 
bullocks brought from the inland districts large quantities of 
grain and other merchandise taking back chiefly salt. The opening 
o{ the Gyeat Indian Peninsula and the Bombay and Baroda railways, 
to a great extent, put an end to this through traffic. Btit since a 
rood ioT wheeled vehicles has been made, hundreds of timber carts 
pass every year to and from the D&ng forests. The manufactures 
are limited to cotton tape, baskets, and coarse woollei>>loth. 

luring the dry seaaon^ at Bansda^ Ankl&ch, Eh'dmbhla, Limjar, 
Moti Valjar, and Champaldhara weekly market s, bajdrSf are held, 
wh«re traders from Chikhli, Gan'deviJ and other neighbouring places 
<^Q booths. Dealings are carried on with the upper classes by cash 
payments, and, with the dark races, chiefly by barter. At a large 
tair held every year at Undi on the 15tn Ohaitra (March - April), 
ftboat 1000 traders attend, offering Nasik and other Deccan copper 
and brass vessels, and Ahmedabad waist-cloths, dhotars, worth 
iiltogether from £2000 to £2500 (Rs. 20,000 - 25,000). These 
^ruotea— are bought by higher class Hindus who pay in cash. The 
Wiondi&8 and oUier dark tribes, in exchauge for com, take coarse 
cloth and brass ornaments. The average sales vary in value from 
ilOQO to £1500 (Bs. 10,000 - 15,000). 

The B&nsda chiefs are SolankjJRajguts. Of their early history no 
details have been obtaineSnEe^claim to have ruled at B&nsda for 
twenty generations. But the first eight names are doubtful, 
^d DO details are available before the opening of the eighteenth 
c^intury,* The ruins of a fortified enclosure near Bdnsda, and the 
remains of several temples and water works, point to former 
prosperity. It seems probable that their lands once stretched 
fJ the sea coast, and were gradually narrowed by the advance of 
MasalmiSn power, yirsingji, the first chief of whom details 
^fe available, after nilmgduring the first fifteen years of the 
^i^hteenth century, was succeeded by his son Eiybhdnji who, dying in 
^739, left by different wives two sons, Guldbsingji and Jorfivarsingji. 
£^h claiming the succes^on for her son, the ladies referred the 
^tter to Dam&ji G-aikw&r, who decided that the state should be 
^^^ided into two equal shares, and one with Bansda made over to 
Gulabsing, and the other with Bisanpur given to Jorivarsing.' 



Land Trade. 



^ The first eight names are Moldevji, Khadhaldevji, 641devji, Kara&dexii*. Ude* 
>»iyi L, Mol Karanji. and Udeai^-i U. \ * 

* Biaaapor now belongs io the G&ikwir. Half of it Vas, in 1750, made over by the 
^iasda ohiel to the Peahwa, who, in the f oUowing year, ceded it to D4mAji G4ikwir. 
^« Peshwa took it back in 1760, and restored it in 176Z In 1763 the GiikwAr took 
^e whole 8ab«din8ioa« and, is spite of the chiefs protest and the Peshwa't oxder has 
^boeheldit. * 

B d61— 92 

[Bomliay Qftiettoer 








On Gal&bsing's death in 1753^ tlie minister raised a distant 
cousin to the chiefship. Hia claim was contested by Jorivarsiair 
the late chiefs half-brother. In the end, by the arbitration of rbt 
Peshwa and Nazim-ud-din Bakshi of Surat, Udesing tie coti*in 
was confirmed, and Joravar presented with "Sve villages, .0: 
Udesing'a death about 1770, the succession, disputed by Kiratsin^^ 
and Parbatsing, y^&a, by the Peshwa^a minister, decided in bmir 
of Kiratsing. Ten years later on Baratsing's death the rival ckim 
of two brothers Virsingji and Nah^rsingji were decided in 
Virsingji's favour, who raised £5000 (Rs, 50,000) from tlie Ai;i 
of Mandvi, and spent it on the Peahwa and bis court. Oa 
Virsingji's death, in 1789, his brother Nahdrsingji claimed tlie 
succession r He was strongly opposed By TtJayaram, the laid 
chiefs minister, who stated that Naharsingji had already pwsed a| 
deed of reliinifjishment, and that Virsingji's widow was pregiunr. 
The Peshwa's minister decided that Ndhdrsing should refrain frTj 
pressing his claim till the chief's widow was delivered of a cLil 
Disregarding this decision, Nahdrsing took Bansda by for«, a 
on paying a fee, nazardna, of £8600 (Rs. 85,000) was, about 1?. 
confirmed in the chiefship. From that time, besides succession tV- 
of a revenue of £3600 (Rs. 36,000), the Peshwa received t. ' 
(Rs. 7500) as tribute and £150 (Rs. 1500) as transit dues, l^p: 
in 1793, Ndhdrsing was succeeded by his son Raising, during wl)» 
reign, under the terms of the treaty of Bassein 71802, Dect'^:*;' 
81st), the rights and position of the Peshwa as^ the ovecJofii ;* 
B&nsda were transferred to the British. Raising was, in l*!*-' 
succeeded by his remote cousin Udesingjij who ruled till 1829. It 
his death EDaiimixsiilgli a child of eighteen months was, witi (^ 
approval of the Bombay Government, adopted by the four ^i'^' 
of Udesing and of his predecessor Raising. At first the stale ^?^ 
left in charge of the RAnis, but in 1832, in consequence oi*-|' 
misconduct, affairs were administered by an officer under y* 
supervision of the Agent to the Governor at Surat. Few clat- 
were made in the system of management. The resources « •' 
state were most carefully husbanded, and, in 1852, when the mv^'."-' 
of the chief ceased, besides £3145 10^. (Rs. 81,455) in casH. 
state had a credit balance of £13,000 (Rs. 1,30,000) i^^/' 
in Government notes. In 1856, in consideration of the Br 
Government foregoing its share of transit duties, the chief a? 
to pay a yearly tribute, choth, of £150 (Rs. 1500) and toy 
his customs demands to certain rates approved by Governn.' 
Dying in 1862, Hamirsingji was succeeded by Gul/bsin?* ^^ 
on his death in 1876, left one son Pratdpsing, the present ''f- 
then a boy of twelve years. The young chief is being taught »{j- 
R&jkumdr College in Kathi&w&r, while his state is managed P; * 
Superintendent appointed by the British Government. 

Under British maaagemcnt (February 1876 to November ^■■ 
the revenue has risen "from £10,384 * (Rs. 1,03,84) Ui ^^' 
(Rs. 1,39,860), the chief item of increase being £2608 (B8.2o|'-. 
under land revenue. The forests, formerly farmed for abont •• 
(Rs. 4000), have, since 1877, been brought under state m&c'- 

SURAT. 251 

ment. A road has been opened twenty miles to Ohikhli, schools Bfauda. 

have increased from one with thirty pupUs to six with 212, and a History, 
iiispensary has been established at a yearly cost of abont £170 

lRs.1700). ^ 

The B&isda chief pays a yearly tribute of £735 (Rs. 7350), and 
maiptains an armed force of 153 men. He has power to try his own 
^objects for any offence. The family follows the rule of primogeni- 
tJire, and has been vested with the right of adoption. The chief is 
entitled to a salute of nine guns. 

The following is the Bdnsda &jnily tree : ^^ 

(Vm.) Udesingji II.» 
(IX.) Virsingji L (died in 1716). 
(X.) RdybhAnji (died in 1739). ^ 

(XL) GnUbsingji (died In 1753). Jordyarsinen. 

(XII.) Udesinffli HI. (died abont 1770), 

a oousin of Gnl&bsingji. 
am.) Kirataingji (died in 1780). 

(XI7.) Viniagii U. (died in 1789). (XV.) N4h4riingji (died in 1793). 

(XVI.) Edising (died in 1815). 
^ • (XVn.) Udesing IV. (died in 1829), a dis- 

tant oouBin of Biisingji, 

adopted ^ 

(XVIU.) Hamirsingji (died in 1862). 

(XIX.) GnUbsingji (died in 1876), a 
conain of HamirsingjL 

(XX. ) Pratdpsingji (the present Chief). 
1 The nun«t of Udeslngji'i teven predeceasora are given at p. 249. 

As only a small part of the state has been surveyed, the whole ^'•***- 

trea is not accurately known. It may be roughly estimated at 
iiboat 24f0 square miles. Of the eighty-eight villages, eighty-one 
leloQg to tne state, and seven are alienated. The land revenue 
■ystem, in no way altered when the state was formerly (1833- 
lBo2) under British managerment, was to lease groups of villages 
to contractors, ijdrddrs, for terms of five years. This system had 
the advantage of ensuring the state a regular revenue collected 
with little trouble or detail. But under it, when, in 1876, B&nsda 
^ain came under British management, so wretched was the state of 
the people that it was determined, as the leases^ fell in, to 
l^place them by a settlement direct with the cultivators. Accordingly 


^ Of the leases running in 1876, one for one village^ lapsed in 1876 ; a second for 
is villages in 1877 ; a third for two villages in 1878 ; and a fourth for 27 villages in 
1679. A fifth for 31 villages lapses in 1880. The land belonging to the town of 
Mnsda iM divided into fonr farms, two lapsing in 1877 and 1882. The deserted 
Ullage of Bib^biri on the borders of the BiSga is not farmed. 

[Bombay Guitteer, 
252 STATES. 

Binsda. in 1875^ wben the lease of the Tillage V&gh&i lapsed, tihe la&ds were 
y^i\ suireyedj a headman appointed, the holdings of each cnltiTator 

measured, and his rent fixed. The contractors, feeling that one chief 
* source of gain was passing from them, strongly opposed tlie new 

system, aod so thoroughly succeeded in alarming the people, tliat the 
rates could be inrtoduced for one year only. From tne character 
and condition of the people, the unhealthiness of the climate^ and 
the distance from markets, the rates had to be pitched very low, nee 
lands paying only Qs, an acre and dry crop lands from 4«. to 2$, 
Since 1876, when the state came under British management, thirty- 
^^ nine villaffes, twelve in 1876-77, eight in 1877-78, and nineteen in 

1878-79, nave been surveyed and new rates fixed. For rice lands 
the first class acre rates range from 6«. to £1 (Bs« 3 - 10)^ and the 
second from 5^. to ll^. (Bs. 2| - 5^). For dry crops the first class 
rates range from 2^8. to 85. (Bs.1^-4}, and the second class from H 
to 68. {annas 2 - lis. 8). 

In each of these villages were some substantial holders, paying 
rents varying from £2 10^. to £25 (Rs. 25 - 250), and taking 
their crops for sale to Bilimora, Chikhli, Uandevi, and other markets. 
The financial result of the new system has been from the first groop 
of twelve villages, including Vdghai, a rise in revenue from £S"7 
(Rs. 8770) to £1252 (Rs. 12,520); in the second group, from 
£1007 (Rs. 10,070) to £1889 (Rs. 13,890); and for the third gronp 
from £3584 (Rs. 35,840) to £5263 (Rs. 52,630). Along with tie 
measurement and assessment of the lands, a village establisbwent 
• has been introduced. The staff paid by allotments of land inclades 
accountants and messengers, and headmen chosen where possible 
from the dark, kdliparaj, races. When the state came nnder 
British management, fourteen villages were, during the lifetime d 
the present grantees, held on quit-rents as service, y^Wr,chariiable, 
dharmdda, and subsistence, jivdi, grants. Besides these b^ 
grants, lands have in many villages been made over in chanty to 
Brahmans, and, in reward for services, to revenue officers^ tie 
chief's mercenaries, sihandi, and the Dheds. 

Jattioe. Formerly civil disputes might be brought before the chief, wl^'' 

with the help of his manager, gave judgment. But so high a fee; 
twenty per cent of the awaid, was levied that civil suits wert 
generally settled by arbitration. Since 1876, the fee has b^n 
reduced to ten per cent, and, in 1878,* the number of suits hd 
risen to thirty-eight. In 1878 forty-eight boundary disputes were 
settled, and seventeen remained for decision. The people are q^^ 
and orderly, seldom guilty of crime. Formerly clerks, harkuns, heard 
criminal complaints, and disposed of them keeping a memorandam 
of their decisions. Since 1876, the system in force in the neigb- 
bouring British districts, has been introduced, the SuperintendcBt 
being invested with first *class, the mdmUUddr with second clasSj 
and his first clerk with third class, magisterial powers. In^ ^^'^^' 
of 144 cases sixteen wer6 disposed of bv the first class magifitrnt^i 
fifty-nine by the second, and sixty-nine by the third. Besides th^^ 
there were three appeal cases, and two committed to the Agent * 
court. «- 







Aboat a centory ago (1 790)^ the revenae of the state was returned 
at £3600 (Rs. 36,000), of which £3000 (Rs. 30,000) were recovered 
from the land and other sources, and £600 (Rs. 6000) from transit 
dues. In 1852 the revenue stood at £6203 (Rs. 62,030), and from 
that it steadily rose to £7250 (Rs. 72,500) in 1862, and 
£n,550 (Rs. 1,15,500) in 1872. Since the introduction of 
British management, chiefly by the change from the contract to 
the revenue survey system, the revenue has (1879) risen to £13,986 
(Bs. 1,39,860). 

In 1875-76, when the state came under British management, 
there was only one vernacular school in the town of B^nsda. In 
1878 there were five boys' schools with an attendance of 212 pupils, 
of whom 185 were of the upper, ujli, and sixty-t£ree of the 
lower, kali, classes. In 1879 a girls' school was started with an 
attendance of thirty pupils. Four of the six sch9dls are provided 
with buildings. 

In 1877 a dispensary was opened in B&nsda. In the first year it 
was attended by 2557, in the second by 3804, and in the third by 
4550, patients. The chief diseases were fevers, bowel complaints ^ 

and skin affections. In 1878-79, 866 children were vaccinated 
against 1082 in the year before. 

Ba'nsda, the chief town in the state, had, in 1872, a population Places of Interest. 
of 2821 souk. It has a dispensary, a school, and a post office. 

una'i, a small village on the north border of the state, with a 
hot spring, has, on the 15th Ohaitra (March - April), a large fair ' 
attended by some six or seven thousand people. Twenty-five per 
cent belong to the Anavla Brahmans, who according to mythology, 
were, at the Undi spring, consecrated as Brdihmans by the god 
Ram. About fifty years ago some religious mendicants set up a 
female figure and called it the goddess Unii. The &.ir lasts for six 
days, but the 15th, punam, is the chief holiday .^ 


*■ A f oUer aocount is given in the Surat Statistical Aocoont Bom. Gaz. U. 333. 


(Bombay Ouatteer* 









I f 


*- w 



Dharampur, a small state under the saperrision of the Political 
Agent of Surat, in 20° 31' north latitude and 73® 15' east longitude, 
lies to the east of the Balsar and Pdrdi sub-divisions of Surat. It 
has an estimated area of about 800 square mil es, a population, 
in 1872, of 74,592 souls or 941 3 to the square mile, and, in 1878, a 
revenue of £25,060 (Rs. 2,50,000). 

It is bounded on the north by the Chikhli sub-division of the 
Surat district and the state of Bdnsda ; on the east bv the Peint and 
Surgdna states ; on the south by Point, Daman, and Thana; and on 
the west by the Balsar and P&rdi 8ub*divisions of Surat. 

The west of the state i s flat, ris ing gradually towards th e eastern 
hills which separate it from Surgdna and Peint. The eastof the 
country is hi lly, ra ther bare of tre es^ a nd not suite d for till age. 

The state is well supplied with rivers. The Damang an ffl . the 
Kolak, the Par, the Vdnki, the Auranga, and the Ambika, all flow 
through it on their way to the gulf of Cambay, Though of no great 
size these rivers have pools of water all the year round. Its hiUs, 
the number of its water-courses, and its height above the sea, ensore 
a rapid and complete drainage. There are few lakes or reservoirs 
of any size, but at all seasons the beds of the rivers and brooks 
afford a sufficient supply of water. In the north and west are a few 
wells, but in other parts the wild races are content with water 
drawn from river-bed holes. 

Except in the west the water is bad, the climate unhealthy, anJj 
in the not season, the heat is severe. The prevailing diseases are 
fever, cough, dropsy, diarrhoea, and asthma. No accurate estimate 
of rainfall can be given, but it may be put down as something over 
seventy inches. No thermometer readings are available, but the 
mean temperature is probably somewhat lower than in Balsfir. 

Besides a sprinkling of jack, phanas, Artocarpus integrif olia, and 
jdmJmdi, Eugenia jambolana, there are large numbers of mango^ 
amba, Mangifera indica, tamarind, dmlij Tamarindus indica, and 
pipal, Ficus religiosa. There is some sparse teak copse wood 
towards the east, and, towards Peint and Th&na, a forest of bamboos, 
teak, mahuda, Bassia latifolia, blackwood, tanach, Oogeinia dalber- 
gioides, catechu, haladvan^ Adina cordifoha, and eddaao, Terminalia 
anuna» is being preserved and gradually becoming valuable. Tigers, 
vaah, Felis tigris, are now and then found in the eastern hills, and 
Panthers, dipda, Felis leopardus, wander all over the state. There 
is hardly any small gam^. 




According to the 1872 census^ tlie population numbered 74^592 
souls. Of these 73,428 or 98'5per cent were Hindus, 910or 1 •2percent 
Musalnidns, and 254 or '3 per cent Parsis. Of the 910 Musalmans 
808 were Sannis and 42 Shias ; and of the 254 Pdrsis 239 were 
Sbahanshdis and 15 Kadmis. Of the Hindus about 50,000 or 67-03 
per cent belonged to the early or dark races^ MZzgorg^^^ Arranged 
according to occupation, persons employedDytoestate numbered 
760 or 1*01 per cent of the entire population; professional persons 
72 or '09 per cent; personal servants 1181 or 1*5 percent; hus- 
bandmen 54,119 or 72'5 per cent; traders 202 or "2 per cent; 
cmftsmen 4962 or 6*6 per cent; and miscellaneous persons 13,296 or 
17*8 per cent. There are no beggars. There were 13,^21 houses, 
or on aa average, 17*1 to the square mile. Of the whole number, 53, 
iodgiDg 217 persons or *3 per cent of the entire population with 
a population per house of 4*09 souls, were of the tetter sort, tiled 
and brick walled. The remaining 13,468, accommodating 74,375 
persons or 99*7 per cent, with a population per house of 5*5 souls, 
were thatched huts with mud walls. Of the 264 villages, 133 had 
200 inhabitants, 99 had from 200 to 600, 27 from 500 to 1000, 
4 from 1000 to 2000, and one from 2000 to 8000. 

Towards the west the soil is a Qoor .l)lack, eastwards it becomes 
poorer, and, amongst the hills near Surgana and Feint, yields only 
scanty crops of the coarser grains. In some hollows among the hills 
the soil is better, and rice and sugarcane are grown to a limited extent. 
Except in Dharampur and five or six other villages bordering on 
Balsdr and Chikhli, water is drawn both from wells and rivers. Bice, 
dftngar, Orxza sativa, both fine and coarse, is the chief crop ; while 
among poises tuver, Cajanus indicus, and mag, Phaseolus radiatus, 
and sugarcane, serdi, Saccharum officinarum, are grown to a 
limited extent. In the west the crops are the same as those in the 
east of Bals&r. To the east and south inferior crops of the poorer 
grains, such as ndgli, Eleusine coracana, and kodruj Paspalum 
Gcrobiculatum, are grown. The mode of tillage is the same as in 
the neighbouring British districts. 

There is a cleared road from Dharampur to Bals&r, passable for 
carts except during the rains. Another cleared road running from 
Peiut to Chival, a village in Pardi, passes through about twenty miles 
of Dharampur territory. Frpm Chival to P£rdi, a made road passable 
for carts all the year round, afiords an easy approach to the railway. 
A cart road passing south through Peint joins Dharampur with the 
Nasik station on the Great Indian Peninsula line. A regular post 
kept up by the chief runs between Balsdr and Dharampur. Trade 
is small and there are no available returns. Wood and some 
grain find their way to Bals&r and Daman ; and articles of luxury 
and salt pass to Dharampur from Balsar. There is some little 
through traffic from Peint to Balsdr. Besides the ordinary gold, 
iron, brass, and wood work, the only manufactures are mats, baskets, 
and other bamboo articles. * 





1 The deUib are : Dablis USD ; N&ikAa 2953 ; Dhnndida 17,713 ; K4thodi4a 60 ; 
Bbirpifl 73 ; A^ 4680 ; ud DhArlis 28,347 ; totol 49,«16. 

IBombay QtitttMr. 
258 STATES. 

Dhampnr. The raling family are ^igQ^jg^RajQuts of the Solar race. Aooording 

HistOTT, ^ their own traditions^ they, about 700 years ago, under a certain 

R&m BAifH, conquered the country fro^^heBhils: and from their first 
leader their territory used to be^lmST^^ilI^^sT'^l^d Bamnsj^.^ In 
the 15th century the fort of Pamera belonged to it.* In 1576* 
the chief of Dharampur, or R^mnagar, went to meet B^ja Todar Ma) 
at Broach^ gave him £1200 (Rs. 12^000) and four horsesi and vt&b 
allowed to assume the rauk of 1500 horse, and agreed to serye the 
Gujardt Viceroy with 1000 cavaby. In 1609 to check the 
incursions of the Ahmednagar armies, a force of 26,000 men was 

* ^* stationed c^ Q^mnag^r in Dharampur, the chiefs sending contingents 

according ^to their respective power and position.* SWjaji, 
in his attacks on Surat a664JJ70Jj' was helped by the cKets of 
Ghar and R6mnagar , In 1672 paying a complimentary visit to tha 
chief he took flip fort of B&mnagar, saying that he must hare the 
key of his treasure, Surat, in his own hands. Early in the eighteenth 
century 1727, the Mardthds further increased their power over 
the Rdjfl^ taking away seventy-two of bis villages* and forcing liia 

^ to pay one-fourth of his transit dues. In 1786, a year of drongbt, 

the people rose on the chief, marched on Dharampur, and burnt the 
castle.^ The connection of the British with the Dharampur chiei 
dates from 1803, when, under the terms of ihe treaty of Bassein 
(1802, December 31st), the Peshwa's claims to tribute were msde 
over to the British.® In 1831, Rdia Vijaydeyji fell bo deeply w 
debt that an Arab officer, who had become his surety, threfttenea 
. force if his claims were not paid. The chief called in the Bombay 
Government, and an arrangement was made under which n^^J 
villages were mortgaged to the creditors, and a fixed sum set epar^ 
for the chiefs support. The chief spent the rest of his life ^^ 
Surat and Bwroda living in the most extravagant and diasolate 
style, and always sunk in debt.® He was in 1857 succeeded by 
his son Rd,mdev]i, and he in 1860 by his son N&randevji, the preaei-t 
chief, who, living at Dharampur, manages his affairs with pruden^» 
and, subject to the advice and general control of the Political Age^^ 
himself administers the state.^^ The chief change since the accession 

of the town was changed from Modv egdn to Dharampnr. n v « 

« Brigg8» Ferislita, IT, Sir'Grantaoi lanil anS writings on temples and wells snow 
that Dharampur once incdnded the>eight divisions of Uamohirgady SegvB, AshMXia^^ 
BAh&ra, Udva, B&Upur, Dharampun, and Na^;ar HavdL 

s Bird's Mir&t-i-Ahmadi, 344. 

« Major Watson's History of Gnjarit, 68. 

■ Orme's Historical Fragments, 27, 28. ^ 

* These Tillages were afterwa^^de made over to the PctrtngasM by the lfai<tbUy bo" 
sow form part of Daman. ^ 

7 The state records w^re destroyed in a fire in 1785, and nothing reg^'^"'^ 
early history of the state can iv>w be traced. 
« Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 318, 319, CXXIII. 

* The whole of this debt hasl)een paid off by the present ruler KAiandevii ,.^ 
^ 1^0^ family tree of the Dharampnr honse is available. Acoordiog ^ P^^ 

aooonnts the present chief is the twenty-first in descent from the founder <'' ^^ f !j. t 
The names of the former mlers be, Rim Bija, Somshib, Parandarah^ Dbammv^'^ ' 


• SURA.T. 



f the present ruler, was, in 1870, on condition of lowering the rates 
to iOi^ndesli and paying a yearly snm of £900, the grant of the 
^lerpetual farm of the British share of transit duties. 

The Dharampor chief exercises second class powers, trying his 
own subjects for every class of offences. The fcimily follows the rule 
n( priinogenitare and has a patent, sanad, allowing adoption. He 
inaiutains a force of 203 men and is entitled to a salute of nine 






The land revenne and liquor contracts are for the most part farmed 
to Farsis and sometimes to Hindus and Musalmans. The &rmers, as a 
rule, pay the Raja partly in cash and partly in gi-ain and grass. There 
are many cesses, but all are generally included in the 'gross sum 
leviable from the village householders. The land is not liable to be 
sold for private debts. The incidence of the land tax is much the 
same as in Bansda. 

The chief is the final authority in eivil and criminal matters. 
Under him is a judge, nydyddhish, in whose hands all details of 
procedure are left. Except civil suits settled by arbitration the judge 
hears both civil and criminal cases. Depositions are taken in his 
presence and the case is decided summarily. Murder is punished by 
life imprisonment, other heinous crimes by imprisonment, and less 
^ave offences by fine and whipping. There is no village police. 
A regular district corps under a chief constable has lately been 

There are three schools at Dharampur, one for girls and two for 
bojs. One is an Anglo-vernacular school teaching English up to the 
fifth standard. There are five more schools in other parts of the state. 
Arrangements have lately been made for introducing vaccination. 

Arnal, about nine miles south of Dharampur, has a hot spring where Tlacm of Interest, 
a yearly fair is held on Ghaiira sud 1 5th (April -May) . Dharampur, 
wiih, in 1872, a population of 3233 souls, has, besides the chief s 
straggling inconvenient palace, some well built houses. It has 
a dispensary and a good school, and something has been done 
to water and light its streets. NagaTj^ the ancient_^apital of the ^ 

state, about twenty-four miles south-west of Dharampur has a 
yearly fair on Ghaitra sud 15th (April -May). Pa'nikhadak and 
Panga'rba'ri have small yearly fairs in the month of Ghaitra 
(April -May). Pindval and V eta' l, small hills, have the ruins of 
old forts. 


OopuahAh, Jagatsh&h, Niranshilh I., BharamBh&h IL, Jaedev, Lakahmandev, Som- 
dev II., Rimdev I., Sadev, RAmdevII., Dharamdev III., Nirandev II., Somdev III., 
Ropdev, Vijaydey (died 1857), R&mdev III. (died I860), and Ndrandev III. (the 
present Chief). • 

B 561-33 







[Bombftf Gftzetteer. 


Sachilli an estate of twenty villages^ scattere d throngli tbe 
Chordsi and Jalalpur sub-divisions of Surat, in about 21* 41' north 
latitude and 73' 5' east longitude, has a total area of jixty-five 
s quare mile s, with, in 1872, a population of 17,103 souls orloo'12 
to the square mile, and, in 1878, a revenue of £17,717 (Rs. I,77,r0i. 

Especially ia the villages of Dumas and Bhimpor at the znontb^ 
of the Tdpti and*Mindhola, the climate is healthy and pleasant. Th 
average yearly rainfall is ijDout thirty-six inches, and the average 
range of the thermometer from 80° to 90°. The common forms ni 
sickness are fever, cough, and bowel affections. 

There are no forests, but, as in the neighbouring parts of Surat, 
there is a free growth of mango, dmba, Mangifera inaica, tamarind, 
dmli, Tamarindus indica, nim, limbdo, Melia azadirachta, banyan, 
vad, Ficus indica, piplo, Ficus religiosa, wild date, khajuri, 
Phoenix sylvestris, and o|iher trees. . 

The 1872 census gives a total population of 17,103 sonla, oi 
whom 14,678 or 858 per cent were Hindus, 2272 or 18*3 per cent 
Musalmdns, and 153 or '9 per cent Pdrsis. There were, in 15/2* 
4491 houses, or an average of 100 houses to each square jnile. Oi 
these, 415, lodging 1964 persons or 11'4 per cent ofthe^We 
population at the rate of 4*7 souls to each house, were built of 
stone or fire-baked brick. The remaining 4076, accommodatiDir 
16,554 souls or 88*6 per cent at the rate of 4*06 persons to e^ch 
house, were mud walled, grass or palm-leaf thatched huts. 0* 
the twenty villages, two had a population of less than 200 souls, six 
had from 200 to 500, six from 500 to 1000, four from 1000 to '» 
and two from 200O to 5000. Except deep-sea fishers, sailors, and 
tile turners, who sometimes leave their homes for as long as elp^ 
months at a time, the whole of the Saehin people is stationan^ 

The soil is in some places black, and in others ligtt. The 
number of ponds and wells, of which there is a good supply?'' 
being yearly increased.^ The chief crops are rice, ddtigar, Ory^'^ 
sativa; millet, bdjri, Penicillaria spicata; Indian millet, j^i^'- 
Sorghum vulgare ; wheat, g^/iaw, Triticum sestivum ; furer, CajariU- 
indicus; mag, Phaseolus radiatus; sugarcane, serdi, Sacchaniw 
officinarum j and cotton, kapda, Gossypium herbaceum. The i^P 
is the same as in the neighbouring British and Gaikw^ villages. 

6 ■ 

» From materialB Bupplied by Mr. E. C. K. Ollivant, ABsistant Collector in ch»rg? 
of Saehin. . , _ij. 

> In 1878 a Bum of £456 (Ha. 4560) was spent in bnildlng and repainsg «rfii 
and ponds. ^ 




A lately built breakwater at Damaa and a causeway at Bhimpor^ 
bj keeping out the tidal water^ prepare the way for making culturable 
a large area of salt land. 

The business of money-lending is almost entirely in the hands of 
gr^in-dealers, as a rule M&rvadi Shravaks. Formerly most state 
iiemands were payable in Broach rupees ; but the British is the 
only currency now recognised. Except labourers employed by the 
1 5(ate, whose daily wages in the lifetime of the late Nawdb were 
i^. {^1 annas) for a man, 2^(2. (1^ annas) for a woman^ and Hd. 
\\ anna) for a boy^ the same prices and wages prevail as in the 
neighbouring British villages. The weights and measures are the 
same as in Snrat. 

Up to the death of the late Nawdb (1873), except three miles 
between Bhimpor and Gaviar on the way to Surat, there were no 
made roads. Since 1873, bridged and metalled reads have been 
made^ from fihe Bhimpor road to Dumas 1^ miles* from Sachin ta 
the railway station three-quarters of a mile, and from Sachin to 
Lachpor on the Mindhola river two miles. The Sachin section 
of the Sachin and Surat road is now under construction. A bridge 
over the tidal creek at the village of Udhna was completed in 
1877-78 at a cost of £1635 ]2». (Rs, 16,356), and in 1877-78 arest- 
hoose was built at Sachin. 

There are three ferries on the Mindhola river between Sachin and 
the G4ikw&r's Maroli sub-division. 

There is one post-office in the town of Sachin, under the manage- 
ment of the British post department. 

The Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway runs through 
about seven miles of the state. The average traffic at the Sachin 
station, during the five years ending 1877, was, of passengers 22,988, 
^nd of goods 1672 tons.^ 

The hand-loom weaving of cotton cloth is carried on in one or 
two villages, chiefly in Kotha, whose cloth, woven by Musalman Tdis, 
U held in high local esteem. Near Sachin station is a steam cotton 
ginning and pressing factory. 

The Naw4b of Sach in is of African descent.* When his 
ancestors came to India is doubtful. During the fifteenth century, 
under the name of the 8idis of Danda-Rdjapur ^nd_ J anjir a in 
the Konkan, they were known, first as the Bijapur (1489-1686), 
and afterwards as the Moghal, admirals. Under Bijapur, their fleet 
guarded commerce and carried pilgrims to Mecca, and, in 1 660, 
on receiving a yearly grant of £30,000 (Rs. 3,00,000) from the Surat 
revenues, they became Aurangzeb's admirals. In thd eighteenth 








^ In 1878, £2069 (Rs. 20,690) were spent on road repair^ 

' The details are: 1873, passengers 20,318, goodn 1483 tons; 1874, passengers 
24,448, goods 1*2*28 tons ; 1875, passengers 23,142, goods 1419 tons ; 1876, passengers 
'23,143, goods 1900 tons ; and 1877, passengers 23,890, j^ods 2329 tons. 

' In western India Habshi inclades not only Abyssinians but Africans from the 
SomAli coast. 

[Bombay Ouetteer, 

260 STATES. 

Sachin. century on the decline of Moghal power^ the Janjira Sidis becamn 

History. notorious pirates^ plundering the ships of all nations except the 

English, whose friendship they cultivated.^ During the early years 
^ of the eighteenth century, the Sidis were at constant war with the 

Marath^, and, though the Peshwa succeeded (1736-37) in annexing 
the greater part of their lands, he failed, in spite of yearly expeditions, 
to take their island fort.^ In 1762, to the exclusion of Abdul 
Rahim t he rightful heir, Sidi Y&kut succeeded at Ja njira. Ifelpod 
by the Mar4thas, Abdul Bahim, though defeated and a fugitive, 
was so formidable a rival, that Sidi Ydkut compromised the dispute 
^ by promising that, on his death, Abdul Rahim should succeed to 

^ Danda-Rdjapur and Janjira. Under this agreement Abdul Rahim 

succeeded in 1772, and continued to rule till his death in 1784. On 
Abdul Rahim's death, to the exclusion of his eldest son Abdul Karim 
Y akut Kh&n commonly called BaluMia^Sidj^Jghgr, commandant 
of Janjira*^seized the chief sh^TTBaluTEaned to Poona. His 
cause was strongly supported by Nana Phadnavi s. who was anxious 
by some means to gain power over the unconquerable island of 
Janjira. Johar appealed to the English to settle the dispute, declaring 
that he would fight as long as he had one man left and the rock 
of Janjira remained. Efforts were made to prevent the outbreak of 
war, and, on his making over his claims on Janjira to the Peshwa, 
Ydkut Khan or Bdlu Mia was guarantee d a tract of land near Su rat 
estimated to yield £7500 (Rs. 75,000) a year.* " 

• The first instalment of the grant consisted of seventeen detached 

villages in the Chorasi sub-division known as the sattarcidm pa rgana. 
As it was found that the territory, then granted, dia not yield the 
promised revenue, an addition was made of three P&rcholWilages 
now part of Jalalpur. But as the l^eshwa never succeeded in 
reducing Janjira, no farther grant of territory was made. B4la Mia 
arrived at Surat, and, after a short residence there, proceeded to 
the small fort of Sachin . which he had chosen as his head-quarters. 
Shortly after on paying the Emperor Sh4h Alam II. a fee, nazardrui, 
he received the title of Naw db. He afterwards changed his 
residence to L^c^fp^r . and, dying in 1802, was succeeded by his son 
I^rjilmn Muhammad Yakut Khan. In 1816 an attempt was made 
to induce the Nawab to transfer to the British, criminal and civil 
jurisdiction in his villages. But as the concessions offered were not 
considered suflGicient, the negotiations* fell to the ground. His 
extravagant habits plunged the Nawab into money difficulties^ and 
in 1833 an inquiry, made by the British Government, showed 

^ In a treaty with the Sidis, the British Govemmeni, in 1733* pledged itself to 
perpetual alliance and sincere friendship. 

' In 1736-37 the Peshwa acquired half the revenues of eleven mahAIs in ib^ 
Habshi's territory. Durinff thek ascendancy, every year between 1682 and 1736 the 
Marithto attacked Janjira. out, having to leave during the rainy season, always failed 
to take the island. 

' Sidi Y4kut had made a win bequeathing the principality to the second son •'^f 
Abdul Rahim at his father's death,tcnder the guarrlianship, in rase of a minority, lA 
his own friend Sidi Johar. Grant Duff's History, (Bom. £a.) 507. 

* Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 315, CXXIIL 



I SURAT. 261 

I claims against his estate amoanting altogether to £132^823 lOs. Sadiiii. 

(Ra. 13^28^235). At his request the British Government agreed to Hiatoiy. 

effect a settlement. In 1835 ^ the debt was guaranteed ; and all the 
villages, except Sachin and L^chpor^ were attached and the country ^ 

managed by the District Judge then Agent at Surat ; and, after 
siting apart £1800 (Rs. 18^000) a year for the maintenance of 
the NawAb, the balance, about £6700 (Rs. 67,000), was spent in 

Eaying oflE the debt.^ Djnbig in 1853, the Nawdb was succeeded 
y his son Sidi Abdul Karim Khan. In 1859,» when £78,581 
(Rs. 7,85,810) of tETSeEt had been paid, the attachment was 
withdrawn, and, as the revenue had faUen to £7891 (Rs. 78,910), ^ 

Government agreed to hand over the whole estate to theJfaw^b, on ^ 

his promising to pay, every year before the first of {une, a sum 
of £3500 (Rs. 35,000), until the outstanding sum of £54,242 
(&. 5,42^420) should be cleared off. In 1859 the Nawdb received 
a patent, sanad, guaranteeing the succession of his' state according 
ioMusalmdn law. Till his death in December 1868, he regularly 
paid the yearly sum of £3500 (Rs. 35,000). He was succeeded by 
his son Ib rahim Muhammad Yakut Khdn, who died in 1873 leaving 
a son AbcTon^adflX, the present chief, then a boy of nine years. , 

Since 18 7^^ the state has been managed by an assistant to the 
Political Agent of Surat, and, by regular yearly instalments, the 
whole of the debt was cleared off in 1877. 

The following is the Sachin family tree : 

(L) Abdul Karim Y4kut Khin (commonly known as B&la Mia) 

(died 1802). 

(IL) Ibr&him Yikut Kh&n 

, (died 1853). 

(III.) Abdul Karim Khdn 

(died 1868). 

(IV.) Ibrahim Muhammad Ydkut Khin 
(died 1873). 

(V.) Abdul K4dap 
(the present Chief). 

The chief is entitled to a salute of nine guns, and has power to 
try all offences committed by the people of his state. He maintains 
a force of sixty-two men. In point of succession the family follows 
the rule of primogeniture. 

The state lands are tilled on the holding, Tchatahandi^ system. In LuuL 

theory, possession depends on the Nawdb's pleasure ; in practice, 
a holder cannot be ousted unless he fails to pay the assessment. 
Holdings can be transferred only with the chief^s sanction and on 

1 This and not 1829 (Aitchison's Treaties, IV. 311) f;pems to haTe been the date of 
the attachment. 
' The terms of the agreement are given in Aitchison's Treaties (1876), IV. 316. 
^ This and not 1864 (Aitchison's Treaties, IV. 311) seems to be the correct date. 

(Bombay OMCtteer, 
262 STATES. 

the payment of a fee, nazardna, varying from five per cent of the 
1^^ assessment in the case of direct male succession, to twenty per cent 

on a trcoisfer to an outsider.^ 

Arable waste taken for tillage pays a fee, nazararuif of about 
twenty per cent on the first year's assessment. Neither land n'or 
field tools are liable to be sold for private debts. In all the villages 
the land assessment is paid in money, and generally speaking the 
fields are tilled by the persons in whose names they stand. Of 
26,814 acres the total area, 23,604 belong to the state, and 8210 
^ are alienated. Of the state land 63,921 acres are unarable. Of the 

^ arable area 15,649 acres are occupied and 1563 acres waste. On 

the occupied arable land the assessment averages 16^. 8d. (Rs. 8 as, 2) 
an acre, compared with ISs. 4^d. (Rs. 6 as. 11) including the 
local fund cess, in the neighbouring British villages. The acre rates^ 
on land able to yield sugarcane and similar crops, vary from £2 6^, 
to £3 (Rs. 23-30), on rice land from £1 la. to £2 18s. (Rs. 10^-29), 
and on ordinary dry crop land from 4s. to £1 10«. (Rs. 2-15). The 
revenue is collected in two villages in two instalments, December 
and February, and in the rest in three instalments, December, 
February, and April. The process for the recovery of arrears is the 
same as in British villages. Billets, mohsals, are seldom resorted 
to. Remissions are granted in cases of damage by fire or flood, of 
extreme poverty, or in specially bad seasons. 

Jaitioe» Civil and criminal authority rests with the Nawab and his oflSoers. 

Formerly to settle questions of usage, caste heads and councils, 
panchcuyat8,B,nd in fiscal matters, village headmen and other hereditary 
revenue officers, were consulted by the Nawab. In cases decided 
by the Nawdb, the statements of witnesses were taken in writing 
by the court clerks, and were then read over to the Nawab in the 
Darb^r room, usually in the absence of the parties. In civil suits 
a commission of ten per cent on the amount at issue was paid by 
the plaintifE in advance, and recovered from the defendant if the 
plaintiff gained the suit. Process fees were also levied at rates 
varying from 3d. to 4s. (annas 2 - Rs. 2). In criminal cases, the 
usual punishment was, in the lighter offences, tine, and in the more 
heinous, imprisonment. On the complainant paying a fee of 2s, 
(Re. 1) petty offences might be compromised. During the minority 
of the present Nawdb, British codes and acts have been introduced, 
and the following courts established. The court of the minister, 
diwdriy with jurisdiction in civil suits up to £100 (Rs. 1000) ; of tho 
sub-divisional magistrate, tahsilddr, with the powers of a second class 
magistrate ; of the Assistant Agent in charge of the state with, in 
criminal matters, the powers of a district magistrate and 'assistant 
judge, and in civil cases the powers of an assistant judge ; and of the 
Agent to tihe Governor .with the powers of a District and Sessions 
Judge, Government exercising the powers of the High Court. In 

^ The details are : direct male descent, 5 per cent ; direct female descent* 10 p«r 
cent ; conateral succeiaion, 10 per cent ; transfer, 20 per cent. 




1878-79, 806 ciril, 126 criminal,^ and three appeal cases were 
disposed of. Registration is practised, and fees levied according to 
the following scale: on deeds of sale and mortgage bonds, a five 
and four per cent fee j on wills and adoption deeds, a fixed fee of 
K^. (Rs. 5) ; and on all other deeds, a fixed fee of 88. (Rs. 4). From 
the Kolis of Damas a divorce fee of £5 (Rs. 50) is levied, and 
» fee of 2«. 6d. (Re. IJ) on applications for the restitution of 
icnjngal rights. A fee of 2». (Re. 1) is also charged on powers 
•!i attomej^, petitions of appeal, sealing decrees, and withdrawing 
from, or compro^lising, suits. A fee of Is, {annoLS 8) is charged on 
agreements and security bonds. On ordinary petitions^ the fee is 
\hL (anna 1). 

Most villages have a police as well as a revenue nead whose 
emolnments are fixed. The other village servants combine revenue 
ftnd police duties. The chief of them, the village mo^senger, havdlddr, 
is paid at 8«. (Rs. 4) a month; the rest, from one to five in number, 
of the Dubla or Dkeda cast, enjoy rent-free plots of land. At 
the head of the police is a chief constable, faujddr, whose head- 
quarters are at Sachin, and who has the control of the troops, 
s^handi, 64 in number, 24 Arabs, 17 mounted, and 23 foot police. 
The Arabs, the armed police of the state, are directly under a 
jdmnddr, an Arab of some importance, who supplies the contingents 
in Dharampnr, Bansda, and Sachin. The mounted police and 
constables, though ordinarily employed on revenue qr escort duties, 
are available for police purposes. Occasionally proprietors, girdsids, 
are called on to supply police guards at the Nawab's residence. 

Daring the forty-three years ending 1879, the gross yearly revenue 
has risen from £9500 to £18>956 (Rs. 95,000 - 1 ,89,560) . After paying 
the last of the debt, and with outstanding liabilities amounting to 
only £1067 (Rs. 10,670). there remained on the 31st July 1878 a 
balance of £14,396 (Rs. 1,43,960). 

As a source of revenue spirits come next to land. This, as in 
the Surat district, consists of the amount bid by village tavern- 
keepers at a public auction for the right to make and sell spirits and 
palm juice, tddi. 

fJuder the head cesses, the chief items are : on the cotton press 
and ginning yards, from £1 to £5 ; on the village shepherds, from 
^1 lOs, to £6; on the tanbers, 6s. to £2-6; on each grain dealer 
and money-lender, 6s. to £5; on each goldsmith, 4s. to 12s.; on 
each weaver, 4s. to 8s. ^ on each butcher, 10s.; on each cotton 
cleaner, 2s. to 12s. ; on each oil-seller, 4s. to 8s. ; and on 
each fisherman* and sea-coast Koli, 2s. to 10s. There is also a 
duty of 74 pounds on every cart-load of 1200 pounds (30 Surat 
nans) of grain imported into Dumas. The right to levy this duty, 



1 The details are : hart 29, wrongful restraint ^, insult and petty assaults 19, 
mischief 30, house- trespass 1, theft 30, criminal hreach of trust 3, cattle pound 
offences 6, and excise 4 ; total, 126. 

' Besides the poll cess, the Dumas, Bhimpor, and Gaviar fishers pay on each stake 
oet, golva, £1 10s. ; on each drag net, lodh, 1 8. ; on each marriage, lOid. ; and on 
each re-marriage, 69. * 







Crown Duel. 



Places of Interest. 

[ItmhBj Otfrtteer, 



as well as the right of selling copper and brass vessels is pat to 
auction^ and brings^ on an average^ from £2-10. to £3 (Rs* 25-30). 
A yearly sum of £1 58, (Rs. 12^) is levied from the Dumas shop- 
keepers in consideration of their having the sole right of buying thtj 
thread spun by the fishermen. Under the head of cesses comes the? 
right to levy what is known as the Dumas choJd dues. This rz,^ht 
is at present farmed for a yearly sum of £201 14«. {Rs. 2017). 
The dues consist of an additional twenty-five per cent on the cesses 
on fishermen and sea coast Kolis. on staKe and drag nets, and on the 
masters of shi ps. This right, which formerly belon^d to the British 
Grovemmei^t,^ was made over to the Nawdb in 1865, upon hia 
undertaking to pay a fixed yearly sum of £170 (Rs. 1700). The 
state draws *no revenue from customs or transit dues. Tolls are 
taken at two places, one on the Sachin and Surat road for the repairs 
of a bridge over a Jiidal creek, the other at the ferry at the month of 
the Mindhola river between Bhimpor and the Gsikw&r village of 

Under this head come the crown dues, nazardnas, payments made 
by state servants and others in piiblic assembly on the Dasera, the 
Moharam, and the Bamzdn and Bahri Ids. Village headmen and 
accountants pay 4^. and 39. (Bs. 2 and 1^) respectively. Besides 
these items certain original dues, mdmuli haks, of sheep, dried fish, 
rope, thread, vegetables, and earthen vessels, worth about £50 
(Rs. 500) a year, are levied in kind. 

According to the 1872 census, of 14,678 the total Hindu population, 
1184 or 8*06 per cent ; of 2272 the total Musalman population, 122 
(males 119, females 3) or 5*3 per cent ; and of 153 the total P^rsi 
population, 38 (males 30, females 8) or 24*8 per cent, were able to read 
and write or were being taught. Within the last four years the 
number of schools and pupils has much increased. There are (1879), 
under the education department, five schools maintained at a yearly 
cost of £113 (Rs. 1130), with an average attendance of 176 pupils, 
and two private grant-in-aid schools. 

The dispensary, opened in 1878, was, in that year, at a cost of 
£93 (Rs. 930) attended by 1775 out-door and three in-door patients. 
Of the out-door patients 1 728 were cured, one died, ten left, and ten 
were under treatment at the close of kthe year. The chief diseases 
were malarious fever, liver, and skin affections. In 1878, 409 persons 
were vaccinated. 

Bhimpor, a village of 2772 souls on the* sea-coast near the month 
of the Tapti, has a small temple dedicated to Hanumdyi, On the 14th 
of the first half of Bhddrapad (September-October) a yearly fair is held 
in honour of the god, when people from Surat throng in numbers. 

^ It is hard to say how the Jj^rituh Government came to have thiB right. The 
present Sachin villafes in the Ohori^ sub-division belonged to the Giihw^, who 
sranted Uiem to Sakh^r^ B&pa from whom they passed into the Peahwa's bands. 
Whether the Dumas choki dues ever belonged to the Peshwa, or whether they passed 
direct to the British as an appurtenance of the port and city of Surat, or wer# 
acquired by them through the Gaikwir, is doubtful 


SURAT. 265 

Dmnas, a village of 4531 souls^ a mile from Bhimpor, with some Sachin. 

good houses, excellent water, and a cool climate, is, during the hot 
season, a favourite resort for the European residents of Surat. It ^ 

has a school-house, with room for 200 children, built in 1878 at a 
cr>8tof £200 (Rs. 2000). 

Sacllill, a small village of 722 souls, has, besides tte Naw&b^s 
palace and a garden, a school, a dispensary, and a post office. 

B 5C1— 3* 



I N D E X\ 

ibjrsnnian Agate Workers : 206, note 3. 

iga: Raahid Beg, minister (1766), 228. 

igar: state, 142. 

igates : R. K. 11 • 12 ; manufactare of, 67 ;C, 198, 

igate Caps : 205, note 1. 

Ige : population according to, 21. 

igricultnre : R. K. 38-40 ; C. 183. 
Uimad I.: 217. 
^iunad II. : 218. 

iiJm: river, 92. 

ikbar : 218. 
lUa-ud-din Shilji : 216. 

ilva : state, 143. 

imripur : estate, 151. 

i^Ior&Yati : river, 5. 

iaamdera : place of interest, 157. 

^^vla : a Br4hman sub-division. See Bhdthela, 

Anghad: state, no, 

Ikdmals: R. K., 16-17 ; C. 183. 

Irea : R. K. 1 ; C. 181. 

\xjlil : place of interest, 257. 

bras '.battle of, 230. 

Uhraphi : a Cambay ulcer, 183. 

I^EllYilL : river, 5. 

Ispect : R. K. 2 ; C. 181. 

lasessment : R K. 70 ; c. 234. 

&Udich : a Brdhman sub-division, 23. 

^b&ghor : agates, R K. 162, footnote ; C. 207. 

B^hvati : tiger town, 183. 

BilijiillOr: state, 1, 2 ; area, bouiylaries, popula- 
tion, sub-divisions, history, family tree, 137-140; 
place of interest, 157. 

Balhar^ : rulers of Cambay (9U), 214. 

Bands AU: Naw&b (1823), 232. See Momin 

Biusda : area, boundaries, aspect, rivers, water 
supply, climate, trees, animals, population, soil, 
cro^, tillage, husbandmen ; money-lending, 
currency, wages, roads, post, land trade, fairs, . 
history ; land administration, justice, revenue 
&nd finance, instruction, health, vaccination, 
town, 246-253. 

BArg&ma: sub-division, 98. 
Barbosa t traveller (1514), 206. 

Bards and Actors : 25. 

B&riya : state, 1,2; boundaries, aspect, rivers, hilla 
climate, products, population, sub^ofvieidn^^ his ^ 
tory, development (1865-1876), family tree,! 15 
120 ; place o€ interest, 167 - 159. 

Bassein : treaty of (1820), 232, 250. 

B&T&pir : plAce of interest, 159. 

B&wa^Ghor: camelian merchant, R K. 168 ; 
C. 206. 

Baw&r\j : pirates, 188. 

Beggars: 25, 

Bhidarva : state, 152. 

Bhilod : sub-division, 97. 

Bhartharis : songsters, 25. 

Bh&ts : as escorts, 194. 

Bh&thela: a Brahman sub-division, 23, 253. 

Bhils: tribe of, appearance, house, dress, food» 
occupation, character, religion, holidays, festivals, 
customs, conmiunity, 26-32, 95 footnote. 

Bhilodia : state, 145. 

Bhimpor : place of interest, 264. 

Bhoi: caste of, 25. 

Bihora: state, 144. 

Birds : 17. 

Blind : 21. 

Bohora : a Musalm&n sect, 185. 

Boundaries : R K. i ; C. 181. 

Brdhmans : R* R« 22-23 ; settlement in Cambay^ 
214; plunder of, 228. 

British (Government : connection with, R. l^ 61 ; 

0.(1802-1880)1 232,233. 


CSBSar : Frederic, traveller (1585), 191, 218. 

Cambay : a sanitarium (1837), 182 ; plundered 

' (1304, 1347, 1349), 216 ; (1536, 1538), 217 ; place 
of interest, 240-241. 

Cambay Stones : Gamelians, agates and other 
varieties ; processes of manufacture, ornaments, 
polishers, trade guilds, trade history ; 198-207. 

Ca^tal : 41 -45. 

Capitalists : R K, 41 ; C. 209. 

Camelians : 198, 199. 

Carpets : manufacture of, 208» 

> In this index B. K. stands for Bbwa Kantlia, O. for Oambay. 



.'astes: 22-34. 

yensuB : see Population. 

Jh&lokyas : rulen of Cambay (950), 214. 

rni&mpAner : city, 59, 60. 

31liziod : place of interest, 159-161. 
ThiX HabeM : sub-division, 123. 
:hh&liar : state, 152. 

rhhota UdepUr : state, l, 2 ; boundaries, aspect, 
rivers, hills, climate, crope, population, sub-divi- 
sions, history, family tree, 110-115. 

Cholera : 89. 

Chor^Lngla : state, 145. 

Cbr i8tiq |fl ^. 

ChudeSax : state, 145. 

tJlimate : R. K. 10 ; C. 182. , 

Cloth : weaving of, R. K. 56-58 ; C. export of, 191 ; 
veaving of, 208. 

Communicationfl : 187. * « 

CommimitieB : 35. 

Condition of Cambay: (1345), 216 ; (1469-1513), 

217 ; (1600-1700), 219 ; (1737-1748), 224 ; (1772), 
229j C. (1838), 233. 

Cotton gins:. 

Courts: number and working of, R. K. 77-80; C. 235. 

Craftsmen : 25, 42. 

Crimes : see Offences. 
Crops : R. K. 39 ; G. 183. 
Currency : R^K. 43; C. 209. 
Customs : 238. 

Day-labourers : see Labouring Classes. 


De la Valle : traveller (1623), 219. 

Density of Population \ R. K. 19 ; C. 184. 
Depressed Classes : 25. 

Dev : river, 5. 

Devalia : state, 143. 

Dev Mogra : place of interest, 161. 

Dev3fttia : peak, 3. 

Dhari : state, 152. 

Dhink&S : caste of, 34, 95 footnote. 

Dharampur State: area, boundaries, aspect, water- 
supply, climate, products, population, soil, cropSi 
roads, history, land management| justice, in- 
struction, places of interest, 254-257. 

Dbumkhal : place of interest, 161. 

Diseases: R. K. lO, 89 ; C. 183. 
Dispensaries : 89. 

Div : island, 6. 

Domestic Animals : 16. 
Dor : see Sursi. 
Dorka: estate, 153. 
Dorka Hehvis : states, i, 2. 
Dudhia : sub-division, 116. 

Dudhpur : state, 144. 
Drainage : R. K. 7 ; O. 182. 
Dudan : river, 92. 
Dumas : place of interest, 265. 


Education : see Instruction. 

Embroidery : 208. 

English at Cambay : C. 218, 219, 220-1, 224. 

Expeditions : 189, footnote 5 ; 229. 
Exports : C. (1600), 190-191. 


Factories : Dutch and English, 195, 219, 224. 23 

Family tree : R. K. 109, lid, 120, 131, 130. m 

C. 233. 

Fairs: Dev Dungaria, 157; Chtood, 160; l^ 
Mogra, 161 ; Jeyor, 161 ; limodra, 162 ; Lna< 
v4da, 164 ; Mokhdi Ghinta. 165 ; Mots ^a/i 
165 ; SanjAla, 188 ; Virpur, 170 ; UnAi, 249;Z» 
Arnii and Nagar, 257 ; Bhimpor, 264. 

Famines : see Tears of Scarcity* 

Fateh Ali : Nawdb, C. 231 ; see Momin KhAn IH 

Females : proportion of, in population, K. K. '^^^ 
C. 184. 

Ferries : R. K. 6. 50 ; C. 187. 
Finch : traveller (1611), 219. 

Field tools: 38. ^ 

Fish: 18. 
Forests : 15. 

Gad : state, 143. 
Gadhesing : legend of, 213. 

Gajni : old Cambay, 213, footnote 2. 
Oandh&r : mined city, 213, footnote 4. 
Oemelli Caxeri : traveller (1695), 220. 

Geology: R. K. 7-10; 0. 182. 
Ghinchis : & Musalmto sect, 35. 
Girls' schools : 87. 

Gkimtivdls : a Br&hman sub-diviaion, 23. 

Gotardi : state, 150. 
Gothra : 8tate,*150. 

Grain : cultivation of, 39. 
Gulf of Cambay ;,olting of, 195, footnote 2 ; 2H. 
footnotes 1 and 6. 

Hamilton : traveller (1720), 220. 
H4mph : place of interest, 112, 161. 
Haraph: river, 115. 
'Harbour: 194. 
Hayeli : sub-division, 116. 
Herdsmen: 25. 
Hills : 2. 



Katory : (Rewa Ka'ntha) legends, early Hindus 
to 1484; Musalmin ascendancy (1484-1700) ; local 
revival (1700-1730), 59-60; Mardtha supremacy 
(1730-1830) ; British supervision; first Niikda 
rising (1838) ; Mutiny (1857) ; second Ndikda 
rising (1868) ; changes (1820-1879), 60-66. 

„ : (Cambay) name, legends, Balhards (916) ; 
ChAlukyas (942); Pirsis (1094); Jains (1241- 
: 1242) ; VAgheUs (1250) ; early Delhi Governors 
(1300-1400); Ahmedabad Kings (1400-1673); 
Moghala (1573-1730); NawAbs (1730-1880); 
family tree, 211-233. 

loney : varieties of, 253. 

lom&yun : (1630), 217. 
Insbaoidmen : 24, 39. 


Dm Batata : African traveller (1342), 216. 
UiotB : 21. 

b&migratioii: see Migration. 

importB: 191-193. 

t&digo : cultivation of, 183. 

Instruction: statistics of, R.K. 86-88;C. 238*^9. 

Interest : rates of, 41. 
Iron : 11. 

ItimidEhto : regent (1560), 218. 
Itvdd : state, 152. 


Jh&bngdm : sub-division, 112. 

S'dvi : Bhil headman, 32. 
ila : 82. 
f^iXLS : at Cambay (1241), 215. 
Jima Kosque : at Cambay, 216, footnote 3, 241. 
jjdmbnglioda : place of interest, 178. 

pesar : state, 150. 

fjetpnr : sub-diviaion, 112. 
Jeyor : place of interest, 161. 
Jhagadia : sub-division, 97. 
Jh^ola : caste of, 24. 
Jiral Kamsoli : state, 145. 
^Jumkha : estate, 151. 

Justice: courts, civil and criminal, 77-78; crime, 
courts of award, police, jaila, 79-82 ; C. judicial 
authorities, civil suits, the KAa, procedure 
poHce, 235-237. 

Sichhi&s : caste of, 24, 

KadAna : state, l, 2 ; area, rivers, hiUs, mni, popu- 

Ution, history, 154-155 ; town, 161. 
I Kadydl : sub-di vision, 112. 

K&kadkhila : sub-division, 117. 

KaliAnr&i : restorer of Cambay, 216. 

Eilipari^ : black races, 246, 255. 

Kanbis : caste of, 24. . 

Kanora : state, 151. 

Kantdji Kadam : invasion of (1725), 221. 

Karili : sub-divisionj 112. 

EAti : river, 6. 

Kaxjan : river, 2, 5, 92. 

Kasla Pagi : state, 152. 

Edthis and Eolis : forays of (1766), 228. 

K&tho : catechu, manufacture of, 57^ 

Eay^t : sub-division, 112. 

E&veri : river, 6. 

E&yatia : a Brdhman sub-division, 23. 

Edad : a Musalm^ judicial officer, 236. 

Khikhi : a Hindu religious order, 26. 

Ehadiyata : caste of, 23, 24. 

Kh&npur : sub-division, 123. 
Khed&val : a Brihman sub-division.* 
£un : nver, o. 

£olis : sub-divisions, character, religion, customs 
32-33 ; C 189 ; plundered Hum^yun (1536), 21' 
Kukaxda : sub-division, 98 
Jlukx^j : place of interest, 162. 

Eum&rika Eshetra: 211, 216, footnote 2. 

Kutbi KTidTiTiTw ; minister (1783), 230. 

Labouring classes : 25. 
Lac Trade : 53. 

L&d : caste of, 24. 

Lilia : story of, 123, footnote 2. 

Land : R* K. landholders, management, viUagei 
67-68 ; staff, alienated lands, assessment, cessei 
69-73 ; rent how realized, instalments, defaults 
reforms, survey, boundary disputes, 73-76; C 
landholders, assessment, how levied, 234-235. 

Land Trade : C 194. 

Leather : workers in, R. K. 25 ; manufacture of 
C. 188, footnote 7 ; 191, footnote 9. 

Lepers: 21. 
Libraries : 88. 
Idmestone : 11. 

Limodra : R* K. place of interest, 162 ; C. 206. 

Lundv&da : state, l, 2 ; area, boundaries, rivers 
hills, climate, population, sub-divisions, hi^iy 
family tree, 121 - 131 ; place of interest, 163. 

H&chM : caste of, 25. 
Kadhuvati: river, 6. 
Magistrates: 77. 

Mahddev : temple of Dehjaria, 124. 
Mahi : R* K. river, 3 ; passage of the river (1670) 
183, footnote, 

MahmudBegada: King (1459- 1513), 189, 217. 

M|^lf«^ : place of interest, 164. 

liales : proportion of, in population, R. K. 20 

G. 184. 
lUndva : state, 142 ; place of interest, 164. 

Manure: 38. 

Manufactures : R. K, 56'68 ; c. 198-20P. 


inJSutarers : am Cr«ft«inen. 

ritUa in Cunbay: S2i. 2iiB, 231. 

"CO Polo : tMTcUcr ( I2»0). !»6, -.'IG. 

iti-pttnii : hill. 8. 
tm : cMfai of, 24. 
inlia: wcA D»cftn M»nitbAi. as«. 

taawm: *m Weight* ud HoMnrw. 

MrOUtilfl Gla8B«8 : wo Trtden. 

charftcter of Hindu, 19,1. (ootltolR 3 g 
H hT0k«ni, 193, tootuolo 7. 
lev&da : > BrAllnmn >ul>-iLiTiiiion, 23. 

igration:3C 37. 

ineiftb : 1 1 . • 

ana Temaa : minirter (17801, sat, 23o. 

'Mb : cnato Qf , S3, 24. 

;oghala: Il073.f730), 218. . 

loliail : l>laoo of intonjat, \6i. 

[oka Pagina Unv&da : ><tAt«, l-^O 

lokhdi Ghiuta : I'l^ce of inter™t, IC5. 

JOtiki ; » Ur^liuiaQ sub-di^-iniim. 2X 
otaStyaii'ii'-'c'ifiiit^i-wt, ift5. 
[omin Kh4n Dehlami: (1725). 222. 
lomin Ktfiji I. : .V»w4b (1730- 1743), 222. 
lomiaKhan U. : .. (1748- 1783). 225-230. 
ni. : „ (l789-1823),231-2Sa. 
tV. : .. (1823- 1S4I). 232. 
I „ V. i n (1S41. 1880), 232. 

Honey Lenders : aoe Cai>iUli»t«. 
ttulianiiiiad Kuli : mUr, (1783 - 1789), 231. 
knhammadTughlik: Kniiierot(l325.I3SI).2ie. 

SaaalmfLns: R. K. M ; C. 185. 
Utiay : (1857)i 63, 64. 

i . 'f' 

CTtUtar : pl&ce of mtereit, 2S7. 

V^re: caste of, 22. 24. 
HBghera ; old town, 214, footnol* li. 
4frah&.'a 1 ^te, 151- 

Miikdia : tribe of, M ; rif.ine« of. 62. 64. 

Najam Khin : govcnioc (1737 - 1748), 223. 

Halia : estate, 145. 
dlond : 'sland, 6. 
Bbudana: Bub-diviaioD, 124. 

^^^Od : sub-diviBion. 97 ; plue of interest, 165. 
E&ildoda : » Brahman sob-diriBiou, 23. 
ningim : state, 144. 
Barbada: river, 4. 

N&rniot state: bonodaries, agrionltare, trade, 
history, Und admiQiatnitioii, justice, police, jail, 
revenue aud finance, instruction, health, places 
Of interest, 173- 178. 
Haav&di : «tato, 14G. 

irawil»;rule"0f Caaibay(l730-lS8O), 221-233. 
BuH-division, 98. 

OccnpatloQs of the people : 22. 
Offenoea : oumUtr o(. 79, 82. 
Ogilby; irMoller (1870). 219. 
Oreai^: river. 2, 110. 

P&UBni; state. 146-147. 
Pinam:river, 4 jl21. 
Pandarrdda: auli-dimion, 122. 
F&ndu : e»tuto, 153. 
P&ndn Uehvis : stales, 1, 3, 148 - 1^ 
Fanetha: subdivision, 97 
Pinipat : iMittls of (I7<ii). 2:28. 
P^tlivdi ; esUte, 147. 
PinTad:Bah-di%-tsion, 112. 
Paper : niiuiuractnre of, 1S9. 
PirBis: K. K.35;U ISS lasmenhaa 

216, footnote 2. 
Pitanei's : mamudors. (1730}. 230. 
Pateliyis ; cultivalors, 24. 
Peraoual Servanta : 25. ^ 
Pb;^ical Features : see Aspect. 
Piliji Giikwir : (1725), 221. 
Pirates-, iss. lO*. 

Pin&d^ : u MiisalmAn sect, 3& 

Plants : U. 

Poiclia: aUte. 1B3. 

Police ', cost, streuj^lt, norkiiij, ^ 

Population: censasol 1872, distriba 
mlitiion, 111-21 1 oocupation, nMa, % 
and conutry ptipniatinn, dwi 
able to read aui) wriU. 87; CI 
village pojiulatiun, 185 - 186 ; peoptt ■] 

.nd y 


IS traders, anil lonto urUuiw 

Portngnese : ' 

190, 217. 
Porv&d: ™ato of, 24. 
POBt:K. K. 51 iC. 238 
Frathampnr : place of iDtWBtt, I06L | 
Prices ; H. K. 43 - 44 ; C. 2C 
Private Schools : 8fl. 
Papils ' cumber and race of, 


Rdeka : estate, 152. 

Eailway : traffic, 2S9. 

Rainfall: K. K. 10; C- 182. 

R^gad -. Bub-diviBJon. 117. 

B^par : state, 152. 

B^pipla '. stale, 1, 2 iboniidwies, 1 
„ hiUa, 91 -93; climate,! 

crops, rosds, trade, mumfactum, aiU 
Bub-diviaionB,94.98!hiBtory,e*Hj' H 
niiUiaBCGndancy(139O-1720] ^Marltha inteifi 
(1720-1820); British supeniaion (UaOi^J 
family tree, 09-1 10; plaos 

Rajputs : 24. 

R^ V&sna : sub'division, lis. 


fiimpur : place of interest, 167. 

Zimpnra: state, 145. 

landiukpiir : sub-division, 116. 

{atanm&l : hiUa, 2. 

UtanpTUr : place of interest, 167. 
lirtanB, : tillage officer, 237. 

teligion : 21. 

tegan : state, 146. 

teTexLue and Finance :R.K.a3'85;C.237-238. 

itice : varieties of, 247 footnote 3. 
liota : at Cambay (1094- 1143), 216. 
Irvers ; R. K. 3 - 6 ; C. 181, 
ftoads : 46 - 49. 

timdha : sub-division, 98. 


libarmati : river, I8I. 

Utchin : state, area, climate, production, popula- 
tion, dwelHiigs, villages, crops, wages and prices 
roads, ferries, manufactures, hiatory, land admii^iB. 
tration, justice, registration fee ; police, revenue 
and Nuance, duties, cesses, instruction, h^lth 
town, 258 - 266. ' 

■adiis : Musalmin carriers, 185, 

'^bdra : mountain range, 3 ; statQ^ 98. 

^igtila : sub-division, 117. 

»lt Works : 208. 

4lbai : treaty of (1783), 230. 

Carcity : years of, 40. 

^tnjila : place of interest, 168. 

Iax\jeli : state 1, 2 ; 155-156. 

tankbeda HehTda : states, 1,2; area, boundaries, 
history, sub-divisions, 140-148. 

Choola : B. IC 86-88 ; C 238-239. 

huklatirth : island, 6. 

ihora : state, 150. 

kambhtirth : 211,212. 

Dap : manufacture of, 57. 

indi^ptira : state, 143. 

^ Varieties : R. K. 38 ; C. 183. 

Orath: rulers of (315 b. c. - 1300 A. d.) 213, foot- 
note 1. 

taff : judicial, 77; C. 236. • 

tones for Bnilding : 11. 

Onth : state, 1, 2; area, boundaries, aspect, rivers, 
hills, climate, soil and product, population, sub- 
divisions, history, development, family tree, 
131 - 136 ; place of interest, 169. 

Urat : rival of Cambay, 195^ 

urp&n : place of interest^ 169. 

tirsi : sub-division. 111. ^ 

yed : a Musalmto sub-division, 35. • 


arav : river, 92. 
al^'a : fort of, 228-220. 
avemier : traveller (I66O), 220. 

Targol: sub-division^ 112. 

Tejgad : 8ub-divisic,n J 12. 

Thava : 8ub.divi8i;on,'98. 

Tbevenot : traveUer (1666), 219 note 5. 

Tieflfenthaler : traveUer (1750), 225.^ 
Tillage : R.F^, 38 ; C. 183. 

Trade : R, \£. exports, imports, trade returns, 5 
56 ; C, course of, tenth, eleventh, twelftl 
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, la* 
189 ; sixteenth century, marts, ports, export 
imports, traders, routes, harbour, 190-194 
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 195 - 196 
nineteenth c^tury, trade returns, ^yji% ea 
ports, shipinng, 196-198. , 

Traders : 24.* 

Trambivati : legend of, 212, 213, 214. 

Trees :-it. K. 12. 14 ; c. 183. 

Uch&d : state, 146. 

Udepnr : place of interest, 169. 

Umad : caste of, 24. 
Umeta .* state, I5i. 

Untia Vdgh : camel tiger, 184. 


VAdi : estate, 98. 

Vaccination : statistics of, 90. 

Y&ghel&Bl rulers of Cambay (1240^1304), 215. 

VaUit&pnr : estate, 151. 

Vanjdra: carriers, 25. 
Vaxdh&ri : sub-division, 124. 

Vamol JKil : state, 151. 
Vamoli : estates, 153. 
Vastupil : governor (1241), 215. 
VAsan: state, 144. 
Verds : cesses, R. K. 86 ; C. 238. 
Vikram HI : (5th century), 213. 
Village Communities : see Communities. 
Virpur: sub-division 137; state, 146, place of 
interest, 170. ,• 

Virampnra: state, 146. 
Vindhya Mountains : 2. 

Vora : state, 144. 

Vyisji : ishind 6. ^ 


Wages : R. R. 42 ; C. 210. 

Water-supply: R. K. 7; C. 182. 
Weavers of 0i\jar&t : (I620), 192 footnote 5. 
^ Weights and Measures : R. K. 44 ; c. 210. 

Wild animals : R. K. 17 ; C. 183. 
i Wood work : 191 footnote 6, 

Tears of Scarcity : see Scarcity. 

• Zafkr Eb&n : rul©" ^391 - l4ll), 217.